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The authors present a new approach to culture and cognition, which focuses on the dynamics through which specific pieces of cultural knowledge (implicit theories) become operative in guiding the construction of meaning from a stimulus. Whether a construct comes to the fore in a perceiver's mind depends on the extent to which the construct is highly accessible (because of recent exposure). In a series of cognitive priming experiments, the authors simulated the experience of bicultural individuals (people who have internalized two cultures) of switching between different cultural frames in response to culturally laden symbols. The authors discuss how this dynamic, constructivist approach illuminates (a) when cultural constructs are potent drivers of behavior and (b) how bicultural individuals may control the cognitive effects of culture.
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... Chinese indigenous scholars develop the notion of 'the deep structure of culture' (Hwang, 2001;Sun, 2004;Hus, 1977), which does not emphasise the culture of single values or national characters, but on the unifying values patterns (or values system) underlying the behaviours in specific society. Quoting Hsu's (Hsu, 1977) (Hong et al., 2000). ...
... It is not what Piaget (1984) claimed to be a diachronic socio-psychological structure which will do selftransformation constantly driven by received external sources of information'. This is as stable as ammonites (ammonites are excellent index fossils); although they are hidden within complex stacked-stone crevices and are almost undetectable, the entire period could be presented through it as it is the congelation of thousand years (Hwang, 2000quoted Levi-Strauss, 1955 (Hong et al., 2000). Therefore, culture can be contemporary or traditional and it is impossible to consider culture without considering the time period, situation, and context of each cultural dynamic. ...
Thesis
Despite efforts over the last 30 years to make tampons more appealing to Chinese consumers, Procter & Gamble and Johnson & Johnson only reach 2.5% of eligible users compared with 70% of consumers in the USA. Besides China, in Italy, most of Eastern Europe and South America, where tampons usage share is also very low. This discrepancy is due, in main, to cultural barriers. Drawing on Behavioural Reasoning Theory and an emic approach, taking the case of tampons in China as example, this study explores the reasons against consuming a specific product category, the cognitive process of reasons, and cultural antecedents underlying these reasons, leading to a ‘reason against’ model, to accomplish the central aim of this research which is to better understand the under-researched national level phenomenon of anti-consumption towards a specific product category which finally categorized as ‘cultural sensitive product’ in this research. This research utilizing semi-structured interview qualitative research method to achieve the research aim and answer the research questions. Randomly sampled 37 Chinese females who are tampons eligible users, 10 in the UK and 27 in China. Of those, 5 of 10 in the UK did follow-up interviews 6-to-9 months after their first interview. Interviewers’ age ranged from 21-50, 21-30 years represented 59% of the samples. 95% is Han Chinese, the main ethnic group in China which accounts for more than 90% of the population and constitutes the world’s single largest racial cultural group. The included native geographic places covered 77% provinces of Han Chinese habitation in mainland of China. Out of 37 participants, just one regularly consumed tampons (2.7%), which is very close the average usage in China at 2.5%. 37 semi-structured interviews result in three key findings: three ‘reasons against’, a set of emic cultural values and a model of ‘reasons against’ which together provide a more accurate insight into antecedents of anti-consumption. The first key finding, three ‘reasons against’ are risk aversion, undesired ‘Ren’ in relationships and situations, the lack of emic cultural recognised symbolic value added on tampons. These reasons are cohesively related to emic culture which confirms the main premise of Behavioural Reasoning Theory. These reasons are important linkages between cultural values and behaviours. The second key finding, a set of emic cultural values suggest that Chinese culture is oriented around ‘Personalism’, ‘personal physical health’ and ‘relational and situational Ren’. This supports the views of Chinese indigenous researchers which counters Western scholars’ view of Chinese collectivism culture. From a total of twenty-five identified emic values, fourteen have not been captured in the literature which updates the list of Chinese cultural values and offers an invaluable resource for future (anti)consumption research. The third key finding, the model of ‘reasons against’ offers a cognitive processing model base to explore and evaluate the relationships of cultural values, product features and categories, along with product (de)benefits and ‘reasons against and for’ (anti)consumption of a specific product category, which theoretically guides further researchers on the intentional and meaningful rejection of the consumption of a specific product category in a specific cultural context. The findings fill the gap with insufficient non-individual level antecedent/predictors, and the national level phenomenon of anti-consumption, to explore anti consumption from multiple perspectives, taking a more comprehensive approach to the various phenomena of consumption. The findings challenge marketing activities of tampons which overlook emic culture elements and are mainly concerned with providing the functional benefits or utilitarian values of tampons to consumers. Instead, the findings suggest emic cultural values-based symbolic added value interventions. This suggestion also serves as a proposal for other culturally sensitive products’ marketing strategy.
... Hong Kong was a British colony for more than a century until 1997 and developed into an international financial center over the last decades (Bond & Hewstone, 1988). Many researchers describe Hong Kong Chinese as bicultural due to persisting Western influences (Hong et al., 2000;Kemmelmeier & Cheng, 2004). Indeed, Hong Kong Chinese often display a Western identity (Bond & Cheung, 1984). ...
