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The extract of sage (Salvia libanotica), a plant endemic to the Mediterranean region, is the most popular plant remedy used by the Middle Eastern people to treat common complaints such as colds and abdominal pain. This review paper describes the East Mediterranean sage plant, Salvia libanotica, its geographic distribution, essential oil components, and popular uses in traditional medicine. The paper also discusses the therapeutic value of the individual components present in the essential oil extract of this plant, and the complications that could arise from the irrational use of this extract by man.
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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 71 (2000) 513520
Short communication
Traditional uses of Sal6ia libanotica (East Mediterranean
sage) and the effects of its essential oils
Hala Gali-Muhtasib
*, Christo Hilan
, Carla Khater
Department of Biology,American Uni6ersity of Beirut,Beirut,Lebanon
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,Saint-Esprit Kaslik Uni6ersity,Beirut,Lebanon
Received 7 May 1999; received in revised form 24 October 1999; accepted 29 October 1999
The extract of sage (Sal6ia libanotica), a plant endemic to the Mediterranean region, is the most popular plant
remedy used by the Middle Eastern people to treat common complaints such as colds and abdominal pain. This
review paper describes the East Mediterranean sage plant, Sal6ia libanotica, its geographic distribution, essential oil
components, and popular uses in traditional medicine. The paper also discusses the therapeutic value of the individual
components present in the essential oil extract of this plant, and the complications that could arise from the irrational
use of this extract by man. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sal6ia fruticosa;S.libanotica ;S.triloba ; Labiatae; Essential oils; East Mediterranean sage; Medicinal herbs
1. Introduction
Since primitive ages, people have learned to use
a variety of plants as medicines for different pur-
poses. Among plants that are largely used are
several species of Sal6ia, particularly Sal6ia liban-
otica (Boiss. et Gaill). In Lebanon, the latter plant
is used as a popular medicine by many people in
various villages and towns for the therapeutic
value of its oil and water extracts. This review
aims at describing the East Mediterranean sage
plant S.libanotica, its geographic distribution,
essential oil components, popular uses in medicine
and the toxic effects caused by the essential oils of
the plant when misused.
2. The East Mediterranean Sage Sal7ia libanotica
(Boiss. et Gaill)
.Description,history and naming
The genus Sal6ia encompasses about 900 shrub-
like species of plants belonging to the mint family,
Lamiaceae (Labiatae). It includes several orna-
* Corresponding author. Fax: +96-11-351-706.
E-mail address
: (H. Gali-Muhtasib).
0378-8741/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0378-8741(99)00190-7
H.Gali-Muhtasib et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
71 (2000) 513520
mental, culinary and medicinal species of herbs
(Grolier, 1992). The species S.libanotica Boiss. et
Gaill is also named S.fruticosa Mill., and was
formerly known as S.triloba L., S.triloba L.f.-
ssp. cypria,S.triloba L.-ssp. libanotica (Mouterde,
1970; Meikle, 1985). It is clearly different from S.
officinalis because of its trifoliate leaves and is
thus commonly known as three-lobed sage. The
plant has been used since 1400
. (Rivera et al.,
1994) and later by Spanish and Moroccan herbal-
ists in traditional medicine. It is these herbalists
that used names like ‘salima’ or ‘asphacus’ for
several species of Sal6ia including S.libanotica.
The general name ‘elelisphakon’, which is often
translated as the ‘garden sage’ (i.e. S.officinalis)
(Hanson and Hocking, 1957), was a name used
mistakenly by several ancient authors to describe
the three-lobed sage (Rivera et al., 1994). The
Arabic Dioscorides manuscript of the University
of Leiden furnishes an Arabic name ‘Ju’abah’ for
the sage (Sadek, 1983). The famous proverb in the
Tabula Salerni ‘‘Cur moritur, qui salvia crescit in
horto’’ which translates to ‘‘Why should he die
who has sage in his garden?’’ was used to describe
the value of S.fruticosa cultivated near Salerno
(Pignatti, 1982). The plant was even considered as
a sacred herb ‘Herba sacra’ by the Salerno School
of Medicine who said about it ‘Salvia salvatrix,
natura conciliatrix’ which translates to ‘Salvia is a
cure with a calming effect’ (Valnet, 1990). The
therapeutic value of this plant was even recog-
nized by the King of France, Louis the XIV, who
trusted this plant more than his doctor Fragon
and drank every morning an infusion of sage
leaves. The East Mediterranean sage S.libanotica
has several vernacular names including, Sage ap-
ple, Khokh barri (Bedevian, 1936), Na’ama,
Hobeiq’es-sedr (Trabut, 1935) and Teffah (Bou-
los, 1970). The shrub is strongly aromatic with
stems that reach up to 1 m high. The leaves are
gray-green in color, elliptic to ovate-oblong and
variable in size (1.24.5 cm long, 0.7 2.5 cm
wide) with acute or rounded apex and numerous
sessile glands (Meikle, 1985). In Greece, Lebanon
and Palestine, the plant may be infested with galls
caused by insects generally known as ‘Habb el
.Habitat and geographic distribution
The plant is endemic to the Mediterranean
region. Its most likely origin is from the Greek
colonies who occupied the coast in VI century
(Meikle, 1985). It is absent from sandstone soils
and is found in dry rocky limestone soils, edges of
pine forests, riverbeds and roadsides. It extends in
altitude from 100 to 800 m. Geographically the
plant is distributed in Lebanon, Syria, Palestine,
Crete, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece and the South of
Italy and Sicily (Mouterde, 1970) with the maxi-
mum density being in Lebanon. In Lebanon, the
plant is found in Wadi Shnanhir, Jabal Turbul,
Sidon to Nabatiyyah, Baabda, Naqoura, Abey,
Choueifat, Wadi Chahrour, Khalde’, Beirut, An-
telias, Broumana, Harissa, Antoura, Ras Chekka,
Nahr Ibrahim, Jbail (Mouterde, 1970) (see map,
Fig. 1).
