Activation of Anterior Paralimbic Structures During Guilt-Related Script-Driven Imagery

Article (PDF Available)inBiological Psychiatry 48(1):43-50 · August 2000with103 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00251-1 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Several recent neuroimaging studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of normal emotional states, such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, anxiety, and disgust; however, no previous study has examined the emotional state of guilt. In the current study, we used positron emission tomography and the script-driven imagery paradigm to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during the transient emotional experience of guilt in eight healthy male participants. In the Guilt condition, participants recalled and imagined participating in a personal event involving the most guilt they had ever experienced. In the Neutral condition, participants recalled and imagined participating in an emotionally neutral personal event. In the Guilt versus Neutral comparison, rCBF increases occurred in anterior paralimbic regions of the brain: bilateral anterior temporal poles, anterior cingulate gyrus, and left anterior insular cortex/inferior frontal gyrus. These results, along with those of previous studies, are consistent with the notion that anterior paralimbic regions of the brain mediate negative emotional states in healthy individuals.

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    • "Among other emotions, such as shame and embarrassment, Fourie et al. (2014) reported successful induction of guilt as the most prominent emotion. Accordingly, the authors found increased activations of the AI and ACC, possibly mapping the arousal component of the guilt experience (Basile et al. 2011; Fourie et al. 2014; Shin et al. 2000). Further, activations of the dorsal ACC, which is assumed to be involved in conflict monitoring, might specifically reflect processes of social response inhibition or reversal in guilt eliciting situations (Fourie et al. 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions. These studies could show that among other brain regions the so-called mentalizing network, which is typically involved when we represent and make sense of others' states of mind, is associated with interpersonal emotions. The anterior insula/anterior cingulate cortex network at the same time processes one's own bodily arousal during such interpersonal emotional experiences. Current research aimed to explore how we make sense of others' emotional states during social interactions and investigates the modulating factors of our emotional experiences during social interactions. Understanding how interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level may yield significant implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that affect social behavior such as social anxiety disorders or autism.
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    • "The extant developmental research, therefore, suggests that guilt is a cognitively complex emotion in humans, emerging after a number of psychological capacities have developed. Recent work in neuroimaging has shown that several parts of the brain are active during experiences of guilt, including the superior temporal sulcus and anterior prefrontal cortex (Moll, de Oliveira-Souza, Zahn, & Grafman, 2008; Shin et al., 2000; Takahashi et al., 2004). Through EEG recording, Amodio, Devine, and Harmon-Jones (2007) discovered a unique link between increased guilt and reduced left-frontal cortical asymmetry, which they found did not similarly obtain in experiences of anxiety, sadness, and other-directed negative affects. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evolutionary perspectives on guilt tend to focus on how guilt functions as a means for the individual to self-regulate behavior and as a mechanism for reinforcing cooperative tendencies. While these accounts highlight important dimensions of guilt and provide important insights into its evolutionary emergence, they pay scant attention to the large empirical literature on its maladaptive effects on individuals. This paper considers the nature of guilt, explores its biological function, and provides an evolutionary perspective on whether it is an individual-level or group selected trait. After surveying philosophical and psychological analyses of guilt, we consider which psychological mechanisms underlie the capacity to experience and act from guilt and whether they point to an emergence of guilt in early humans or to guilt having a longer phylogenetic history. Because guilt is a distinctively social emotion, we then examine its contemporary role in social and legal contexts, which may provide clues to its original biological function. Finally, we provide the outlines of two evolutionary explanations for guilt. We argue that group selection may have promoted the capacity to experience guilt, but that under certain conditions there may have been a positive individual selection force as well.
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    • "EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY AND SLEEP: BIDIRECTIONALITY insula activity is related to affective states in response to emotional stimuli (Casey, Minoshima, Morrow, & Koeppe, 1996; Charney & Drevets, 2002). Lesions to the ACC can lead to feelings of apathy, depression, and anxiety (Levin & Duchowny, 1991) while ACC activity is shown to be increased in response to happy and sad mood induction (Mayberg et al., 1999; Shin et al., 2000). Lesions to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lead to disinhibitory and impulsive behavior (Damasio, 1994; Hornak, Rolls, & Wade, 1996), and both OFC and ACC are involved in more top-down control of emotion reactivity (Bush, Luu, & Posner, 2000; Petrovic et al., 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and greatly affect consecutive emotional reactivity, while sleep quality itself can be strongly affected by reactions to previous emotional events. In this review, we shed light on this bidirectional relation through examples of pathology: insomnia and bipolar disorder. We show that both experimental sleep deprivation and insomnia are related to increased emotional reactivity and increased amygdala activation upon emotional stimuli presentation, and that particularly Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is important for emotional processing and reorganization of emotion-specific brain activity. Increased emotional reactivity affects REM sleep quality and sleep spindles, while REM sleep is particularly affected in insomnia, possibly related to condition-specific hyperarousal levels. Normal sleep onset deactivation of brain regions important for emotional processing (amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) is further affected in insomnia. In bipolar disorder, sleep disturbances are common in both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic phases. Both amygdala and ACC volume and function are affected in bipolar disorder, with the ACC showing phase-dependent resting state activity differences. Deficient Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABA-ergic activity of this region might play a role in sleep disturbances and their influence on emotional reactivity, given the inhibitory role of GABA on brain activity during sleep and its deficiency in both bipolar disorder and insomnia. Promising findings of normalizing brain activity in both insomnia and bipolar disorder upon treatment may inspire a focus on treatment studies investigating the normalization of sleep, emotional reactivity, and their corresponding brain activity patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record
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