Sensitivity and specificity of clinical criteria for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer associated mutations in MSH2 and MLH1

Division of Gastroenterology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. sapna_syngal@dfci.harvard,edu
Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.34). 10/2000; 37(9):641-5.
Source: PubMed


There are multiple criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The value of several of the newer proposed diagnostic criteria in identifying subjects with mutations in HNPCC associated mismatch repair genes has not been evaluated, and the performance of the different criteria have not been formally compared with one another.
We classified 70 families with suspected hereditary colorectal cancer (excluding familial adenomatous polyposis) by several existing clinical criteria for HNPCC, including the Amsterdam criteria, the Modified Amsterdam criteria, the Amsterdam II criteria, and the Bethesda criteria. The results of analysis of the mismatch repair genes MSH2 and MLH1 by full gene sequencing were available for a proband with colorectal neoplasia in each family. The sensitivity and specificity of each of the clinical criteria for the presence of MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were calculated.
Of the 70 families, 28 families fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria, 39 fulfilled the Modified Amsterdam Criteria, 34 fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria, and 56 fulfilled at least one of the seven Bethesda Guidelines for the identification of HNPCC patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the Amsterdam criteria were 61% (95% CI 43-79) and 67% (95% CI 50-85). The sensitivity of the Modified Amsterdam and Amsterdam II criteria were 72% (95% CI 58-86) and 78% (95% CI 64-92), respectively. Overall, the most sensitive criteria for identifying families with pathogenic mutations were the Bethesda criteria, with a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI 88-100); the specificity of these criteria was 25% (95% CI 14-36). Use of the first three criteria of the Bethesda guidelines only was associated with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 49% (95% CI 34-64).
The Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific for use as a sole criterion for determining which families should undergo testing for MSH2 and MLH1 mutations. The Modified Amsterdam and the Amsterdam II criteria increase sensitivity, but still miss many families with mutations. The most sensitive clinical criteria for identifying subjects with pathogenic MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were the Bethesda Guidelines; a streamlined version of the Bethesda Guidelines may be more specific and easier to use in clinical practice.

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    • "The sensitivity of the Amsterdam II criteria is low due to its highly strict requirements, and the evaluation of its specificity is divided (Syngal et al. 2000; Lipton et al. 2004; Vasen et al. 2007). The revised Bethesda guidelines have a sensitivity of 82-94% in patients with CRC (Syngal et al. 2000; Piñol et al. 2005), but their utility in other associated cancers is unknown. The Society of Gynecologic Oncologists (SGO) Criteria (Lancaster et al. 2007), which followed the revised Bethesda guidelines, were released in 2007 as a triage method for gynecologic cancers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited disorder caused by a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of various cancers, particularly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (EC). It is significant to identify LS in EC patients for prediction and prevention of the succeeding other associated cancers. However, useful LS screening guidelines for EC have not been established. The purpose of our study is to devise an efficient and practical screening strategy for LS in EC. We designed original criteria, named "APF criteria," with lenient terms (Age of onset < 50, or Personal or Family history of associated cancers) and applied it to unselected EC patients. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the methylation assay of MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene promoter using the tumors of patients who met our criteria, and thus selected "suspected LS" as the candidates for genetic analyses. Of 360 EC patients, 187 (51.9%) met the APF criteria, and the tumor specimens were available from 182 out of the 187 patients. IHC revealed that expression of at least one MMR protein was absent in cell nuclei of 54 (29.6%) tumors. Of 20 tumors lacking MLH1 protein expression, 14 cases were judged sporadic EC because of the hypermethylated MLH1 promoter. We thus selected 40 (11.1%) of 360 EC patients as "suspected LS." Our strategy that consists of clinical triage and the molecular analyses is expected to improve the screening efficiency and reduce the cost of LS identification in EC.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    • "Studies of families meeting the Amsterdam criteria have identified germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations with a relatively high sensitivity (~60 %) and specificity (~70 %). In contrast, germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were found with a higher sensitivity (~94 %) and a lower specificity (~30 %) when families meeting the Bethesda criteria were studied [12]. Compared with these two criteria, one of the differences is extracolonic cancers types. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of different criteria and to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype in Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A total of 116 unrelated probands of suspected HNPCC families from the Fudan Colorectal Registry were studied. A total of 32, 28, and 56 families fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria, the Fudan criteria and the revised Bethesda guideline, respectively. Direct DNA sequencing of all exons of hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes were performed on all 116 samples. Mutations and clinicopathological features were compared between the groups. Thirty-two pathological germline mutations were identified. Out of 32 mutations, 16 were located at hMLH1 and 16 at hMSH2. The sensitivity of Amsterdam criteria was 50 %, specificity was 81 %, and Youden's index was 31 %. The sensitivity of Fudan criteria was 75 %, specificity was 58 %, and Youden's index was 33 %. Among all the 32 families with mutations, families with hMSH2 mutation had a higher ratio of synchronous and metachronous colon cancers than families with hMLH1 mutation (33 vs. 6 %, P = 0.04). Patients with hMSH2 mutation more frequently harbour synchronous and metachronous colon cancers. Fudan criteria had a little higher sensitivity and accuracy than Amsterdam criteria for identification of Chinese HNPCC.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Medical Oncology
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    • "Current laboratory algorithms detecting Lynch syndrome include MSI testing, immunochemistry (IHC) of MMR proteins, and germ line testing for mutations in MMR genes [7]. The sensitivity and specificity of BGs have been reported to be 94% and 25%, respectively [8]. As a result, a number of published studies [7,9] have approached colorectal carcinomas in terms of molecular biology and an effective strategy to detect Lynch syndrome. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Sporadic colorectal cancers with high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) are related to hypermethylation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and a higher frequency of BRAF mutations than Lynch syndrome. We estimated the feasibility of hereditary colorectal cancer based on hMLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations. Methods Between May 2005 and June 2011, we enrolled all 33 analyzed patients with MSI-H cancer (male:female, 23:10; mean age, 65.5 ± 9.4 years) from a prospectively maintained database that didn't match Bethesda guidelines and who had results of hMLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations. Results Among the 33 patients, hMLH1 promoter methylation was observed in 36.4% (n = 12), and was not significantly related with clinicopathologic variables, including MLH1 expression. BRAF mutations were observed in 33.3% of the patients (n = 11). Four of 11 and five of 22 patients with MSI-H colon cancers were BRAF mutation (+)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (-) or BRAF mutation (-)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (+). Of the 33 patients, 21.2% were BRAF mutation (+)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (+), indicating sporadic cancers. Seventeen patients (51.5%) were BRAF mutation (-)/hMLH1 promoter methylation (-), and suggested Lynch syndrome. Conclusion Patients with MSI-H colorectal cancers not fulfilling the Bethesda guidelines possibly have hereditary colorectal cancers. Adding tests of hMLH1 promoter methylation and BRAF mutations can be useful to distinguish them from sporadic colorectal cancers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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