3. Traditional uses of S.libanotica
Since ancient times, Sal6ia spp. have been sold
commercially not only for use in therapy but also
as a spice to flavor meats such as pork, sausage
and poultry (Parry, 1969; Stahl, 1973; Rosen-
garten, 1973; Morton, 1976). In fact, most of the
imported sage in the United States is S.libanotica
(50 95%) rather than S.officinalis (5 50%), al-
though most articles on herbs describe S.offici-
nalis as the commercial herb (Tucker et al., 1980).
In the Lebanese folk medicine, S.libanotica is
widely used in several towns and villages espe-
cially by the elderly and those interested in tradi-
tional medicine. From interviews performed with
a number of farmers in several Lebanese villages
such as Wadi Chahrour, Ain Saade’, and Ghineh,
a scheme of the popular uses of S.libanotica by
people, herbalists and pharmacists was established
and is summarized in Table 3, compiled with
information obtained from the literature. The es-
sential oils and water extracts of the plant are
either internally used as infusions or are inhaled
in steam baths or are at times applied externally
to heal fractured bones (Table 3). The common
notion among many Lebanese villagers who heav-
ily use this plant in traditional medicine was that
H.Gali-Muhtasib et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
71 (2000) 513520
‘if it does not benefit, it would not harm’ and
none was aware of any side effects or toxicity
symptoms associated with the use of this plant
(Interviews, 1998). Herbalists of Lebanon, Syria,
and Jordan consider this species as a ‘panacea’ i.e.
a universal drug. The plant is sold in the market;
the leaves are boiled as a tea for the relief of
headaches, stomachaches, abdominal pain and
many other disorders. The Palestinians of Israel
also use this plant for the relief of stomachache,
indigestion and the treatment of heart disorders
(Palevitch et al., 1986). In Jordan, the plant is
used for the treatment of ulcer pains and indiges-
tion (Karim and Quraan, 1986). In Turkey, this
species is used for kidney and gall bladder stones
and for the relief of colds, coughs and influenza
(Baser et al., 1986). This plant as well as S.
officinalis are very popular even among the Eu-
ropean herbalists. As long as 400 years ago, En-
glish herbalists reported that Sal6ia spp. was good
for improving the memory (Reuters, 1997).
In the early 1990s, the Lebanese government,
through the Ministry of Agriculture, established a
project trying to find substitutes to the hashish
plantation in the Bekaa’ valley. Possible substi-
tutes included several medicinal plants and aro-
matic plants, one of which was S.libanotica. Later
in 1995, the Lebanese Agricultural Research Insti-
tute (LARI) was assigned the study of the antimi-
crobial effects of S.libanotica. The latter species
was found to possess excellent antimicrobial activ-
ities against a wide variety of gram positive and
Fig. 1. Geographical map of Lebanon.
H.Gali-Muhtasib et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
71 (2000) 513520
gram negative bacteria (Hilan et al., 1997). Sev-
eral investigators have also shown strong antibac-
terial activities associated with sage and its
components (Shelef et al., 1990; Evert-Ting and
Deibel, 1992; Hefnawy et al., 1993; Pattnaik et al.,
1997). In 1984, Todorov et al. conducted a study
on the effect of S.fruticosa Mill. extracts on
blood pressure. The sage extract was found to
possess hypotensive and spasmolytic actions by
lowering the blood pressure in cats and inhibiting
smooth muscle contractions induced by acetyl-
choline, histamine and serotonin; the extract was
also found to prolong hexobarbital sleep
(Todorov et al., 1984). In addition, the essential
oil extract of this plant has been found to block
the activity of an enzyme linked to Alzheimer’s
disease (Reuters, 1997). By blocking the enzyme,
the oil extract inhibits the breakdown of acetyl-
choline, a chemical messenger in the brain sug-
gesting that it may be a potentially useful drug for
the treatment of this disease. Sage has been
proven to have antioxidant (Dapkevicius et al.,
1998) and anti-inflammatory properties
(Schilcher, 1985), which could partly explain the
reasons why this plant is so beneficial in the
treatment of many human diseases. Although this
plant is widely distributed along the coast of
Lebanon, it is rather abandoned and treated
harshly at times. Because of the curative potential
of this plant, efforts should be oriented towards
its inclusion in the establishment of a Lebanese
Pharmacopoeia where research related to the
pharmocological and toxicological effects of this
plant could be done.
