Longitudinal changes in physical activity in a biracial cohort during adolescence
This report describes the development and use of two self-report methods and an objective measure to assess longitudinal changes in physical activity in a large biethnic cohort of young girls from childhood through adolescence.
The NHLBI Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is a multicenter study of obesity development in 2379 black and white girls followed from ages 9-10 yr to 18-19 yr (NGHS years 1-10). A Caltrac activity monitor was used to objectively quantify activity levels in years 3-5. A 3-d diary (AD) and a habitual patterns questionnaire (HAQ) were administered annually and biannually, respectively, to subjectively quantify physical activity levels. The changing pattern of activities as the girls matured during the 10-yr study period necessitated periodic form changes. Empirical analytic approaches were developed to help distinguish between true longitudinal changes in activity levels from potential numerical artifacts resulting from modifications in forms.
The longitudinal activity data indicate a steep decline in the level of reported activity from baseline to year 10 as indicated by AD scores (446.8 to 292.1 MET-min x d(-1), 35%) as well as by HAQ scores (29.3 to 4.9 MET-times x wk(-1), 83%). This parallel trend in the pattern of the decline in activity among the two self-report methods was mirrored by a similar decline using the Caltrac method of physical activity assessment. From years 3 to 5, the AD decreased by 22%, whereas both the HAQ and Caltrac declined by 21%.
The longitudinal data on physical activity collected in the NGHS cohort further confirm a dramatic decrease in the overall level of physical activity during the transition from childhood to adolescence. The consistency among the three methods indicate that both the AD and HAQ are useful tools for the assessment of activity levels in adolescent girls.
Available from: Pascale Salameh
- "An overall energy expenditure, expressed in Metabolic Equivalent Total (MET) units, was computed by calculating activity × frequency of the activity × MET intensity for each recorded activity (Ainsworth et al., 2000). The resulting MET-min products were summed to produce an index of daily physical activity, expressing the amount of energy per kg body weight expended during the week (Kimm et al., 2000). The quantitative variables for physical activity (MET) were subsequently divided into tertiles (low, moderate and high). "
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ABSTRACT: Studies investigating the association between body mass index (BMI) and
psychological distress (PD) have shown contradictory results. The present
study examined the relationship between BMI and PD among Lebanese
university students and tested its moderation by gender. A cross-sectional
study was conducted using a proportionate cluster sampling of university
students. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics, body weight
and height, tobacco consumption, physical activity, presence of chronic
diseases and self-rated global health were collected. PD was assessed using
Beirut Distress Scale (BDS-22). Students were classified as underweight (BMI
<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25–
29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The association between BMI and
BDS-22 differed by gender (p-value for interaction: .02). Being overweight
was inversely associated with BDS-22 for females only (adjusted OR .5, 95%
CI: .4–.8, p-value .02). Neither obesity nor underweight was associated with
PD for both genders.
- "An additional limitation includes the use of self-report to measure stress and activity. For example, although the activity questionnaire used here tracked well with the accelerometry data across two assessments, the cross-sectional relationships were weak (Kimm et al., 2000). The activity questionnaire has also not been validated with CDC recommendations , and thus it is unknown how the questionnaire matches national standards. "
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ABSTRACT: Long-term psychological stress is associated with BMI increases in children as they transition to adulthood, whereas long-term maintenance of physical activity can slow excess weight gain. We hypothesized that in addition to these main effects, long-term physical activity mitigates the relationship between long-term stress and BMI increase.
The NHLBI Growth and Health Study enrolled 2,379 10-year-old Black and White girls, following them annually for 10 measurement points. Growth curve modeling captured the dynamics of BMI, measured yearly, and stress and physical activity, measured at varying years.
At average levels of activity and stress, with all covariates remaining fixed, average BMI at baseline was 19.74 (SE = 0.38) and increased 0.64 BMI (SE = 0.01, p < .001) units every year. However, this increase in BMI significantly varied as a function of cumulative stress and physical activity. Slower BMI gain occurred in those girls who were less stressed and more active (0.62 BMI units/year, SE = .02, p < .001), whereas the most rapid and largest growth occurred in girls who were more stressed and less active (0.92 BMI units/year, SE = .02, p < .001). Racial identification did not alter these effects.
As hypothesized, in girls who maintained long-term activity, BMI growth was mitigated, even when reporting high long-term stress, compared with less physically active girls. This study adds to a converging literature in which physical activity, a modifiable prevention target, functions to potentially limit the damaging health effects of long-term psychological stress. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Available from: Glykeria Reppa
- "Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive (physiological and psychological ) outcomes (Strong et al., 2005), yet evidence shows that there is a decreasing trend in participation in physical activity (Kimm et al., 2002; Trost et al., 2002). One of the main factors that effects participation in physical activities is self-efficacy (Ashford, Edmunds, & French, 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: One of the main factors that affects participation in physical activities is self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine if a creative gymnastics intervention could affect physical activity self-efficacy in children. One hundred and twelve (55 boys and 57 girls) 4th grade students participated. Fourteen lessons of creative gymnastics were taught to experimental group (50 students). The control group (62 students) had free movement activity. Self-efficacy for physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale (PASES). The results showed that there was significant interaction between program type and time. There was a substantial main effect for time and for the type of intervention. The Bonferroni correction showed that there was an effect only on the group of creative gymnastics over time; in the control group there was no effect over time. The findings of this study indicate that an intervention that focuses on creative gymnastics could enhance physical activity self-efficacy in children.
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