Article

Olfactory and Quantitative Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Elder Flower ( Sambucus nigra L.) Drink Processed from Five Cultivars

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Abstract

Fresh elder flowers (Sambucus nigra L.) were extracted with an aqueous solution containing sucrose, peeled lemon slices, tartaric acid, and sodium benzoate to make elder flower syrup. Aroma compounds emitted from the elder flower syrup were collected by the dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 59 compounds were identified, 18 of which have not previously been detected in elder flower products. The concentrations of the identified volatiles were measured in five elder cultivars, Allesoe, Donau, Sambu, Sampo, and Samyl, and significant differences were detected among cultivars in the concentration levels of 48 compounds. The odor of the volatiles was evaluated by the GC-sniffing technique. cis-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contributed to the characteristic elder flower odor, whereas linalool, alpha-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-beta-ocimene contributed with floral notes. Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and beta-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol.

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... β-Damascenone together with dihydroedulan were indicated as characteristic compounds of elderberry aroma in a previous study (Jensen et al. 2000). These two compounds were present in our results with the highest amount concerning β-Damascenone (8.1%; 4.8%, respectively in unripe and ripe fruits), while dihydoedulan showed a lower amount (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). ...
... These two compounds were present in our results with the highest amount concerning β-Damascenone (8.1%; 4.8%, respectively in unripe and ripe fruits), while dihydoedulan showed a lower amount (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). The floral odor of the fruits was due to nonanal (herein present in percentages ranging from 1.2% to 0.6%, respectively) and hotrienol (totally absent in our analysis) (Jensen et al. 2000. Three years after their first work on elderberry, Ağalar and his team (2017) focused their attention on the flowers and evidenced that heneicosane (18.8%), tricosane (17.3%), nonadecane (13.0%) and pentacosane (10.3%) were the main constituents. ...
... None of these compounds were found in different samples of the flowers. GC-sniffing on a Shimadzu 14A gas chromatograph technique showed that cis-rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contributed to the distinctiveness of elderflower odor, whereas linalool, α-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-β-ocimene gave floral notes to the flowers (Jørgensen et al. 2000). Only five out of the above-mentioned constituents were identified in this study with different amounts. ...
Article
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and essential oils (EO) extracted from different organs of Sambucus nigra (leaves, flower buds, flowers, unripe and ripe fruits), were evaluated in this work. VOC analyses highlighted that oxygenated monoterpenes were the major class for both flowers and ripe fruits with percentages of 71.1% and 35.1%, respectively. The ripe fruit showed a considerable amount of linalyl acetate (26.3%) while cis-linalool oxide (pyranoide) (38.6%) was the main constituent of the flowers. This latter compound was also one of the major constituents of the leaf extracts (10.3% of the total identified fractions). The leaves evidenced a high percentage of esters (31.6%) with (Z)-3-hexenol acetate (15.1%) as the major constituent. Alcohols were exclusively represented by 1-hexanol (42.5%) and (E)-3-hexen-1-ol (31.1%) in the unripe fruits, while β-caryophyllene (42.0%) was the characteristic component of the buds. All the studied EOs showed non-terpene derivatives as the main class of volatiles even though its percentage varied in an organ-dependent manner. Alkanes were predominant and especially represented by heneicosane (the highest percentage of 32.9% in the fresh flowers) and nonadecane (the highest percentage of 17.2% in the buds,). Benzaldehyde was the main aldehyde in the leaves (17.8%) while acids, chiefly n-hexadecanoic acid, were also found in quite high amounts in the ripe fruits (14.3%).
... In previous studies, 16 amino acids, 9 of which essential, were reported on flowers and, the total protein content was 2.4% on dry weight basis [66]. Elderflowers volatiles compounds represent on average 3,25 µg/mL of extract (values unavailable on fresh or dry weight basis) [34], including several families, such as aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, esters and ketones; terpenoids (mono and sesquiterpenic compounds); norisoprenoids, aromatic compounds, among others [34,67,68]. ...
... These are distributed over mono, sesqui and triterpenic compounds. As the information available on the analysis of berries and flowers terpenic composition is scarce, data about related minimum processed products, such as infusions, syrups and juices [31,34,53,68] was also included in Table 3. Most of the reported studies are focused on the identification of the analytes rather than on their quantitative analysis, however, when available, quantitative data is also provided. ...
... Monoterpenes 3-Carene - [53] β-Pinene - [53] D-Limonene b 2.24-9.92 [29,53,68,70] Myrcene [53,70]      ...
... Due to the pleasant and characteristic floral aroma, elderflowers are often used as flavoring agents [31] for the preparation of infusions, decoctions [19][20][21][22], pastry products [23], nonalcoholic cordials, and fermented beverages [18,23]. Elderflowers are characterized by an intense, pleasant, and characteristic aroma, currently named as elderflower aroma [32,33]. Despite the role of esters, alcohols, and aldehydes, monoterpenes, as limonene, terpinolene, and terpinene, present a relevant contribution for the elderflowers fruitiness aroma [34], and more exotic notes, such as woody and spicy, have been attributed to some mono and sesquiterpenic compounds [32,34]. ...
... Elderflowers are characterized by an intense, pleasant, and characteristic aroma, currently named as elderflower aroma [32,33]. Despite the role of esters, alcohols, and aldehydes, monoterpenes, as limonene, terpinolene, and terpinene, present a relevant contribution for the elderflowers fruitiness aroma [34], and more exotic notes, such as woody and spicy, have been attributed to some mono and sesquiterpenic compounds [32,34]. ...
... The specific cultivar metabolite profile may imply differences at the sensorial level in S. nigrabased products, as shown for elderflower-and elderberry-based products obtained from different cultivars [32,34,56]. In a study that merges the results from the sensory evaluation and information on the aroma of the individual volatile compounds, the results highlighted that different elderberry cultivars had specific sensory characteristics (as fresh-fruity-sweet aroma) and, hence, volatile composition [38]. ...
Chapter
Plant secondary metabolites are synthesized for their protection and regulation purposes. Quite often, due to their properties, these metabolites have relevant organoleptic and biological properties and can play important roles in human health and general well-being. A relevant case study in this context is berries and flowers from Sambucus nigra L., which have been used for generations in folk medicine. Although those effects are mainly linked to phenolic compounds, mono and sesquiterpenic secondary metabolites may also play a key role. Despite their potential, S. nigra mono and sesquiterpenic compounds are yet largely unexplored. Complex and dynamic external and internal plant-related phenomena deeply affect terpenes profile, as metabolism, abiotic and biotic stresses, and understanding these phenomena is the first step for S. nigra berries and flowers' valuation. This chapter will cover aspects linked to elder plant uses, mono and sesquiterpenic composition, and the influence of preharvest and postharvest effects over these metabo-lites. This knowledge is crucial for scientists and industries to understand and improve the quality of S. nigra-based products.
... Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry bush) is a bush or small tree, usually not higher than 10 meters. The leaves have several leaflets (usually [5][6][7][8][9]. Each leaf is up to 30 cm long, and the leaflets have serrated margins. ...
... Flowers and berries of Sambucus nigra L. are a rich source of phenolic compounds including, flavonoids, flavonols and phenolic acids [2][3][4][5], as well as volatile compounds. The composition of volatiles of elderflowers and elderberries from different origins and matrices (teas, juices, syrups, wine) has been studied [6][7][8][9][10]. (Z)-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal were assigned as contributors of the characteristic elderflower odour, whereas characteristic elderberry odour was due to dihydroedulan and β-damascenone [6,7]. ...
... The composition of volatiles of elderflowers and elderberries from different origins and matrices (teas, juices, syrups, wine) has been studied [6][7][8][9][10]. (Z)-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal were assigned as contributors of the characteristic elderflower odour, whereas characteristic elderberry odour was due to dihydroedulan and β-damascenone [6,7]. In the case of elderflowers, linalool, α-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-β-ocimene contributed floral notes, whereas fruity odours were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and β-damascenone. ...
Article
Volatile compounds emitted by elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) at various stages (blooming on the bush, and at different stages after harvesting) were analyzed to investigate changes in the composition of volatile profiles induced by two drying procedures. Solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction were used for concentration of volatiles. Analyses of extracts were performed using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer or a flame ionization detector. On-site field sampling of volatiles followed-up by chromatographic analysis provided interesting information, including insect pheromones from 55 % to 79 % of the total peak area in the GC/MS chromatograms. Composition of aroma compounds of harvested elderflowers was strongly influenced by the type of drying procedure, where the content of some volatiles decreased and some substances even occur due to ongoing physicochemical processes. Changes in volatile profile caused by harvesting were also observed.
... Jorgensen et al. [3] identified fifty nine compounds in the elder elderflower syrup made from fresh elderflowers by dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The odor of the volatile compounds was detected by GC-sniffing technique. ...
... Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and β-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol [3]. In 2008, Kaack recorded that fifty two aroma compounds including 9 aldehydes, 7 ketones, 22 alcohols, 3 esters, 4 oxides, 6 terpenes and 1 hydrocarbon in elder flower extracts obtained from cultivated samples [1]. ...
... Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and α-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) known as „black elder‟ is widely used as both food and medicinal plant in Europe. Elderflowers are consumed as herbal tea and its gargle has benefits in respiratory tract illnesses such as cough, influenza, inflammation in throat. In this study, we aimed to show the compositions of the volatile compounds-rich in extract and the essential oil of the elderflowers cultivated in Kütahya, Turkey. HS-SPME (Headspace-Solid Phase MicroExtraction) technique was employed to trap volatile compounds in the hexane extract of dried elderflowers. The volatile compounds in the essential oil from elderflowers isolated by hydrodistillation were analyzed GC and GC-MS systems, simultaneously. Results for the n-hexane extract: thirty volatile compounds were identified representing 84.4% of the sample. cis-Linalool oxide (27.3%) and 2-hexanone (10.5%) were found to be main compounds of the n-hexane extract. Results for the essential oil: fifteen volatile compounds were identified representing 90.4% of the oil. Heneicosane (18.8%), tricosane (17.3%), nonadecane (13%) and pentacosane (10.3%) were the major compounds of the oil.
... Sambucus nigra L. is cultivated in various regions of the world, and several parts of the plant have been used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical areas; the flowers in particular are classified as a medicinal product according to European Medicines Agency (CHMP, 2008). They are mainly used as flavoring agents to produce soft drinks or infusions, and they are characterized by their intense, pleasant and characteristic aroma, currently named as elderflower aroma (Jorgensen, Hansen, Christensen, Jensen, & Kaack, 2000;. Olfactory studies revealed that the characteristic aroma of elderflowers comprised a set of sensorial notes described as floral, fruity, grassy, woody, minty, spicy and herbaceous. ...
... Olfactory studies revealed that the characteristic aroma of elderflowers comprised a set of sensorial notes described as floral, fruity, grassy, woody, minty, spicy and herbaceous. These notes have been associated with the presence of several volatile compounds belonging to different chemical groups, namely alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, terpenic and norisoprenoids (Jorgensen et al., 2000;Kaack, Christensen, Hughes, & Eder, 2006;Toulemonde & Richard, 1983). The monoterpenic metabolites, such as hotrienol, rose oxides, nerol oxide, linalool oxides, a-terpineol and linalool, were reported as the major contributors to the characteristic elderflower aroma (Jorgensen et al., 2000;Kaack et al., 2006). ...
... These notes have been associated with the presence of several volatile compounds belonging to different chemical groups, namely alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, terpenic and norisoprenoids (Jorgensen et al., 2000;Kaack, Christensen, Hughes, & Eder, 2006;Toulemonde & Richard, 1983). The monoterpenic metabolites, such as hotrienol, rose oxides, nerol oxide, linalool oxides, a-terpineol and linalool, were reported as the major contributors to the characteristic elderflower aroma (Jorgensen et al., 2000;Kaack et al., 2006). Despite the role of esters, alcohols and aldehydes, monoterpenes, such as limonene, terpinolene and terpinenes present a relevant contribution to the elderflowers' fruity aroma (Kaack et al., 2006). ...
Article
The volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile from elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) was established for two cultivars by multidimensional gas chromatography. From 47 monoterpenic, 13 sesquiterpenes and 5 norisoprenoids components, 38 are reported for the first time on elderflowers. Elderflower seasonality implies proper handling and storage conditions, for further processing, thus the impact of freezing, freeze-drying, air drying and vacuum packing, was evaluated on these potential aroma metabolites. The most suitable preservation methods, regarding the total metabolites content, were vacuum packing and freezing for intermediary storage times (24–32 weeks) with a reported overall decrease of the volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids of up to 58.6%; and freezing, for longer period (52 weeks), with a decrease of up to 47.4% (compared to fresh elderflowers). This study presents the most detailed terpenic and norisoprenoids elderflower profiling, and linalool oxides were proposed as markers for a more expedite assess to the impact of postharvest conditions.
... In general, esters of lower carboxylic acid and lower alcohols characterized with fruity sensory properties, for example, butyl acetate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl 2hydroxypropanoate, and ethyl octanoate. However, fatty acid esters like ethyl hexadecanoate contribute to waxy flavor (Jørgensen et al. 2000). Aldehydes, ketones, and alcohol are other large chemical groups of identified chemical compounds in the BOnisiówka^. ...
... Aldehydes, ketones, and alcohol are other large chemical groups of identified chemical compounds in the BOnisiówka^. According to Jørgensen et al. (2000) and Cajka et al. (2007) aldehydes, ketones, and alcohol represented major chemical groups of honey and elder flower volatile compounds. Most of them characterized fruity and floral flavor such as 3-methylbutanol, benzyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, 1-octanol, 1-nonanol, hexanal, octanal, benzeneacetaldehyde, nonanal, 2phenylpropenal, 2,4-nonadienal, decanal, 2-decenal, dodecanal, butylphenyl methylpropional, (E)-3-penten-2-one, 2-heptanone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, acetophenone, 2-nonanone, 4methylacetophenone, 2-decanone, 2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, and 2-pentadecanone. ...
... Most of them characterized fruity and floral flavor such as 3-methylbutanol, benzyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, 1-octanol, 1-nonanol, hexanal, octanal, benzeneacetaldehyde, nonanal, 2phenylpropenal, 2,4-nonadienal, decanal, 2-decenal, dodecanal, butylphenyl methylpropional, (E)-3-penten-2-one, 2-heptanone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, acetophenone, 2-nonanone, 4methylacetophenone, 2-decanone, 2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, and 2-pentadecanone. Most of these compounds were previously identified in several studies of honey, elderberry fruits, and flowers (Jørgensen et al. 2000;Baroni et al. 2006;Pontes et al. 2007;Kaack 2008;Kaack and Christensen 2008;Fig. 3 The example of tentatively identified nonanal extracted by the use of HS-SPME from the BOnisiówka^nalewka liqueur and analyzed through the GC×GC-TOFMS system. ...
Article
Full-text available
The “Onisiówka” nalewka liqueur is a regional Polish alcoholic beverage, which is inscribed on the list of regional and traditional products of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in Poland. It is produced from multiflower honey, black elderberry flower syrup, and spirit. Due to fact that the “Onisiówka” nalewka liqueur has never been investigated, these studies are the foundation for further work on this regional alcoholic beverage. The main aim of this work is the authenticity assessment of the “Onisiówka” nalewka liqueurs by means of qualitative characteristics of volatile fraction and sensory evaluation. Tentative identification has been performed using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Application of GC×GC-TOFMS allowed for detection of around 350 compounds present in the volatile fraction of the “Onisiówka” from which 102 compounds were tentatively identified. PCA results showed that the first two principal components constitute 96.98% of total variance. Statistical analysis was used to visualize relations between tentatively identified compounds; therefore, it has been demonstrated that 23 chemical compounds may have significant influence on the overall flavor and taste of the “Onisiówka”. These substances belong to four chemical classes, in which the greatest number is represented by esters (13), aldehydes (6), alcohols (3), and one terpene compound. According to the sensory evaluation, the Onisiówka is characterized by sweet, honey, fruity, flowery, bitter, and spirituous flavor and taste.
... In previous studies, 16 amino acids, 9 of which essential, were reported on flowers and, the total protein content was 2.4% on dry weight basis [66]. Elderflowers volatiles compounds represent on average 3,25 µg/mL of extract (values unavailable on fresh or dry weight basis) [34], including several families, such as aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, esters and ketones; terpenoids (mono and sesquiterpenic compounds); norisoprenoids, aromatic compounds, among others [34,67,68]. ...
... These are distributed over mono, sesqui and triterpenic compounds. As the information available on the analysis of berries and flowers terpenic composition is scarce, data about related minimum processed products, such as infusions, syrups and juices [31,34,53,68] was also included in Table 3. Most of the reported studies are focused on the identification of the analytes rather than on their quantitative analysis, however, when available, quantitative data is also provided. ...
... Monoterpenes 3-Carene - [53] β-Pinene - [53] D-Limonene b 2.24-9.92 [29,53,68,70] Myrcene [53,70]      ...
... Other terpenes-likely derivatives of carotenoids-are 6-methyl-5hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, β-ionone, β-damascenone, and 1,1,6-trimethyl−1,2dihydronaphthalene (1,1,6-TDN). Another major group of the constituents arises from autoxidation of fatty acids, being primarily constituted of butanol, 2-hexenol, 3-hexenol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 1-penten-3-one, 1-octen-3-one, 2,4-heptadienal, and 2-octenal [7]. Both flowers and leaves of black elder are a rich source of basic substances such as rutin, quercetin, protocateuchic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and tannins, as well as vitamin E [3]. ...
... As indicated above, previous works on S. nigra flower aqueous extracts mainly reported the presence of terpenes-including monoterpenes, terpenoids alcohols and oxides, sesquiterpenes, and derivatives of carotenoids-and compounds arising from the autoxidation of fatty acids [7], none of them present in the extract studied herein (except for terpinen-4-ol and heptanal). Other reports on aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic flower and leaf extracts detected rutin, quercetin, protocateuchic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, neochlorogenic acid, tannins, vitamin E, and glycosides [3,8,9], out of which only the latter were found in the leaf aqueous ammonia extract (e.g., 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) here analyzed. ...