4. The essential oils of S.libanotica
To distinguish between the fatty oils and the
more volatile oils, the term ‘essential oil’ is used to
describe the volatile oil obtained by the steam
distillation of the plant. In some countries, the
essential oils are also called olea aetherea, or even
essences, a name which designates an alcoholic
solution of volatile oil (Gennaro, 1990). The
structure, physical and chemical properties, and
uses of the various components of the essential
oils of S.libanotica are summarized in Table 1.
The odor of S.libanotica oil is characteristically
camphor-like and the taste is very bitter. The
refractive index and the specific gravity of the oil
extract at 22°C are 1.46 and 0.93, respectively
(Hilan et al., 1997). The oil extract includes hy-
drocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ke-
tones, phenols, phenol esters, lactones and various
nitrogen and sulfur organic compounds (Gen-
naro, 1990; Waterman, 1993). The hydrocarbons
of chief importance are the terpenes and the
sesquiterpenes (Geunther, 1949; Gennaro, 1990).
The important alcohols in sage oil include borneol
(cyclic), linalool (acyclic), and terpineol (Table 1).
Thujone and camphor are two important ketones
present in the oil extracts of S.libanotica (Table
1). Oxides such as 1,8-cineole and esters such as
linalylacetate also occur in sage oil (Gennaro,
1990). In 1949, Geunther analyzed the leaves of S.
triloba and found the oil yield to vary from 2.1
2.6 ml/100 g of leaves. Leaves of the latter plant
contained mainly ketones (31%), sesquiterpenes
(20%), cineole (15%) and terpenes (15%) and bor-
neol (11%) (Geunther, 1949). Interestingly, the
quality and quantity of the essential oils extracted
from S.libanotica vary greatly with the part of the
plant used (Bellomaria et al., 1992; Arnold and
Bellomaria, 1993) with leaves giving the maximum
yield because of the glandular hairs present in
leaves. Oil yield is maximal in the post-flowering
period when the weather is dry in the Mediter-
ranean region (Bellomaria et al., 1992). Generally
a long dry season results in a higher oil yield
(Pitarevic et al., 1985). Furthermore, the content
of b-thujone and borneol is higher in the full
blooming stage (Verzar-Petri et al., 1985). The
study done by Ivanic and Savin (Ivanic and Savin,
1976) showed that the yield of essential oils and
the content of total ketones such as thujone was
considerably higher in S.officinalis compared to
other wild species of Sal6ia such as S.triloba.
However, the percentage of total alcohol such as
borneol was lower in S.triloba as compared to S.
officinalis. Later, Rhyu characterized by gas chro-
matography (GC) the essential oil composition of
sages from various origins and found 1,8-cineole,
a-thujone, b-thujone and camphor to be the ma-
jor components of S.triloba (Rhyu, 1979). Simi-
larly, the major components of the essential oil of
H.Gali-Muhtasib et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
71 (2000) 513520
Table 1
Chemical, physical and biological properties of the major components of the essential oil of S.libanotica
CamphorEssentialoil LinaloolBorneol (Camphol)
Manufacture of esters, perfumery Antipyretic, counter-irritant, antiseptic,Use Antimicrobial, antifungal agent
carminative and mild expectorant,(Budavari, 1989) (Pattnaik et al., 1997), sedative effect on
the central nervous system includingstimulating effect on respiration and
hypnotic and hypothermic effectscirculation (European Pharmacopoeia,
1971), antitussive agent, reduces cough (Elisabetsky et al., 1995)
by 33% at 500 mg/l (Gosselin, 1976)
Nausea, mental confusion, coma,Nausea, vomiting, mental confusion, Hypersalivation, muscle tremors, ataxia,Caution
dizziness, and convulsions (Rice and depression and hypothermia (Hooser,respiratory failure (Budavari, 1989),
1990)Wilson, 1976) epileptic convulsions, feeling of warmth,
delirium and depression of the central
nervous system (Laude et al., 1994),
weak local analgesic and rubefacient,
reproductive toxicity in rats (Leushner,
1997); external use levelsB11% (Laude
et al., 1994)
In rabbits: 2 g/kg b.w. per os In mice: 3000 mg/kg b.w., i.p.; in rats:
(Budavari, 1989) 200 mg/kg b.w., i.p. (Budavari, 1989)
