Gender difference in moderate drinking effects

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Impact Factor: 0.58). 02/1999; 23(1):55-64.
Source: PubMed


Women appear to become more impaired than men after drinking equivalent amounts of alcohol, achieving higher blood alcohol concentrations even when doses are adjusted for body weight. This finding may be attributable in part to gender differences in total body water content. Men and women appear to eliminate approximately the same total amount of alcohol per unit body weight per hour. However, women seem to eliminate significantly more alcohol per unit of lean body mass per hour than men. Some studies report that women are more susceptible than men to alcohol-related impairment of cognitive performance, especially in tasks involving delayed memory or divided attention functions. Psychomotor performance impairment, however, does not appear to be affected by gender. This article provides an overview of alcohol metabolism (pharmacokinetics) and reviews recent studies on gender differences in alcohol absorption, distribution, elimination, and impairment. Speculation that gender differences in alcohol pharmacokinetics or alcohol-induced performance impairment may be caused by the menstrual cycle and variations in female sex hormones are discussed. It is concluded that the menstrual cycle is unlikely to influence alcohol pharmacokinetics.

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Available from: Martin S Mumenthaler
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    • "Consequently, while AP and CP are still seen on a continuum of clinical manifestations of one inflammatory disease (Whitcomb, 2004; Mitchell et al., 2003), the progression and outcomes of CP and AP significantly differ (Lankisch et al., 2015; Yadav and Lowenfels, 2013). The dose–response relationships between alcohol and chronic disease typically vary by sex, with women experiencing higher risks at comparatively lower levels of intake (Shield et al., 2013) due to different absorption and metabolism of alcohol (Mumenthaler et al., 1999). New studies will also allow for determining a threshold for alcohol consumption associated with the risk of pancreatitis. "
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    • "rene , acetone and trichloroethylene ) ( Nadeau et al . , 2006 ; Tardif et al . , 2007a ; Truchon et al . , 2009 ) . Additionally , a difference between women and men for the ratio BLE ( 50 W ) / BLE ( rest ) was observed . A possible explanation for this gender difference could be that women have a metabolism of ethanol lower than men . However , Mumenthaler et al . ( 1999 ) have found in their literature review that women eliminate more ethanol per volume of blood per hour than men , thus rendering this hypothesis improbable . We did not find any conclusive information in the literature to explain the difference observed between genders . Finally , the results obtained clearly show that exercise or an in"
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