Article
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Despite extensive research on the chemical composition of elderberries and their numerous uses in pharmaceutical, beverage, and food production, there is still a lack of knowledge about Sambucus nigra leaves and flowers’ antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens. In this study, the phytoconstituents of their aqueous ammonia extracts were first characterized by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The major phytocompounds identified in the flower extract were octyl 2-methylpropanoate; 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydropyran-4-one; propyl malonic acid; adenine; and 1-methyl-2-piperidinemethanol. Concerning the leaf extract, 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose; oleic acid; 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole; 2,3-dihydro-benzofuran; and 4-((1E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol and other phenol derivatives were the main constituents. The potential of the extracts to act as bioprotectants was then investigated against three almond tree pathogens: Diaporthe amygdali, Phytophthora megasperma, and Verticillium dahliae. In vitro tests showed higher activity of the flower extract, with EC90 values in the 241–984 μg·mL−1 range (depending on the pathogen) vs. 354–1322 μg·mL−1 for the leaf extract. In addition, the flower extract led to full protection against P. megasperma at a dose of 1875 μg·mL−1 in ex situ tests on artificially-infected excised almond stems. These inhibitory concentrations were lower than those of commercial fungicides. These findings suggest that S. nigra aerial organs may be susceptible to valorization as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the protection of this important crop.
... We found nonanal was the only component common to the floral bouquets of all 12 honeybee-pollinated plants measured (Tables 1 and S1). Nonanal is common in floral scents of honeybee-visited plants (Jorgensen et al. 2000;Alissandrakis et al. 2011;Twidle et al. 2018). We noted a correlation between amount of nectar offered by different plant species and the proportion of nonanal in their floral scents (Tables 1 and S1). ...
... Our results detected nonanal in nectar droplets ( Fig. 3 and Table 1) and honey samples but not in blank control and flower samples from anemophilous plant species (Table 1). Nonanal has been detected in dozens of flowers and honey samples (Jorgensen et al. 2000;Schade et al. 2001;Alissandrakis et al. 2007Alissandrakis et al. , 2011Jerkovi et al. 2009;Bianchi et al. 2011;Bayraktar and Ur 2011;Twidle et al. 2018). Nonanal has been found in both flowers of Castanea sativa and Eucalyptus globulus and the honeys produced from these flowers (Alissandrakis et al. 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile odors from flowers play an important role in plant-pollinator interaction. The honeybee is an important generalist pollinator of many plants. Here, we explored whether any components of the odors of a range of honeybee-pollinated plants are commonly involved in the interaction between plants and honeybees. We used a needle trap system to collect floral odors, and GC–MS analysis revealed nonanal was the only component scent detected in 12 different honeybee-pollinated flowers and not present in anemophilous plant species. For Ligustrum compactum, blooming flowers released significantly more nonanal than buds and faded flowers. For Sapium sebiferum, nonanal release through the day correlated with nectar secretion. Experimentally increasing nectar load in flowers of Sapium sebiferum, Ligustrum compactum, and Castanea henryi increased nonanal levels also. Nonanal was also detected in flower nectar and honeys from experimental colonies. Electroantennogram recordings and behavioral observations showed that untrained honeybees could detect and were strongly attracted to nonanal. We argue that nonanal persists in both honey and nectar odors facilitating a learned association between nonanal and food reward in honeybees.
... Regarding volatile compounds that are responsible for the aroma, Jørgensen, et al. [29] detected 76 compounds in elderflower extracts from Denmark, most of them terpenoid compounds, as monoterpenes, irregular terpenes, and one sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene), as described in (Table 5 and Fig. 5). Among the terpenoids (alcohols and oxides), hotrienol was the major compound (comprising ~18%), followed by linalool (~15%), cis-linalool oxide (furan) (~5%), nerol oxide (~5%), citronellol (~2%), and α-terpineol (~2%). ...
... A similar phenolic composition of elderflowers was described by Kaltsa, et al. [41] Oniszczuk, et al. [36] detected 10 phenolic acids, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, Table 5. Volatile compounds (and their chemical structure in Fig. 5) identified in elderflower extracts from S. nigra. [13,[29][30][31]. ferulic acid, and sinapic acid in elderflower and elderberry extracts, while the elderberry extract did not show gentisic acid. ...
Article
The genus Sambucus includes up to 18 species, among them the widely known and used Sambucus nigra L. Elderberry fruits are rich in sugars, organic acids as well in anthocyanins and other polyphenols. The beneficial health-promoting effects of elderberries and elderflowers are well known, including beneficial effects against degenerative diseases (cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases), cancer, and diabetes, presenting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulating, chemo-preventive, and atheroprotective effects. Although currently they are mainly used in the food industry as food colorants and flavouring agents due to their phytochemical composition and related bioactivities, elderberries and elderflowers or their extracts are becoming attractive for other uses such as food supplements, nutraceutical ingredients and as raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries.
... Elderflower drinks are normally prepared from fresh or frozen elderflowers by addition of water, sugar and lemon juice or slices of lemon. 3 Citric acid is added to help preserve the drink. Elderflower extracts and drinks have a very pleasing flavor similar to the natural scent of elderflowers. ...
... It is honey-like, fruity and sweet-sour with herbal notes. 3,4 The high sugar content of elderflower syrup gives it a long shelf life, and the beverage is simply prepared diluted with still or sparkling water. It is most common to prepare elderflower beverages at home; however, minor quantities of commercial elderflower extracts are produced in England, Sweden, Austria, Slovenia and Denmark. 2 Sambucus nigra flowers, leaves and bark are extraordinarily rich in antioxidants and have frequently been used in traditional medicine and healing. ...
Article
Traditional elderflower beverages are very popular due to their pleasing taste and pro-health properties. Phenolics were quantified in three elderflower extracts (methanolic extraction and two water extracts prepared as fresh drinks according to local recipes) with HPLC-MS. Chromatographic patterns of methanolic and water extracts were quite similar; however, content levels of individual compounds differed between the two extraction solvents. Two feruloylquinic acids and two p-coumaroyl-caffeoylquinic acids and different flavonol glycosides have been identified in elderflowers for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonol glycosides were the major phenolic constituents in elderflowers. Methanolic extract contained higher levels of all phenolic groups compared to water-extracted samples. The yield of elderflower extracts depended on extract solution and time of extraction. Elderflower beverages were characterized by high total phenolic content (91.09 to 746.63 mg GAE/L). The results confirmed that elderflower beverages (sabesa, syrup) should be recommended as a good source of phenolics in human diet.
... The flowers are also used for the preparation of juice, jam, jellies, and beverages and as an aromatizer. The odor of elderflowers has been shown to be related to the occurrence of 59 compounds: cis-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contribute to the characteristic elderflower odor, whereas linalool, α-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-β-ocimene contribute with floral notes [110]. The flower extract has a higher content of phenolic compounds, such as rutin, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid [111]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Edible flowers are becoming an essential component of people’s nutrition in the Mediterranean basin. In the last decades, many researchers also have focused their attention on the nutritional composition of the edible flowers, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including studies on their safety issues. Despite the growing interest in the use of flowers in human nutrition, the ethnobotanical literature is lacking coverage of some important issues, particularly those which concern the use of flowers in the folk tradition. Only recently, a review regarding the contribution of 32 edible flowers to the Mediterranean diet was published. The aim of the present review is to document the plant lore regarding the wild and cultivated edible flowers consumed in the Mediterranean basin. Based on the 112 studies reviewed, we documented 251 taxa as being used in the Mediterranean basin as edible flowers. The plant species belong to 45 families and 141 genera. Asteraceae (54 taxa) is the most frequently cited family. Sambucus nigra L. is the most cited species. This study can be the basis for future research on the supposed bioactivity and toxicity of wild and cultivated flowers.