PineneThujoneCineole (Eucalyptol) Linalyl acetateEssential oil
Treatment of renal and biliary calculusUse Manufacture of camphor, insecticide, a Perfumery
(Laude et al., 1994), antibacterial (Budavari, 1989)solvent and a perfume base (Budavari,
1989)properties (Pattnaik et al., 1997), skin
penetration enhancer (Williams and
Barry, 1991), insecticide (European
Pharmacopoeia, 1971)
Caution Neurotoxic in rats (Arnold, 1988),Inflammatory edema in the hind paw
abortion, epilepsy and liver damageof the rat (Santos and Rao, 1997)
(Schilcher, 1985)
a-Thujone: 7.5 mg/kg s.c. in mice;LD
b-thujone: 42.4 mg/kg s.c. in mice; total
thujone: 140 mg/kg i.p. in rats
(Scognamiglio, 1967)
H.Gali-Muhtasib et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
71 (2000) 513520
Table 2
Percentages of the essential oil components of S.libanotica growing in various locations in Lebanon
Ess. oil region year a-Pinene b-Pinene Cineole a-Thujone b-Thujone Linalool Linalyl acetate Borneol
0.75 34.04 1.24 2.752.64 6.27Chekka 95 0.93 2.68
1.80Halate 95 1.03 24.17 0.74 0.91 7.95 0.57 3.43
2.40 39.11 1.71 1.99 10.12 0.57 6.63Halate 96 4.04
1.02 14.90 0.72 0.681.35 10.04Adma 95 1.17 3.75
Choeifat 95 4.70 35.06 1.55 3.36 8.80 0.58 6.65
1.19 14.86 1.34 0.90Aknoun 95 10.441.42 0.86 4.79
2.45 2.50 0.87 1.953.11Chouf 96 2.16
1.33Bzomar 95 0.95 18.94 1.86 1.54 11.2 1.82 3.41
2.98Bzomar 96 1.73 31.08 1.66 1.14 2.79
Source: Hilan et al., 1997.
Table 3
Popular uses of S.libanotica
Part of the plant Therapeutic indications/symptomsWays of use
Brain: improves memory (Grolier, 1992), tranquilizer, sedative (Laude et al.,Internal use: essentialLeaves
1994), treats depression (Kbayssi, 1993)oil/water extract
Blood: increases circulation, treats hyperglycemia (Karim and Quraan, 1986),
has spasmolytic and hypoglycemic properties (Perfumi et al., 1991), blood
depurative (Karim and Quraan, 1986)
Digesti6e: astringent, diuretic (Laude et al., 1994), carminative, treats
stomach ache, abdominal pain, ulcers, menstrual pain, and gases (Karim and
Quraan, 1986)
Urinary: treats kidney, gall bladder stones and sand (Baser et al., 1986)
Other: promotes longevity (Reuters, 1997), treats asthma (Kbayssi, 1993),
colds, influenza, coughs, and rheumatic pain (Baser et al., 1986)
Leaves External use: water extracts Sore throat (Laude et al., 1994), mouth infections, sores (aphtes), gum
bleeding (Hilan et al., 1997)
Reduce inflammation (Grolier, 1992)Eyewash
Essential oil Antiseptic, antiperspirant (Valnet, 1990)
Steam/bath inhalations Coughs, colds, respiratory problems, and rheumatism (Interviews)
Cataplasm Treats bone fractures (Interviews)
Insect repellent (Schilcher, 1985)Fumigation
Food additive, antioxidant (Dapkevicius et al., 1998)Spices
S.fruticosa from Cyprus were found to be cam-
phor and 1,8-cineole and the oil yield was 5.3%
(Bellomaria et al., 1992). According to the classifi-
cation of Cabo et al. (Cabo et al., 1987), Sal6ia
species belong to one of three groups depending
on their essential oil composition: species high in
aand bthujone belong to Group I; those with a
preponderance of linalool and linalyl acetate be-
long to Group II; those high in 1,8-cineole and
camphor belong to Group III. The essential oil
composition of S.libanotica from Lebanon was
studied recently (Hilan et al., 1997) and found to
vary slightly according to the time and site of
collection (Table 2). The oil yield of this plant
varied between 0.03 0.65% depending on the lo-
cation and season, with the greatest yield obtained
during the post-flowering period (Hilan et al.,
1997). The major component of the oil extract
was found to be 1,8-cineole and camphor (i.e. in
Group III according to Cabo’s classification).
H.Gali-Muhtasib et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
71 (2000) 513520
5. Side-effects of the essential oils of S.libanotica
Since the sage plant is widely used in traditional
medicine, any irrational use could lead to many
complications (Table 3) due to the established
toxicity of the essential oil components of this
plant (Millet et al., 1979, 1981; Geller et al., 1984;
Hooser, 1990; Leushner, 1997). Such toxicity has
been mainly attributed to the thujone and cam-
phor components of the oil (Millet et al., 1981).