... Indeed, Hong Kong Chinese often display a Western identity (Bond & Cheung, 1984). Yet, traditional Chinese and Confucian values persist in Hong Kong, such as interrelatedness and social harmony (Bond, 1992;Hong et al., 2000). Empirical evidence indicates that Hong Kong Chinese are able to combine independent with interdependent values. ...
... Cultural-psychological research shows that culturecongruent behavior is triggered mostly outside one's awareness through external cues, also called cultural cues or artifacts. Any cultural unit can be an artifact ranging from language to architectural styles that function as contextual primes triggering cultural schemas that become a lens through which one sees the world (e.g., Hong et al., 2000). An example would be the cognitive priming of cultural stereotypes about Black people, which may occur when perceiving an individual who carries an expression of the many sub-Saharan African phenotypes. ...
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... Hence, it brings to mind ideas and feelings that the citizen of the country need to have per se. In regards to the function of the national symbols, experiments have reveal that when exposed to potent cultural symbols, individual are likely to think and behave in ways consistent with the worldviews and values with which the cultural symbols are associated (Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martinez, 2000). Therefore, because the icon of the flag is associated with central cultural and political ideas, it should be able to strengthen the bond between the individuals and their nation (Kemmelmeier & Winter, 2008). ...
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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT: Patriotism can be easily defined as "love of one's country" but it is not easily quantified. Patriotism is neither constant through space nor time. However, what constitutes patriotism depends on who is defining it. After, 57 years of independence, patriotism among Malaysians continues to be debatable. When someone thinks of patriotism and what it means, it might be conjured up with national symbols such as the national anthem, national flag, national ideology or even national car. After all, national identity is embodied in the history of its citizens and what Malaysia has accomplished in just five decades is truly amazing. Due to the high regards and importance for national symbols, this study seeks to understand the thoughts and feelings of undergraduates towards national symbols and the relationship between such symbols and patriotism. The T-test result showed that the feelings of love towards national symbols are high among the Malay undergraduates M=(4.158), followed by Indian undergraduates M=(3.726) and Chinese undergraduates M=(2.985). Pearson correlation analysis showed a strong relationship between national symbols and patriotism at (0.825**). This revealed that the elements of national symbols play a big part in shaping and forming the feeling of patriotism among the undergraduates. In view of that, this study strongly recommends the relevant authorities and agencies to use national symbols in an effective way to foster patriotic spirit among undergraduates in higher education institutions in Malaysia.
... Second, multi-racial people may need greater cognitive flexibility than mono-racial people (Kharkhurin, 2011;Prior & MacWhinney, 2010) due to the need to identify (Leong & Ward, 2000;Phinney & Devich-Navarro, 1997) and integrate cultural inconsistency (Cheng et al., 2008;Tadmor et al., 2009). Cognitive flexibility helps multi-racial people switch between different cultural frameworks (Hong et al., 2000). In a word, the multi-identity broadens the breadth of self-identity (Der-Karabetian & Balian, 1992; King & Ruiz-Gelices, 2003) and extends the scope of people's ideas (Hadis, 2005;Zhai & Scheer, 2004). ...
Thesis
Creative thinking is the psychological mechanism underlying the descriptive process that produces real-life creative outcomes. However, the connection between individual creative thinking and real-life creativity remains unclear. For example, the widely employed psychometric tools for creative thinking showed limited predictive power towards real-life creativity. In addition, empirical evidence for the social psychology of creativity is inconsistent. Also, the links between creative thinking and social cognitive process are rarely validated in the field. Besides, some domains that require creativity lack guiding theories and empirical evidence. Therefore, this research project aimed to advance the understanding of creative thinking and its role in real-life situations. To address the knowledge gap and fulfil the central purpose, we conducted four pilot and seven main studies using quantitative research methods. Accordingly, we created an integrative-thinking-based psychometric tool - Function Synthesis Task and validated its discriminate validity and predictive ability towards engineering students' creative product design. To understand the link between social comparison and creativity, we produced a new experimental paradigm that addressed existing methodological issues. We employed the paradigm and found that competition and star rating feedback altered speed or performance in creative thinking tasks. Besides, we produced a new product design task based on a hot topic at the time and found that ranking feedback benefited engineering students' creative performance in the task. Moreover, we designed a new un-stereotype intervention and found its effectiveness in improving marketers' divergent thinking. We also found that advertising stereotypes increased audiences' perceived creativity. Our research shows that integrative thinking and social cognition might play essential roles in developing the theory of creative thinking and offers novel research tools for future studies. We also form practical advice to guide educators, organisational leaders, and policymakers to promote creativity, diversity, and inclusion in real-life situations.
... Previous studies have examined the influence of culture on the cognitive pattern and self-conceptby the dynamic constructivist approach. For instance, Hong et al. (2000) found that for bicultural participants, when Chinese cultural images (e.g., "Chinese dragon" and "Great Wall") were used as priming stimuli, they were more inclined to make external attributions. By contrast, when Western cultural images (e.g., "Lady Liberty" and "Capitol Hill") were used, participants were less inclined to make external attributions. ...
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