... Essential oils were isolated primarily from the extracts of whole plants, leaves, and flowers, with a number of volatile compounds detected (Table S1). The volatile monoterpenic metabolites such as nerol oxide, linalool oxides, limonene, α-terpineol, hotrienol, rose oxides, and linalool were reported to contribute to distinct aroma of the fruits and flowers, besides enhancing the health benefits to humans when consumed (Jørgensen et al., 2000;Kaack et al., 2006;Salvador et al., 2017). Several iridoids and iridoid glycosides have also been reported (Pieri et al., 2009;Tomassini et al., 2019;Xiao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The genus Sambucus L. (Viburnaceae) consists of about 29 recognized species distributed in all regions of the world except the extremely cold and desert areas. Some species have been used as traditional medicines to treat various disorders such as bone fractures, rheumatism, diabetes, respiratory and pulmonary disorders, skin diseases, inflammatory ailments, diarrhea, and others. However, the currently available data on traditional and pharmacological uses have not been comprehensively reviewed. Study aim The present review is designed to provide information on the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry, toxicity, and the known biological properties of Sambucus, to understand their connotations and provide a scientific basis and gaps for further research. Materials and methods The information was obtained from different bibliographic databases, Google Scholar, Springer Link, Web of Science, PubMed, and Science Direct along with other literature sources such as dissertation before August 2021. The scientific names were validated using The Plant List and World Flora Online websites. Results Twelve Sambucus species were found to be frequently mentioned in ethnomedical uses recorded in China, Korea, Turkey, Iran, and other countries. Traditionally, they have been used as remedies to numerous health complications among others, bone fractures and rheumatism, diabetes, wounds, inflammatory diseases, diarrhea, menstrual pains, respiratory and pulmonary complaints, skin disorders, headaches, snakebites, and urinary tract infections. To date, only eleven species have been studied for their chemical compounds and a total of 425 bioactive constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fatty acids, cyanogenic glycosides, phytosterols, lectins, organic acids, alkaloid, coumarin, anthraquinone, and others have been reported. The crude extracts and the isolated chemical constituents exhibited diverse outstanding pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-giardial, immunomodulatory, scolicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, antiradical, bone-protective, anti-glycemic, antiosteoporotic, hypolipidemic, anti-glycation, and wound-healing properties. Conclusion This study summarized and scrutinized the data on traditional uses, pharmacological activities, phytochemicals, and toxicity of Sambucus species, which indicate they have interesting chemical compounds with diverse biological activities. Many traditional uses of some species from this genus have now been confirmed by pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, bone-protective, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, the currently available data has several gaps in understanding the traditional uses of all Sambucus species. Thus, we strongly recommend further investigations into the scientific connotations between traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological activities, mode of action of the isolated bioactive constituents, and toxicity of other Sambucus species to unravel their efficacy and therapeutic potential for safe clinical application. The current extensive study avails valuable information on therapeutic use of Sambucus species and paves way for further investigations of other useful species, as well as drug discovery.
... Elderflowers have a strong, flowery, pleasant odor mainly due to the presence of 0.03-0.14% of essential oils. In addition, the aroma composition of elderflowers includes aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, oxides, terpenes and free fatty acids [37]. The bark, leaves, seeds and raw or unripe fruits contain the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin, which is potentially toxic because it can release cyanide [23, 38,39]. ...
Article
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The present review summarizes the current knowledge concerning provenance, properties, physiological and therapeutic actions of elderberry and the bioactive molecules present in the plant, with emphasis on their action on female reproduction. Elderberry or black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) attracts attention due to its easy cultivation and high availability of bioactive compounds. Most of the available data concerning black elder’s therapeutic action are focused on its effects such as activation of immune processes and anti-inflammatory processes (cytokine production, etc.) and regulation of hormones and their receptors in cancer cells. The effects of elderberry on reproduction have been poorly investigated so far. Nevertheless, conducted studies so far demonstrate the stimulatory influence of black elder extract and its constituents, such as rutin, anthocyanins and agglutinins, on the viability and steroidogenesis of healthy ovarian cells as well as their ability to promote apoptosis and reduce the viability and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the action of black elder extract and its constituent biomolecules, such as anthocyanins and lectins, on embryogenesis and the embryonal estradiol-estradiol receptor system have also been reported. The available information, despite limitations, suggest the applicability of black elder constituents for improvement of reproductive processes in animal biotechnology, animal production and assisted reproduction, as well as for prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders (including cancer) in veterinary and human medicine.
... Elderberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, and related phenolic acids, with the major phenolic constituents described as caffeoylquinic acids, catechins, cyanidin glycosides, and quercetin-glycosides. 44 Flowers typically contain a mixture of volatiles related to higher occurrence of phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, hotrienol, rose oxides, nerol oxide, and linalool. 45 Elderberry flower is a good source of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides 46 (Figure 2, 1). A systematic review of elderberry fruit efficacy summarized antioxidant, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties of elderberries observed in vitro and several clinical studies suggesting its possible application to management of viral influenza infections. ...
... Other potent odorants with OAVs between 1 and 10 included hexanal, isovaleric acid, 1-octen-3-ol, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl-pyrazine, 3,5-octadien-2-one and nonanal (5,8,24,29,32,41,45). Of these, 1-octen-3-ol was mainly derived from the autoxidation of fatty acids (Jørgensen, Hansen, Christensen, Jensen, & Kaack, 2000), and produced aromas of mushroom, rose and hay notes. This compound, a kind of natural spice, is mainly present in mints, thyme and fresh mushrooms (Arsenijevic et al., 2016;Maggi, Papa, & Vittori, 2012;Politowicz, Lech, Lipan, Figiel, & Carbonell-barrachina, 2018). ...
Article
Flaxseed powder is a widely used nutrient-rich food, valued for its flavor as well as its nutritional value. The effect of peeling on the flavor profiles of raw and microwaved flaxseed powder remains unclear. In this study, the volatile components of flaxseed powder were analyzed using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. Fifty-two odor-active compounds were identified, with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 3 to 729. Hexanal, d-limonene, 1-hexanol, β-phellandrene, α-phellandrene, and nonanal with Odor Activity Values (OAV≥1), which could impart green-like, fresh-like, and mint-like notes, were the typical odorants in raw flaxseed powders. Microwaved powders had more intense roasted and woody notes than raw powders. Peeling treatment had a significant effect on the aroma of microwaved flaxseed powder, but caused only a slight change in the flavor profiles of the raw powders. The key aroma differences in the two kinds of microwaved powders were mainly due to the levels of 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylpyrazine 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3-one, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This work provides a basis for the improvement of the aroma of flaxseed products.
... Elderflowers have a strong, flowery, pleasant odor, and an essential oil yield from the flowers of 0.03%-0.14%. The aroma composition of elderflowers includes aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, oxides, terpenes, and free fatty acids (Jørgensen et al., 2000). ...
... Volatiles were analysed on GC, GC-MS and by GC-olfactometry (Jørgensen et al. 2000). One µl of sample was injected in splitless mode (injector 200 o C), and detected on a FID operating at 230 o C. The volatiles were separated on a fused silica capillary CP- WAX 52CB column (Chrompack, Middelburg, The Netherlands). ...
Article
Carrots (Daucus carota L.) of cv. Bolero were processed into shreds and stored up to 4 months at -24°C (frozen storage) or the roots were stored up to 4 months at 1°C (cold storage) and processed into shreds. Volatiles from the shreds were collected by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by GC-FID, GC-MS and GC-olfactometry. Although the carrots were considered mature at harvest, there was a considerable increase in the total concentration of volatiles during cold storage. In contrast, the concentration was unchanged in the frozen carrot shreds. The volatiles were divided into three odour classes: "carrot top", "fruity", and "woody" based on their olfactory description using GC-olfactometry. It was in particular, the "woody" odour class that increased during cold storage.
... The height of the plant can reach 10 m. The creamwhite flowers with their distinctive odor are much used for production of soft drinks in England, Sweden and Denmark (Jørgensen, Hansen, Christensen, Jensen, & Kaack, 2000). Elderflowers have reported use in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammations, joint pains, skin disorders, diuretic, colds, fever and other respiratory disturbances (Blumenthal, Goldberg, & Brinckmann, 2000;EMA, 2008;Weiss & Fintelmann, 2000). ...
Article
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Elderflowers have traditionally been used and are still used for its anti-inflammatory property. Traditionally elderflowers were used as remedies against cold, flu and diuretic. The aim of this study was to relate the structure of pectic-polysaccharides from elderflowers to immunomodulating properties. Purified fractions obtained by gelfiltration and ion exchange chromatography of 50% ethanol, 50°C water and 100°C water extracts exhibited strong complement fixating activity and macrophage stimulating activity. Reduced bioactivity was observed after removal of arabinose and 1,3,6-Gal linkages by weak acid hydrolysis. Enhanced bioactivity was observed after removal of estergroups by NaOH. Relating linkage analysis to the results of the bioactivity tests, led to the assumption that the branched moieties of the arabinogalactans linked to rhamnogalacturonan region, is important for the immunomodulating activity seen in elderflowers. No cytotoxity was observed.
... Within recent years, requests for the flowers have risen because of the very pleasant flavor, which is of interest not only to the food industry but also to the cosmetics industry. In contrast to the properties of the berries, the very fragile flavor of elderflowers has not been studied very intensely [1][2][3]. Over 100 volatile compounds have been identified and reported in the literature; nevertheless, the results concerning the composition of the elderflower flavor are not consistent. ...
... The aroma of elder fl owers (Velisek et al., 1981;Jørgensen et al., 2000;Kaack and Christensen, 2008) and elder berries (Davidek et al., 1982;Jensen et al., 2000) have been characterized before in detail by several authors and more than 100 volatiles have been identifi ed. Most of them are well known aroma constituents of fruit products. ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot) in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry), off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel), colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05) in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry), was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.
... C 6 compounds such as hexanol and hexanal are the products of aerobic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occur when cell structure is disrupted by physical activity. They account for leafy, grassy odors and are usually formed during fruit crushing and juice processing, before fermentation (Lopez et al. 1999, Jorgensen et al. 2000, Klesk and Qian 2003, Qian and Wang 2005, Cullere et al. 2007. ...