The oil extract has also been shown to possess
inflammatory properties, which are mainly due to
the cineole component (Santos and Rao, 1997).
Other effects of the oils include hypoglycemic and
spasmolytic effects (Perfumi et al., 1991), epileptic
reactions (Arnold, 1988; Kbayssi, 1993), loss of
equilibrium, tachycardia, and other problems re-
lated to the nervous system (Elisabetsky et al.,
1995). A case of intoxication was also mentioned
whereby the ingestion of three tablets of sage
leaves per day by a 22-year-old young man re-
sulted in epileptic convulsions, muscle cramps and
respiratory disorders (European Pharmacopoeia,
1971). Furthermore, it was stated by Valnet
(1990) that this plant should not be consumed
while breast-feeding because of its harmful effects
on infants. An excellent review was published by
Schilcher (1985) describing the effects and side
effects of essential oils from a variety of plants
and stressing the fact that these toxic effects are
only encountered due to the misuse of the plant.
In conclusion, the essential oils of S.libanotica
should be considered as a drug and handled with
precaution. Care must be taken to control the
amount of plant extract taken by man. In fact, the
European Pharmacopoeia recommends 4 6 g of
dried leaves of S.officinalis L. per day in terms of
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... [1,2] Species from this genus, such as S. officinalis and S. libanotica, have been subject of intensive study in the past decades for their biological activities, including the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects in relation to their active constituents, such as the flavonoid and phenolic contents. [3][4][5] Salvia libanotica, (also named S. fruticosa and S. triloba), native to the Mediterranean region, is predominantly found in Lebanon where it grows wildly in different sites. It is still regarded as a traditional remedy against many ailments, giving it its popularity and importance in Lebanon. ...
... [8] In Lebanese folk medicine, S. libanotica is widely used for its antidiabetic properties in spite of the scarcity of scientific evidence of its efficacy in the literature. [4] A study demonstrated that the chronic intake of S. libanotica infusion helps in the prevention of high fatinduced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in rats by increasing fasting serum insulin and liver glycogen content compared with controls. [9] Moreover, the hypoglycemic effects of S. libanotica has been reported when using a 10 % infusion of the plant leaves at an oral dose of 250 mg of dry leaves/kg body weight in alloxaninduced diabetes in rabbits mainly by reducing intestinal absorption of glucose. ...
... This name was translated to sauge (sage) in French and sawge in Old English. Sage encompasses about 900 species, widespread worldwide (Codd 1985;Paton 1991;Gali-Muhtasib et al. 2000) and includes several ornamental, culinary and medicinal species. ...
... Herbalists in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon consider Salvia is a universal remedy. The king of France, Louis XIV, trusted Salvia more than the doctors; it has indicated the therapeutic value of Salvia (Gali-Muhtasib et al. 2000). Salvia species were used as herbal tea, food flavoring and cosmetics, perfumery, and pharmaceutical industries worldwide. ...
Green synthesis of Ag NPs has been increasing for diverse applications in recent years. The present study proposed the synthesis of Ag NPs using mint family plants of Salvia coccinea, Salvia leucantha and Salvia splendens and their efficacy against cancer cells. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed using UV-spectrometer and X-ray powder diffraction. The observed peaks in FTIR showed Phyto-functional groups and the stretch of bonds that corresponds to AgNPs synthesis. Scanning Electron Microscope morphologically identified the structure of the silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed significant anticancer activity against the A549 human lung cancer cells (HLCCs). Moreover, it’s also demonstrated for the first time the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles from three Salvia plant species against A549 HLCCs. The results demonstrate the anticancer activities of AgNPs, suggesting that they may act as potential beneficial molecules in A549 HLCCs chemoprevention and chemotherapy, especially for early-stage intervention.
... Η παρατήρηση του Dweck (2000) για τις παρενέργειες της υπερβολικής δοσολογίας, είναι σημαντικό να επισημανθούν για λόγους ασφάλειας στην κατανάλωση. Ειδικά, η χρήση των αιθέριων ελαίων πρέπει να γίνεται με μεγάλη προσοχή, γιατί ακόμα και μικρές δόσεις τους, μπορεί να είναι δηλητηριώδεις (Gali-Muhtasib et al., 2000). Το αιθέριο έλαιο και τα εκχυλίσματα ή αφεψήματα του S. pomifera, όπως και του S. officinalis, έχουν μεγάλη περιεκτικότητα σε κετόνες (θουγιόνες, στο S. officinalis επιπλέον και καμφορά) και δε θα πρέπει να καταναλώνονται κατά την περίοδο της εγκυμοσύνης και της γαλουχίας (Valnet, 1990). ...
... Οι ουσίες αυτές περιέχονται σε πολύ μικρότερο ποσοστό στο S. fruticosa, κύριο συστατικό του οποίου είναι η ευκαλυπτόλη (1,8cineole). ΠΕΡΙΟΧΗ ΧΡΗΣΕΙΣ 1 ΠΗΓΗ Ελλάδα (Θεσσαλονίκη) (1) υπόταση, διαβήτης, λαρυγγίτιδα, φαρυγγίτιδα, αμυγδαλίτιδα, δυσκοιλιότητα, διάρροια, σπασμολυτικό, αναιμία, διεγερτικό μνήμης, ηρεμιστικό, αντικαταθλιπτικό, κρύωμα, αρθριτικά, δυσμηνόρροια, διεγερτικό; (5) απώλεια μαλλιών, τονωτικό μαλλιών, στοματίτιδα Hanlidou et al., 2004 2 Ελλάδα (Πελοπόννησος) (1) δυσπεψία, έλκος, διάρροια, υποτασικό, πονόλαιμος, αμυγδαλίτιδα, κρύωμα, λαρυγγίτιδα, γρίπη, άσθμα, πονοκέφαλος, ημικρανία, κατάθλιψη, εφίδρωση, δυσμηνόρροια, αρθρίτιδα, τονωτικό; (4) αντισηπτικό, επουλωτικό; (5) ουλίτιδα, άφτρες, στοματίτιδα, φαρυγγίτιδα, αντισηπτικό, πονόδοντος, πτώση μαλλιών Petrakou et al., 2020 Ιορδανία (1) χαμηλή κυκλοφορία αίματος, υπεργλυκαιμία, στομαχόπονος, κοιλιακοί πόνοι, έλκη, πόνοι περιόδου, αέρια Karim και Quraan, 1986 (αναφορά σε Gali-Muhtasib et al., 2000) Ιορδανία (Υψίπεδα Ασλούν) ...
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Sage has been used since antiquity as a herb tea, but also in traditional medicine. Nowadays, it also used in aroma-, food-, feed-, cosmetic- and medicinal industry. The species with the broader distribution in Greece is S. fruticosa (Greek sage), while in lesser and narrower distribution are also found S. officinalis (Dalmatian sage) in the Heperus and το S. pomifera (Apple or Cretan or Bitter sage) in the Peloponnese, Crete and the Aegean islands. For the purposes of the present work ten populations of S. fruticosa and five populations of S. pomifera from the Peloponnese were studied, regarding their morphological traits and their essential oil and their genetic relationships and distances were evaluated by the means of the molecular markers trnH-psbA, ITS and nine microsatellite markers (SoUZ003, SoUZ005, SoUZ006, SoUZ007, SoUZ009, SoUZ013, SoUZ014, SoUZ016, SoUZ020). All characters as well as the genetic analysis were performed at individual level at 149 individuals of the 15 populations. The influence of the year, season, and plant part on essential oil was also assessed. Moreover, 126 clones of the original plants were successfully created and planted in the Botanical garden of the University of Patras and consequently studied regarding their growth traits and their yield in biomass and essential oil properties. It was found that high variability existed both within and among populations of both species, which was imprinted as much in the yield and the composition of the essential oil, as in the morphological traits and the genotyping with the microsatellite markers of the populations’ individuals. This variability of the morphological traits did not allow the discrimination of S. fruticosa populations, while it was more successful in discriminating the S. pomifera ones, placing 96% of the samples to their population of origin. On the contrary, the genetic variability found using the microsatellite markers, was able to distinguish the most geographically distant populations of S. fruticosa, while it had less discriminating ability among the S. pomifera ones, which are anyway located in shorter distances than the other species’. While essential oil yield was found to be influenced by the stage of leaf development and essential oil composition by the environmental conditions, they both exhibited consistency when these parameters where taken under consideration, suggesting the genetic basis driving the expression of these traits. Moreover, the use of the essential oil composition made it possible for most of the individuals to be assigned to their population of origin (S. fruticosa 87%, S. pomifera 98%). Among the different variables a medium correlation was found between the chemical (essential oil) and the molecular distances, which was significant for S. fruticosa and which also implies that searching for more specific molecular markers, located close to the genes that regulate the production of targeted essential oil components, will assist selection aiming at particular components. The establishment of the clones in the Botanical garden led, through irrigation and pruning, in an increase of the essential oil yield in the summer, while in both species EO composition showed an increase in monoterpenes and a decrease in sesquiterpenes. On the contrary, the contribution of the basic component of each species (1,8-cineole, β-thujone) remained constant, as did the discrimination among the individuals and the populations, due to the parallel change of all components’ contribution towards the same direction. In the cultivation a change was found in the clones’ bloom start date, following the adjustment to the new altitude and longitude of the cultivation area. In their common environment in the Botanical garden two distinct groups were formed with 15-20 days difference in the start of the bloom. Differences were also found in the growth model of the clones of different origin, with best biomass results achieved from the clones of S. fruticosa populations from Achaia and Korinthia (>3800 kg/ha) and the clones of S. pomifera populations from Arcadia (>1900 kg/ha). As a whole, the summary of this work is that S. fruticosa and S. pomifera populations of the Peloponnese are under no threat as they show high variability in all measured traits within and among populations. This variability is the basis of selection and breeding aiming in producing plant material with different applications.