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A field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 to examine regional and seasonal variability of the main compounds responsible for green aromas in grapes and wines, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and C-6 compounds. Sixty-nine commercial Vitis vinifera L. Merlot vineyards located in three distinctly different winegrape growing regions within the Central Valley of California were sampled at commercial harvest, fruit samples were analyzed for green aroma compounds and standard chemometrics, and several weather parameters such as growing degree days and rainfall were recorded at the vineyard level. Seasonal variation was found to be more important than regional variation, and similar trends among regions were found within each season. Temperature during the spring, a period of active growth, was found to be a significant driver of fruit green aroma compounds at harvest, likely due to its interactions with vine vigor and fruit shading.
... The black elder is ranked among preferred medical plants (MURKOVIC et al., 2004). The fl owers are also used for the production of refreshing drinks (JØRGENSEN et al., 2000), and the fruits are used for the preparation of juices, wines and jams. ...
Article
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Black elder inflorescence has been traditionally used in Central Europe both in folk and official medicine. This plant material is a rich source of two biologically active components, rutin and chlorogenic acid. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data on the changes of their content during processing. The stability of rutin and chlorogenic acid during drying and the long-term storage of black elder inflorescence were analysed in this study. The rutin content was determined by capillary electrophoresis using solid-phase extraction. HPLC was used for the determination of chlorogenic acid. The dependence of rutin and chlorogenic acid content on the temperature of drying and storage duration were monitored and statistically evaluated by a two-way ANOVA test. The contents of rutin and chlorogenic acid revealed no statistically significant changes when dried at temperatures of 22 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The significant decrease in contents of both studied compounds was found at a drying temperature of 50 degrees C. The decrease in content of rutin was about 20%, in chlorogenic acid about 12%. The content of both studied compounds also decreased after long-term storage (at a temperature of 22 degrees C for one year). The decrease in content of rutin was greater than that of chlorogenic acid.
... 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) is the main contributor of green aromas in winegrapes, giving a distinctive herbaceous and bell pepper-like aroma (Allen et al. 1990, Hashizume and Umeda 1996, Sala et al. 2002, Roujou de Boubee 2003. The relevance of C6 compounds as contributors of green aromas in grapes and wines is not well understood, although they have been shown to account for leafy, grassy odours and are usually formed during fruit crushing and juice processing, before fermentation (Lopez et al. 1999, Jorgensen et al. 2000, Klesk and Qian 2003, Qian and Wang 2005, Cullere et al. 2007). ...
Article
Background and Aims: Green aroma compounds are considered undesirable when present at a high concentration in red wines. This study aimed to understand the effect of two irrigation levels and a higher than standard nitrogen fertilisation on the concentration of both 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and six C6 compounds during fruit development. Methods and Results: Fruit samples were collected biweekly during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in a commercial Vitis viniferaL. Merlot vineyard in California, USA, where two irrigation levels (70 and 100% of crop evapotranspiration) and a higher than standard nitrogen fertilisation dose were implemented. The higher irrigation level and additional nitrogen promoted canopy growth and decreased fruit exposure, resulting in increased concentration of IBMP during fruit maturation. The concentration of the six measured C6 compounds, however, was not affected. Deficit irrigation increased fruit colour, quercetin glycosides and phenol-free glucose glycosides (i.e. aroma precursors), and decreased vine yield. The two irrigation levels did not differ on the sensory vegetal perception of the wines, but the additional application of nitrogen fertiliser at fruitset enhanced it. Significance of the Study: These findings confirm previous work showing that vineyard management practices influence fruit and wine concentration of IBMP, and demonstrate for the first time that the same practices have no significant impact on the concentration of six C6 compounds in grapes or on the concentration of hexanol in wines. Grapegrowers aiming to minimise IBMP concentration in fruit at harvest would probably benefit from a reduced application of water and nitrogen to the vineyard.
... The consumption of these berries has been associated with health benefits and this is probably related to their high content of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols (in particular anthocyanins), ascorbic acid and carotenoids (Ovaskainen et al. 2008;Jakobek & Seruga 2012 to prevent heart diseases, hypertension, certain forms of cancer and other degenerative diseases (Seeram 2008;Stoner et al. 2008). In Europe there are many cultivars of S. nigra (the most common is Haschberg), and from a few select cultivars, normally used for ornamental purposes and for consumption of flowers and fresh fruits, concentrates, extracts and juices are prepared (Jørgensen et al. 2000). S. nigra was also one of the medicinal plants reported by the Italian Official Pharmacopeia up to the fifth edition (Capasso et al. 2000), and in Italy it was used as a traditional remedy to treat different diseases (Guarrera et al. 2005;Leporatti & Ghedira 2009). ...
Article
Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) is wide spread in temperate and sub-tropical zones. The consumption of its berries has been associated with health benefits especially for its high content of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, in particular anthocyanins. In this work we investigated the polyphenolic composition and the in vitro antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, BCB and FRAP-ferrozine (FRAP-FZ) assays) of S. nigra berries, collected in four different Sicilian areas (Italy). Elderberries are considered one of the fruits with highest anthocyanins content, the amount of phenolic compounds, other than anthocyanins, is approximately 1.5 times greater than the latter. The LC-MS analyses have revealed an opposite trend in the polyphenols pattern in Sicilian populations. Moreover, a statistical correlation was found between cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside and antioxidant activity evaluated by FRAP-FZ and ABTS assays. In conclusion, Sicilian S. nigra berries are appealing for its antioxidant potential and for its particularly high content of anthocyanins.
... 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and C6 compounds are the main contributors of green aromas in grapes and wine. While IBMP gives a characteristic herbaceous, bell pepper-like aroma (Allen et al. 1990, Hashizume and Umeda 1996, Marais and Swart 1999, Roujou de Boubee et al. 2000, Sala et al. 2002, C6 compounds exhibit leafy, grassy odours, and are usually formed when the cell structure is disrupted and exposed to oxidation (Cordonnier and Bayonove 1981, Lopez et al. 1999, Jorgensen et al. 2000, Klesk and Qian 2003, Qian and Wang 2005, Cullere et al. 2007. ...
Article
Background and AimsA field trial during the 2009 and 2010 seasons evaluated the impact of winter rainfall on the main compounds responsible for green aromas in grapes and wines, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and C6 compounds. These compounds are considered undesirable in grapes and wines above the threshold concentration. Methods and ResultsOne treatment subjected vines to average rainfall, while the other excluded winter rainfall by covering the ground with a plastic tarpaulin during the entire dormant season (November to mid-March). Irrigation for both treatments was maintained at a weekly rate of 70% of crop evapotranspiration until commercial harvest. Canopy growth, berry size and vine yield were significantly reduced by rainfall exclusion, and a significant increase in the fruit to pruning mass ratio was recorded from one season to another. Synthesis of IBMP was significantly greater in vines under normal rainfall, whereas C6 compounds were significantly different between treatments only at the end of the second season. Fruit and wine composition, mainly colour and mouthfeel compounds, were positively affected by the absence of rainfall in both years. Wine descriptive analysis showed that the lack of rainfall produced wines perceived as less green and of more intense fruit attributes in the first season. As a consequence of the reduction in vine growth, however, the same treatment produced wines less intense in fruit aromas and of inferior tannin quality in the following season. Conclusions These results show that the soil moisture level prior to budbreak affects both canopy growth and vine yield, even when irrigation is applied following budbreak. If the rainfall level is below normal, the positive effect on fruit and wine composition achieved through smaller berry size may be offset by a significant reduction in canopy growth, resulting in severely unbalanced vines, i.e. inadequate fruit to pruning mass ratio. Significance of the StudyGrowers aiming to minimise the level of IBMP at harvest would benefit from applying moderate deficit irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation rates and also might achieve an earlier harvest date for those vineyards where the absence of undesirable vegetal characters is considered a key harvest metric.
... Flowers of black elder are used in many European countries for their appealing flavor and native flower aroma, to make extracts, which are consumed as a beverage. 7,8 Sambucus nigra L. (black elder) concoctions have also been used as an alternative medicine against common cold and influenza. 9 Most of the studies on black elder have been performed on the fruits of the plant (elderberries) which is known for its antiviral and immunity-boosting effects, 10,11 but recent research has revealed that the flowers of black elder (elderflowers) have potential antidiabetic properties. ...
Article
Obesity and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles are major features of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we examined the potential of Sambucus nigra flower (elderflowers) extracts to stimulate glucose uptake (GU) in primary porcine myotubes and reduce fat accumulation (FAc) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Bioassay guided chromatographic fractionations of extracts and fractions resulted in the identification of naringenin and 5-O- caffeoylquinic acid exhibiting a significant increase in GU. In addition, polyphenols related to those found in elderflowers were also tested and among these, kaempferol, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid increased GU significantly. FAc was significantly reduced in C. elegans, when treated with elderflower extracts, their fractions and the metabolites naringenin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-5''-acetylglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and the related polyphenols kaempferol and ferulic acid. The study indicates that elderflower extracts contain bioactive compounds capable of modulating glucose and lipid metabolism, suitable for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
Article
Elderflower products have become more popular in the U.S., yet most are still made from European-grown flowers. Flowers of the subspecies native to the western region of North America (Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea) were investigated for the first time. The phenolic compounds were evaluated in ethanol/water extracts of fresh and dry flowers (either homogenized or as the intact flower) and in hot water extracts (teas) of the dry, intact flowers. Fresh homogenized flowers had significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds than the other preparations. The predominant flavonols identified were isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (ranging from 32.48 to 78.73 mg g–1 dry weight) and rutin (ranging from 3.20 to 10.01 mg g–1 dry weight). Total phenolic levels in elderflower teas were 23.98 ± 0.838 μg g–1 and increased by 47% over a 20 min infusion time. Volatile profiles were measured in fresh and dried flowers and in teas made from these flowers. One of the prevalent compounds in fresh flowers and tea made with fresh flowers that appears unique to this subspecies is methyl eugenol (16.90 and 20.14% of the relative peak area, respectively). Drying the flowers significantly changed the headspace volatile profile. Levels of methyl eugenol were reduced to 2.46% of the relative peak area, whereas 3-hexen-1-ol levels were increased. Tea made from the fresh and dry flowers had relatively high levels of straight-chain aldehydes as compared to the flowers. Elderflowers of S. nigra ssp. cerulea can be used to make differentiated elderflower products for consumers interested in bioactive compounds and unique sensory profiles.