... As an example, herbal tea is used in herbal formulations and herbalist preparations, and it is considered as "treatment of choice" for several diseases including headaches, stomachaches, abdominal pain, microbial infections, asthma, coughs, pulmonary and urinary disorders (Safaa Baydoun et al., 2015;Loizzo et al., 2008). In fact, the common notion and concept among many Lebanese people is "If it doesn't cure, it will not harm" to justify the vast use of plant in traditional medicine (Gali-Muhtasib, Hilan, & Khater, 2000). ...
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Interest in plant-based food has grown in recent years due to their primary prevention potential. Za’atar, an ancient and popular Lebanese herbal mixture, might disclose relevant clinical interest, due to the well-known intrinsic properties of its individual components. Za’atar mixture contain Origanum syriacum (Lebanese thyme), Thymbra spicata (Wild thyme), Rhus coriaria (Sumac), and Sesamum indicum (Sesame). Here we explored the history, composition, general employment, and bio-active aspects of Za’atar through available in vitro, animal, and clinical trials evidence to depict its possible role as an innovative nutraceutical tool. The combined action of Za’atar constituents is able to generate comprehensive beneficial effects on several common pathogenic pathways underlying chronic cardio-metabolic diseases and cancer. However, main available evidence derives from animal and in vitro studies. Thus, further human studies are needed to fully characterize Za’atar as a preventive and curative tool.
... These groups of compounds are chemically stable and lack fragrance or flavour like the other group of compounds. Besides some remidial effects, Ketones have been reported to retain neurotoxic and abortifacient effects in some cases similar as camphor and thujone [23]. These ketone bearing essential oils have been reported to be mucolytic, cell regenerating; opiate, antiviral, analgesic and digestive in nature ( Table 1). ...
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It is a common perspective that medicinal plants have played and continue to perform an undeniably major role in the lives of people worldwide. Essential oils are the key constituents of medicinal herbs and their biological activities have been discovered since ancient times and are enormously utilised in multiple industries. The essential oils possess important biological properties like antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, insecticidal, etc. Because of these unique features they are more acceptable and are utilised in various fields throughout the world. In the cosmetics industry they play an important role in the development of perfumes while in the food industry they have been used as food preservatives. Essential oil components are interestingly utilised for pharmaceutical applications. The most investigated properties are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, anxiolytic activities etc. The current thrust area is evaluation for aromatherapy and anti-cancer, as it is noted that essential oils reported in plants may prevent, inhibit, or even reverse formation of cancerous cells. The aim of this chapter is to provide a concise and comprehensive overview on the therapeutic and pharmaceutical potential of essential oils in the current scenario.
... Salvia officinalis is an annual herb of the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and today it has been naturalized throughout the world 10 . For thousands of years, this plant has been used in many Countries as a spice and food preservative as well as a health remedy in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of numerous disorders 11,12 .Salvia officinalis is considered the most powerful source of antioxidants among plant herbs 13 , which is due to the complex mixture of monoterpenes, diterpene, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids. ...
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Background: Medicinal plants are a reservoir of biologically active compounds with therapeutic properties that, over time, have been used for the treatment of various diseases. This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Salvia officinalis against cypermethrin-induced toxicity. Methods: 30 male rats weighing approximately 240 g were divided into equal six groups; the control group received tap water, the positive control received the aqueous extract of sage leaves (SLE) at a dose of (0.5g/kg bw), the groups treated with cypermethrin (Cyp1) at 8.33 mg/kg bw and (Cyp2) at 25 mg/kg bw, and the groups treated by cypermethrin combined with aqueous extract of sage SLE+Cyp1 (0.5g/kg bw+8.33 mg/kg bw) and SLE+Cyp2 (0.5g/kg bw+25 mg/kg bw) for four days/week. After 4 weeks of oral administration, epididymal seminal fluid was analyzed via the CASA system, in addition to the histological study testis and epididymis. Results: The obtained results showed a decrease in the absolute weight of the reproductive organs, with a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and speed in the cypermethrin-treated group compared to the control. Histological study of the testes and epididymis indicates an alteration in the stages of spermatogenesis in groups Cyp1 and Cyp2 compared to the control. However, the above-mentioned parameters were maintained almost normal in the groups that received the aqueous extract of sage with both doses of cypermethrin. Conclusion: it can be demonstrated that SLE has been shown to protect rats from cypermethrin-induced reprotoxicity.
... Another study showed that E. cardamomum seems to have significant antibacterial activity and could be a very useful in the discovery of novel antibiotics (Abdullah et al., 2017;Kaushik et al., 2010). Furthermore, S. triloba essential oils have been identified as strong antimicrobial agents (Fu et al., 2013;Gali-Muhtasib et al., 2000). In this study, significant antimicrobial activity was observed against S. aureus, which is the cause of throat infections (McCormack et al., 2015). ...
... Etnofarmakolojik araştırmalar Salvia fruticosa'nın halk arasında geniş bir kullanımının olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. İshal [23], soğuk algınlığı ve karın ağrısı [24], antiseptik, dispepsi, bademcik iltihabı [25,26] başlıca kullanım alanlarıdır. S. fruticosa'dan elde edilen uçucu yağların ve ekstrelerin farmakolojik özellikleri kapsamında, antienflamatuvar [27], antioksidan [28,29], antimikrobiyal [30], antifungal [31], antikanser [32], antiasetilkolinesteraz [33], antilipaz [34] ...
Objective: Infantile colic is crying crises that a cause of frequently emergency application in infants younger than 4 months and whose aetiology is unknown. Families who are desperate during intense crying crises tend to seek different treatment methods with the influence of those around. The complaint of not waking up for the last 24 hours of a two-month-old male baby born at 39 weeks of gestation with normal spontaneous vaginal delivery from the first pregnancy of a 28-year-old mother is the reason for admitting to the emergency department. In the history of applying to the emergency department, the family tried different pharmacological products purchased from the pharmacy one after another due to the intense crying attacks of the baby, but the complaints of the baby continued, the family bought a product called "apple oil" and applied the product that they did not know the content to the baby by massaging the oil to the umblicus area with the suggestion of the people around. It was reported that the baby's cries were reduced and he was susceptible to sleep. As a result of the detection that the baby woke only when stimulated during the hospital treatment, the product they used was requested from the family. Material and Method: The content analysis of the product, which was bought from the market and put up for sale under the name of "apple oil" applied to the baby by massaging, was performed using GC-FID and GC/MS methods. Various scientific data libraries have been used to identify volatile compounds. Result and Discussion: This study shows that the concept of turning to nature in recent years can cause irreversible negative consequences in unconscious hands.and also highlights the importance of the pharmacy profession, which is highly competent in the field of medicines and medicinal natural products.
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Compounds useful for drugs, cosmetics, and food have been obtained directly or indirectly from living organisms over the years. However, there has been a renewed interest in getting useful compounds from living organisms, especially plants. Essential oils, interchangeably called volatile oils, are bioactive compounds found in minute quantities in some plants. Essential or volatile oils have been known for years to find usefulness in foods, drugs (antimicrobial, antifungal), and cosmetics. This review attempts to summarize information on the essential oil from Ficus species concerning their morphology, pharmacology, bioactivity, and application. This was achieved by gathering information on essential oils from different Ficus species. Essential oils from Ficus species are a good source of bioactive compounds for use in drug, food, and cosmetic industries. It is worthy to note that Nigerian Figs were characterized by the high presence of phytol and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, and these compounds are, therefore, seen as markers. Furthermore, this review presents numerous insights on how to best harness the different potentials of the essential oils and possibilities to be examined.
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Five aromatic constituents of essential oils (cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eighteen bacteria (including Gram-positive cocci and rods, and Gram-negative rods) and twelve fungi (three yeast-like and nine filamentous). In terms of antibacterial activity linalool was the most effective and inhibited seventeen bacteria, followed by cineole, geraniol (each of which inhibited sixteen bacteria), menthol and citral aromatic compounds, which inhibited fifteen and fourteen bacteria, respectively. Against fungi the citral and geraniol oils were the most effective (inhibiting all twelve fungi), followed by linalool (inhibiting ten fungi), cineole and menthol (each of which inhibited seven fungi) compounds.
The quality of sage leaves (content and composition of the essential oil) collected each month from November 1982 till May 1983 on two localities, Kuna (700 m altitude) and Doli (200 m) was examined. In the same period meteorological data were recorded. The amount of oil was determined by hydrodistillation, and the composition was analyzed by GC.
Essential oils are not only very complex composed but also chemically very heterogeneous. No wonder, that many different effects are known. Pharmacological and clinical tests and experience of the traditional medicine show that essential oils have the following effects on external application: hyperaemic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, granulation stimulating, deodorizing, insecticide and repellent actions. On oral application the following effects are observed: expectorating, appetite stimulating, choleretic, cholekinetic, carminative, spasmolytic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic, sedative and circulation stimulating. Many other effects are reported in the traditional medicine. The main side-effects of essential oils are allergic reactions, some oils have phototoxic effects, only a few essential oils show necrotic, narcotic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and cancerogenic actions. In many cases the side-effects are purely toxic effects caused by misuse of essential oils.