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Volatile compounds are very important to the flavour and quality of the wine. The study aimed to determine the effect of grape variety (Rondo and Zweigelt), yeast, malolactic fermentation (MLF) and yeast×MLF interaction on the content of volatile compounds in red wines. The wines were produced by sequential inoculation with five commercial yeast strains and a commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain (induced malolactic fermentation) as well as by inoculation with five commercial yeast strains and without LAB inoculation (spontaneous malolactic fermentation). The volatile compounds were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Forty-six volatile compounds belonging to alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes, ketones, furan compounds, sulfur compounds and volatile phenols were identified in the wines. The grape variety was the factor with a significant impact on the highest number of volatile compounds, 32 out of 46. Furthermore, 7 compounds were affected by yeast, 10 by MLF and only 3 by yeast×MLF interaction. Characteristic bands in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were assigned to the vibrations of functional groups of volatile compounds. The whole FTIR spectra were analysed in detail; three characteristic spectral ranges such as 3650-2700, 1750-1500, and below 1500 cm -1 were shown for different classes of volatile compounds. The most remarkable spectral changes were observed for the last two areas.
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Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
Chapter
Plants are incredibly significant in the lives of people around the world. People rely on plants to satisfy basic human needs like food, clothing, shelter, and health care. Because of a rising world population, increasing wages, and urbanization, these needs are growing rapidly. Of course, plants provide food directly and often feed livestock that is then eaten on their own. The value of plants is likely to become fairer among countries as world economies become more accessible and market-oriented through trade agreements such as those from the World Trade Organization. The socio-economic significance of such an understanding of plants is defined in this chapter by providing evidence of the multiple benefits of plant breeding in and beyond agriculture based on reproducible findings and scientific evidence for arable crops.
Article
Background and Aims The presence of matter other than grapes (MOG) is common in the winemaking process when sorting equipment is not utilised. Experimental wines were made to examine the effect of MOG on the sensory profile and chemical composition of wine. Methods and Results A Shiraz wine made without MOG was compared to fermentations with grape leaves, grape stalks (rachis) and peduncles (the stalk connecting the bunch to the vine) added at amounts at or slightly above those found in a commercial harvest bin. Fifty‐one volatile aroma compounds were quantified in the wines, and sensory descriptive analysis was applied. The wine made with leaves added was rated by the sensory panel similar to the Control and was significantly higher only in positive aromas such as ‘confectionery’ and ‘red fruit’ likely due to a higher concentration of hexanol and (Z)‐3‐hexen‐1‐ol. The addition of peduncles slightly enhanced ‘green’ aroma and flavour. The rachis treatment was high in ‘green capsicum/green stalks’ attributes, as well as astringency, and was high in methoxypyrazines. Conclusions The inclusion of different types of MOG during fermentation can alter the sensory profile and chemical composition of Shiraz wines in varying ways, including extraction of methoxypyrazines from the rachis, resulting in notable ‘green’ attributes. Significance of the Study The inclusion of MOG is unavoidable in common winemaking practices, especially with the use of mechanical harvesting. Determining the influence of MOG on the volatile composition of the finished wine is an important step in manipulating wine style.
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Although there are many chemical compounds present in wines, only a few of these compounds contribute to the sensory perception of wine flavor. This review focuses on the knowledge regarding varietal aroma compounds, which are among the compounds that are the greatest contributors to the overall aroma. These aroma compounds are found in grapes in the form of nonodorant precursors that, due to the metabolic activity of yeasts during fermentation, are transformed to aromas that are of great relevance in the sensory perception of wines. Due to the multiple interactions of varietal aromas with other types of aromas and other nonodorant components of the complex wine matrix, knowledge regarding the varietal aroma composition alone cannot adequately explain the contribution of these compounds to the overall wine flavor. These interactions and the associated effects on aroma volatility are currently being investigated. This review also provides an overview of recent developments in analytical techniques for varietal aroma identification, including methods used to identify the precursor compounds of varietal aromas, which are the greatest contributors to the overall aroma after the aforementioned yeast-mediated odor release.
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The unclear components and complex evaluation indicators affect the effectiveness of inhibition methods for warmed‐over flavor (WOF). To evaluate the main components of WOF, the changes in flavor compound profiles of precooked pork after reheating were investigated quantitatively by using gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry with chromatographic feature extraction. A total of 49 volatile compounds were identified, including 22 aroma‐active compounds that were primarily derived from lipid oxidation. Fifteen key volatile compounds were obtained that represented principal components of the changes in flavor compound profiles, of which 1‐octen‐3‐ol, (Z)‐2‐octenal, and (E,E)‐2,4‐decadienal made the greatest contribution to the principal components and achieved odor activity value (OAVs) greater than 1.0 after reheating. The results showed that the three compounds are the dominant volatile compounds and potential evaluation indicators of WOF. This study provides a further understanding of the components of WOF in precooked pork and an effective analysis method of gas chromatography. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Vermouth is a wine derivative produced from a base wine, usually white, fortified with wine spirit, colored by caramel with residual sugar level frequently about or higher than 100 g/L and aromatized with several dried herbs and extracts to get a typical bitter taste. Probably, it is the wine-derived aperitif most consumed worldwide. The present chapter reviews the technology and processes used in vermouth making highlighting the repercussion on the sensory quality. The effect of traditional herbs and spices on its sensory profile is also studied. Moreover, the effect of base wine in the aromatic complexity and stability is analyzed. The use of the caramel as colorant is compared with natural alternative products as grape anthocyanins in terms of stability, sensory quality, and consumer preferences. Finally, the use of barrel ageing or the use of alternative biological processes as ageing on lees is also considered.
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In this study, four strains of Lactobacillus casei, as viable cells or cell-free extracts (CFE), were added to elderberry juice in order to evaluate their effect on phenolic and aromatic profile. Two of them were able to grow in juice while the others showed zero-growth. The same strains were lysed and added as extracts in elderberry juice. Multivariate statistical analysis show a separation among samples containing growing cells, non-growing cells, CFE, highlighting the particularities of specific strains. Juices added with CFE presented the highest amount of esters. The strains showing growth phenotype cause an increase of phenyllactic acids. The highest concentration of volatile compounds, particularly of alcohols, terpenes and norisoprenoids (responsible for typical elderberry notes) was observed in samples with strains showing zero-growth. Moreover, a significant increase in anthocyanin content was observed in these samples, suggesting the possible use of Lactobacillus for increasing specific molecules, even for non-multiplying bacterial cell. Considering that this is the first study concerning the use of non-growing cells in fruit juice, the potential of strains is still to be explored and it may have a significant technological application in the development of a microbial collection useful for fruit juice industry.
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The article reports a study of the collection of 20 plant species for agricultural, medicinal, cosmetic, nutritional, technological,and veterinary uses, which are traditionally harvested on Mount Olympus on Lesvos, Greece. The aims of the study were:(1) to summarize the uses of the selected species; (2) to describe the profiles of collectors and their collection practices; and (3) to describe the manner in which traditional ecological knowledge is transmitted. Knowledge of plant uses provided by local collectors during a series of observations and interviews carried out with the use of a semi-structured questionnaire in 2012 was compared with descriptions of the same plant uses in the literature. The results revealed that there were a large number of uses for the plants, more than half of them for nutritional purposes. The greatest number of different uses were for camomile (Matricaria chamomilla), followed by stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Working farmers tended to mention more uses on average than other collectors. The authors conclude that traditional knowledge of plant collection has been preserved in the rural society on Lesvos and is mainly transmitted by women to people who are active in land management.
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Authenticity and the geographical origin of wines are terms of great importance for consumers and producers. This work is focused on distinguishing between red wines from Poland and from other European countries, notably France, Italy and Spain. To achieve this goal, we determined aroma compounds in wines from different countries by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The content of hexan-1-ol in Polish wines was significantly higher (about twice as high) than in French, Italian and Spanish wines. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that 3-(methylsulfanyl) propane-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, ethyl phenylacetate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate were the most discriminant variables for distinguishing between wines from Poland and from other European countries. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that Polish wines were separated thoroughly from the other wines based on ethyl phenylacetate, hexan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propan-1-ol, which is important for preventing possible frauds.
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The Pleurothallidinae are recognized as the largest orchid group pollinated by Diptera. This subtribe has been focus of ongoing phylogenetic studies, in which the floral biology and mating systems of their representatives have been recently assessed and some synapomorphies pointed out, all of them regarding features or processes occurring in flowers. Data about the flower volatiles are still scarce, although it may offer valuable information about the floral biology of this subtribe. Here, we collected and analyzed the volatiles emitted from flowers at anthesis. We selected seven Brazilian species representing both late and early-divergent clades of Pleurothallidinae aiming to describe the chemical profile of flower volatiles and relate the identified compounds to the reproductive biology of the selected species. The outstanding feature regarding the floral scent profile is the ubiquitous occurrence in remarkable concentrations of alkanes, a situation not found in Laellinae, a closed subtribe of Pleurothallidinae. We also present a discussion concerning the ecological aspects of the flower volatiles and their pollinators.
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In this study we explored, for the first time, the lactic acid fermentation of elderberry juice (EJ). A total of 15 strains isolated from dairy and plant matrices, belonging to L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. casei, were used for fermentations. The volatile profile of started and unstarted EJ was characterized by HS-SPME/GC-MS technique after 48 h of fermentation and 12 days of storage at 4 °C. All L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus strains exhibited a good capacity of growth while not all L. casei strains showed the same ability. The aromatic profile of fermented juices was characterized by the presence of 82 volatile compounds pertaining to different classes: alcohols, terpenes and norisoprenoids, organic acids, ketones and esters. Elderberry juice fermented with L. plantarum strains showed an increase of total volatile compounds after 48 h while the juices fermented with L. rhamnosus and L. casei exhibited a larger increase after the storage. The highest concentration of total volatile compounds were observed in EJ fermented with L. plantarum 285 isolated from dairy product. Ketones increased in all fermented juices both after fermentation and storage and the most concentrated were acetoin and diacetyl. The organic acids were also affected by lactic acid fermentation and the most abundant acids detected in fermented juices were acetic acid and isovaleric acid. Hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol (Z) and 2-hexen-1-ol (E) were positively influenced during dairy lactic acid bacteria strains fermentation. The most represented esters were ethyl acetate, methyl isovalerate, isoamyl isovalerate and methyl salicylate, all correlated with fruit notes. Among terpenes and norisoprenoids, β-damascenone resulted the main representative with its typical note of elderberry. Furthermore, coupling obtained data with multivariate statistical analyses, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Classification Trees (CT), it was possible to relate the characteristic volatile profile of samples with the different species and strains applied in this study.
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Over the past two decades, biotechnologies have provided a motor for innovation and sustainability in many economies all around the world by developing new processes and products in a bio-economy approach. Besides food and feed, increasing interest on biomass derived fuels, chemicals and materials, sustainably sourced and produced, has raised, providing an alternative to heavy reliance on finite fossil fuel resources. One of the most innovative and promising sectors of the bio-economy is related to bio-based products, obtained in part or entirely from organic biomass, which account for about 16% of world production of bio-economy’s products. Plant biomass is rich in high added value compounds; mainly antioxidants and fibres, which once extracted can serve as green fine chemicals or can be used in food supplements and/or nutraceutical sector. A great deal of evidence has established that the secondary compounds of higher plants (i.e. polyphenols) inhibit and/or quench free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) thus protecting against oxidative damage. These compounds can therefore be exploited as additives in a large number of different commodities, such as plastics and nanomaterials. This chapter gives an insight into the relevant research results regarding the valorization of polyphenol fractions extracted from agricultural wastes, focusing on those derived from fruit production and transformation. Structure-activity relationships will be discussed in view of their use in the field of innovative materials.
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Sambuci flos, also known as elderflower, has traditionally been used and is still in use for treatment of various types of illnesses related to the immune system such as cold, flu, fever and inflammation. Pectic polysaccharides from 50% EtOH, 50°C water and 100°C water extracts from elderflowers were treated with endo-α-d-(1-4)-polygalacturonase after previous de-esterification with the intention of isolating hairy regions and relate variation in structure to immunomodulating activity. High molecular weight sub-fractions (25-29kDa) and medium molecular weight sub-fractions (6-17kDa) were isolated after enzymatic treatment in addition to oligogalacturonides. Structural elucidation indicated that RG-I regions with AG-I and AG-II sidechains were the predominant structures in the high molecular weight sub-fractions, and two of three 1,4-linked GalA units in the rhamnogalacturonan backbone were branched in either position 2 or 3. The medium molecular weight sub-fractions had monomers and linkages typical for both RG-I and RG-II. The results showed that the high molecular RG-I containing polymers exhibit the highest dose-dependent complement fixing and macrophage stimulating activities.
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Sambucus alba Raf., Sambucus arborescens Gilib., Sambucus florida Salisb., Sambucus laciniata Mill., Sambucus medullosa Gilib., Sambucus pyramidata Lebas, Sambucus virescens Desf., Sambucus vulgaris Neck.
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This paper presents the results concerning the chemical composition investigation of essential oil and infusion of Sambucus nigra flowers. Separation of essential oil from the flowers was conducted by steam distillation. The quantity of the resulted essential oil is very low. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds from the hydro-distilled product and from the infusion were separated by solid phase extraction on C-18 cartridges. The chemical composition of essential oil was performed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GUMS).
Article
The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the volatile aroma compounds in fruits of several elderberry cultivars and to find a cultivar with the highest content of them. Wild elder and sixteen cultivars of elderberries were analysed. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. In total, 102 volatile compounds were identified in all elderberry samples, among them 38 alcohols, 16 aldehydes, 10 ketones, 19 esters, 4 heterocycles, 6 hydrocarbons and 9 acids. Alcohols, aldehydes and esters were the most abundant, while significantly (P < 0.05) lower contents of heterocycles and hydrocarbons were found. Based on the literature, 36 compounds known as significant components of elderberry aroma, were chosen as markers of differences among cultivars. Owing to the highest total content of the selected compounds, cultivars Korsör (77.89 ± 3.57) mg·kg-1, Pregarten (43.20 ± 7.14) mg·kg-1 and Samdal (67.85 ± 8.22) mg·kg-1 were recommended for practical use.
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cultivar, packing material and storage time on the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in elderflower tea (ET) processed from flowers of the black elder (Sambucus nigra) cultivars 'Sampo', 'Sambu' and 'Samyl'. ET was processed by placing elderflowers in a thin layer on nylon screens in woody frames placed in a cool room and dried using a dehumidified air flow above and below the nylon screens for 96 h at 5 °C. The yield of ET for the cultivars 'Sampo', 'Sambu' and 'Samyl' were 12.8%, 15.7% and 8.9%, respectively. A clear significant difference in the content of polyphenols was found between ET processed from the three cultivars. The total content of phenolic acids was significant higher in 'Samyl' (41.3 mg g -1 ET) compared to 'Sampo' (33.8 mg g -1 ET) and 'Sambu' (34.0 mg g -1 ET). 'Sambu' had the lowest content of flavonoids (25.7 mg g -1 ET), whereas the highest content was found in 'Sampo' (33.5 mg g -1 ET). ET samples were packed in bags of brown paper at normal pressure and under vacuum in polyethylene plastic bags and in aluminium foil bags comprised of polyamide, aluminium and polyethylene, respectively, and stored at 0 (non-stored), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 months. Principal components analysis and multiple linear regression analysis taking into account the correlation and interactions between packing material, storage time and cultivar showed, however, that packing materials and storage time only had a minor effect on the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in ET. The overall conclusion of the following study is that polyphenols in ET are relatively stable during storage up to 21 months and that the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in ET is mainly determined by the choice of cultivar/genotype. To maintain a good flavour of ET during storage paper bags are clearly less preferable than aluminium foil and plastic packing materials and therefore the best choice of packing material for ET seem to be aluminium foil based packing materials.
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Effects of novel two-step inoculation to enhance soy sauce special flavour in Candida etchellsii were investigated at the cell growth phase. The first-stage consists of a 5% culture inoculum of log phase cells at 30-day. Subsequently, a 20% culture inoculum of stationary phase cells was added at 60-day. The resulting amino nitrogen and soluble salt-free solid yield reached 9.15 ± 0.12 and 269.60 ± 3.15 mg L)1 in 30 °C incubator experiments, increased by 23.1% and 17.6%, respectively, as compared to the control without culture inoculation. Maximal free amino acid yield of 58.21 ± 1.77 g L)1 was achieved, and 39 types of volatile flavour compounds content was 17.81 ± 0.45 g L)1 , which were 1.76% and 178.7% higher than the control. A novel two-step inoculation using the C. etchellsii yeast was developed and optimised. It was proven to be a feasible reproducible process for industrial application for the improvement of the flavour and quality of soy sauce production.
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A checklist is presented of floral scent compounds retrieved by head-space techniques and separated and identified mainly by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The checklist is based on reports presented in 118 original articles between the years 1966 and 1992. The emphasis in our discussion is on comparison of identified chemical substances as a basis for studies of pollination attractants. Isolation techniques, systematic implications of floral scents and structure-activity relationships are briefly discussed. In all over 700 identified compounds are listed from 441 taxa in 174 genera in 60 families of plants. They mainly represent fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids, phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds.
Article
The juice of two elderberry varieties (Korsor and Sambu) were examined for volatile components with GC-MS- and sniff analysis. Five odour regions with elderberry or elderflower aromas were found. Two of the regions with flower aroma coincide with phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenethanol on the chromatogram. Two of the regions with elderberry aroma coincide with esters (methyl n-undecanoate, ethyl-9-decenoate, methyl n-dodecanoate), damascenone and vanillin. In the fifth elderberry aroma region no identified peaks were found. Other regions of interest were green aromas (hexanal, hexanol and hexenols) and liquorice aromas (no peaks identified).
The analysis and identification of flavour compounds from elderberry juices and flowers using GC/MS-technique is described. The flavour precursor 3,7-dimethyl-octa-1,5-dien-3,7-diole was isolated for the first time; this was accomplished by extraction with liquid carbon dioxide. Several other monoterpenes extracted from juices and flowers were identified; they possibly originate from such diol precursors.
Article
Für eine einwandfreie Beurteilung von Sortencharakter und Weinqualität sowie für eine eindeutige Bestimmung von Weinfehlern ist die geschmackliche Beurteilung allein nicht ausreichend. Die Weinanalytik gewinnt deshalb immer mehr an Bedeutung. Für eine analytische Beurteilung des Weines haben die einzelnen Inhaltsstoffgruppen wie Säuren, Zucker, Aminosäuren und Aromastoffe sehr unterschiedliche Bedeutung. Zweifelsohne spielen die Aromastoffe, entsprechend ihrer ausgeprägten Wirkung auf unsere Sinnesorgane, eine entscheidende Rolle.
Article
Thermal induction of volatile monoterpenes in juices of muscat grapes (sp. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat à Petits Grains) was studied by GC and GC-MS of headspace samples. The roles of the four recently discovered grape polyols 3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-diene-3,7-diol (1), 3,7-dimethylocta-1, 7-diene-3,6-diol (2), 3,7-dimethyloct-1-ene-3,6,7-triol (3), and 3,7-dimethyloct-1-ene-3,7-diol (4) are interpreted in this process. Heating juice for 15 min at 70 °C significantly increased the concentration of the furan linalool oxides, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and α-terpineol. Also 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-vinyltetrahydropyran, cis- and trans-5-isopropenyl-2-methyl-2-vinyltetrahydrofurans, 2,2-dimethyl-5-(1-methylpropenyl) tetrahydrofuran, myrcenol, and cis- and trans-ocimenols, all previously unrecognized as grape products, became prominent constituents of heated juice headspace composition. Under mild acid conditions at grape juice pH, polyols 1-4 rearranged nonenzymatically, to give all of the above volatile products.
Article
Three extracts of dry elder flowers, Sambucus nigra L., were analyzed: a steam-distilled essential oil, an ethanol concentrate of a petroleum ether extraction, and an isopentane extract of an ethanol concentrate. By use of gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, 79 compounds were identified: 16 hydrocarbons, 11 ethers and oxides, 7 ketones, 7 aldehydes, 16 alcohols, 6 esters, and 16 acids. The major constituents of the essential oil were trans-3,7-dimethyl-l,3,7-octatrien-3-ol (13%), palmitic acid (11.3%), linalool (3.7%), cis-hexenol (2.5%), and cis- and trans-rose oxides (3.4 and 1.7%, respectively). They were also principal components of the isopentane extract and of the ethanol concentrate. The three extracts had a good muscat odor.
Article
A glycosidic fraction was obtained from a methanolic extract of lulo fruit (Solanum vestissimum D.) peelings by Amberlite XAD-2 adsorption and methanol elution. Using preseparation by rotation locular countercurrent chromatography, subsequent acetylation, and liquid chromatographic purification, a glycoside was isolated in pure form whose structure was elucidated by DCI-MS and NMR analyses to be the 6-O-linked beta-D-glucopyranoside of (R)-(-)-(E)-2,6-dimethyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol.
Article
The present paper reviews the different monoterpenols and monoterpene polyols identified in the glycoside form in the plant kingdom. The glycosidic moieties involved are also considered. The natural pathways for the synthesis and hydrolysis of these monoterpene glycosides and the different hypothesis concerning their metabolism are discussed. The present state of different projects for the biotechnological transformation of these aromatic precursor compounds is reported.
Article
The fragrance given off by certain springtime flowers was the subject of a previous communication. We now present the results from further analyses of flower headspaces from cultivated and wild plants (including trees), which bloom at the end of spring and in summer in the Grasse region: Sambucus nigra L. (elder), Ligustrum ovalifolium (privet), Ligustrum vulgare L. (common-privet), Ailantus glandulosa Desf., Magnolia grandiflora L. and Trachelospermum jasminoides. We bring further information about the composition of the headspace from Philadelphia coronarius L. flowers (seringat), which were only briefly reported in our first communication. We confirm that the odoriferous emissions from flowers contain some chemical substances which are not readily detected in the corresponding extraction or hydrodistillation products. Such constituents include, for example, terpenoids and aliphatic amino acid derivatives, some of which may be considered as new natural products.
Article
The volatile flavour components of 27 Allium species and cultivars, mostly edible but including some decorative species for comparison, have been investigated by a series of gas and thin-layer chromatographic and u.v. spectrophotometric methods. By means of simulation experiments with synthetic precursors and intermediates, the data have been interpreted in terms of the amino acid precursors present in the intact tissues and the species classified as containing (a) S-1-propenyl-, (b) S-2-propenyl- and (c) S-methyl-L-cysteine sulphoxides as their principal flavour precursors. Characteristic examples of the three types are A. cepa L. (onion), A. sativum L. (garlic) and A. aflatunense B. Fedtschenko, respectively. An object of the work has been to demonstrate broad chemical similarities between species as well as their differences, which are emphasised in keys for classification on the basis of morphological characters. In addition to onion, leek, shallot, garlic and chives, species such as A. chinense, A. fistulosum and A. tuberosum have widespread use as food, particularly in the Far East. The literature on this aspect has been briefly summarised.
Article
The latest analytical advances in quality assessment of flavours and fragrances are reviewed, including capillary gas chromatography (cGC)-olfactometry for the identification and sensory evaluation of important odorants by means of odour activity values, aroma extract dilution analysis and stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA). Enantioselective cGC and comparative stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), coupled on-line with cGC, are reported as important tools in the authenticity control of flavours and fragrances. The literature on these topics is reviewed up to the beginning of 1992. The scope and limitations of chirospecific cGC and cGC-IRMS are discussed. The trends and perspectives in the origin control of flavours and fragrances are outlined.
Article
The different ways of describing peak positions on gas chromatograms are reviewed. The retention index is preferred to the theoretical nonane system and the relative retention.The equation given by Kováts for the calculation of the retention index in case of isothermal operation is transformed to a more general form to include also the case of linear temperature programmed operation. This generalized equation gives the same retention index for both ways of operation.
Aromastoffe in schwarzem Holunder (Sambucus nigra L.). Ernaehrung
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  • H Treptow
Askar, A.; Treptow, H. Aromastoffe in schwarzem Holunder (Sambucus nigra L.). Ernaehrung 1985, 9, 309-312.
Recherches sur l'aromatisation frauduleuse des vins doux naturels et des mistelles par le coriandre (Cori-andrum sativum L.) et le sureau
  • Bayonove
VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 1990; pp 1-218. Bayonove, C. Recherches sur l'aromatisation frauduleuse des vins doux naturels et des mistelles par le coriandre (Cori-andrum sativum L.) et le sureau (Sambucus nigra L.). Ann. Technol. Agric. 1973, 22, 151-163.
Vegetable and fruit flavors
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Buttery, R. G. Vegetable and fruit flavors. In Flavor Research;
Analyse flü chtiger Inhaltsst-offe des Holunders. 1. Extraktionstechniken und Untersu-chung wesentlicher Aromakomponenten
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Eberhardt, R.; Pfannhauser, W. Analyse flü chtiger Inhaltsst-offe des Holunders. 1. Extraktionstechniken und Untersu-chung wesentlicher Aromakomponenten. Mikrochim. Acta 1985a, 1, 55-67.
Flavour impact compounds of fermented elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flowers macerate
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Kovac, M.; Silhar, S. Flavour impact compounds of fermented elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flowers macerate. In Current status and future trends in analytical food chemistry, Proceedings of the 8th European conference on food chemistry (Euro food chem 8);
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Gotfried, R. Designer drinks. Elderberry flower extract. Food Marketing Technol. 1993, June, 9-10.
Essential oils as components of mixtures: Analysis and differentiation. In Flavor Measure-ment
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Lawrence, B.; Shu, C. K. Essential oils as components of mixtures: Analysis and differentiation. In Flavor Measure-ment;
Willü hn, G. Zur Kentnis der Inhaltsstoffe von Sambucus nigra L. Dtsch. Apotheker-Zeitung
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Holunder im Haushalt
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Schumacher, F. Holunder im Haushalt. Schweiz. Z. Obst-Weinbau 1983, 119, 551-560.
Sjö, I. Flä der-bä r, men fremst blomma
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