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Social capital: A guide to its measurement

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Abstract

The primary aims of this paper are to review the concept of social capital and related constructs and to provide a brief guide to their operationalization and measurement. We focus on four existing constructs: collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion and community competence. Each of these constructs taps into slightly different, yet overlapping, aspects of social capital. The existence of several instruments to measure each of these constructs calls for further study into their use as measures of social capital. Despite differences in the approach to measurement, there is general agreement that community characteristics, such as social capital, should be distinguished from individual characteristics and measured at the community level.

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... And social capital is one of the above aspects, which is a crucial attribute of the urban community and contributes to residents' daily lives (Kim et al., 2020;Zhai and Ng, 2013). Social capital can be defined as one kind of important resource generated in a particular society (e.g., community), which enables that society to function well (Harpham et al., 2002;Lochner et al., 1999;Wu et al., 2017). Several research studies have discussed social capital in NR projects. ...
... The relational dimension explains the interpersonal connections built during daily communication and actions. It is reflected in the sociability of individuals (Buchholz et al., 2019;Lochner et al., 1999), trust in others (Du et al., 2020;Lins et al., 2017), individuals' volunteerism (Han and Lim, 2015;Wu et al., 2018), and the social solidarity (the difficulty level to get help) (Harpham et al., 2002;Kurowska and Theiss, 2018). According to Zhai and Ng (2013), strong solidarity can stimulate residents to corporately take action to protect their traditional live spaces in NR. ...
... Third, according to the literature review, the questionnaire items for measuring social capital were adopted (Du et al., 2020;Harpham et al., 2002;Lochner et al., 1999;Wang et al., 2021a). "SC1. ...
... The concept of collective efficacy partly overlaps with other social mechanisms, such as social capital. 31 A distinction between social capital and collective efficacy has been made, where the former is about relationships and the latter is about converting these into action. 32 However, the literature has not explored the effects of collective action in mitigating the effects of war and conflict on mental health. ...
... The concept of collective efficacy partly overlaps with other social mechanisms, such as social capital. 31 However, there are nuanced and important differences. According to Cagney & Wen, 'social capital is about relationships and collective efficacy is about converting those relationships into action'. ...
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Background Daily stressors have been shown to mediate the relationship of war trauma and trauma-related distress among refugees and internally displaced persons exposed to war and conflict. Aims To examine the extent to which the relationship between war-related trauma and mental distress was mediated by daily stressors and collective efficacy among internally displaced communities a decade after exposure to war. Method In a cross-sectional study, we recruited a random sample of residents in villages severely affected by conflict in five districts in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Measures of war trauma, daily stressors, collective efficacy and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were examined. Statistical analyses of the mediating and moderating effects of daily stressors were conducted using regression based methods. Results Daily stressors mediated the association of war trauma and PTSS, as both paths of the indirect effect, war trauma to daily stressors and daily stressors to PTSS, were significant. The predictive effect of war trauma on PTSS was positive and significant at moderate and high levels of daily stressors but not at low levels. Higher levels of neighbourhood informal social control, a component of collective efficacy, function as a protective factor to reduce effects of war trauma and daily stressors on mental distress in this population. Conclusions Daily stressors are an important mediator in the well-established relationship between war exposure and traumatic stress among internally displaced persons, even a decade after the conflict. Mental health and psychosocial support programmes that aim to address mental distress among war-affected communities could reduce daily stressors and enhance collective efficacy in this context.
... These authors often focused on specific at-risk cohorts, particularly older people. The ability to travel has been shown to be important in the establishment of personal relationships, good health, employment and personal growth, life purpose and self-acceptance [44,[49][50][51], supporting social inclusion through the achievement of capabilities. ...
... The current paper includes evaluative wellbeing, which is a measure of overall life satisfaction, called subjective wellbeing herein [74,75]. Related research [24] also considers affective wellbeing, which is an assessment of positive and negative emotional states [76,77] (negative affect is not significant in the research modelling of risk of social exclusion and is not discussed further) and eudaimonic wellbeing, which refers to living a life with meaning and purpose, a desire to grow and develop to one's full potential [50,78]. The focus herein on subjective wellbeing is because of the paper's intention of exploring the idea of a subjective wellbeing threshold being required for inclusion. ...
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Enabling people to be socially included is a high-priority goal for many governments but monetised benefit measures applicable to initiatives intended to reduce social exclusion risk are lacking in land use transport, and other, policy arenas. In settings where the decision-making process seeks guidance from cost-benefit analysis, this is likely to disadvantage initiatives intended to reduce exclusion. This is a particular problem for public transport services intended to enable people to access more of the opportunities available in their society (‘social transit’). This paper develops a monetised measure of the value of improved mobility as it contributes to reducing risk of social exclusion, showing this to make a material difference to benefit estimates from social transit service improvements. It also develops monetised benefit estimates for some other potential pathways for reducing risk of social exclusion, particularly changes in bridging and bonding social capital, sense of community, subjective wellbeing and neighbourhood disadvantage. The research thus provides an opportunity to significantly strengthen appraisal tools linked to reducing social exclusion, which should encourage more integrated approaches to reducing exclusion and improve implementation prospects for initiatives with that purpose. Reduced social exclusion is a likely outcome.
... The initial hypothesized model was modified based on two rationales. First, the authors found previous literature indicating a sense of community may be treated as part of the social capital (Carpiano & Hystad, 2011;Lochner et al., 1999;Moore et al., 2006). Next, the authors utilized modification indices from Mplus and found an option to add a direct path from the sense of community to social capital (MI = 26.744). ...
... p < .01). Hence, although a sense of community may be encompassed in social capital (Carpiano & Hystad, 2011;Lochner et al., 1999;Moore et al., 2006), our study found that international students' perceived belonging to a campus community is more important than their social capital, which brings up the necessity to distinguish the two factors that may contribute to international students' acculturation. ...
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Previous studies focused on the role of leisure activities, such as physical activity participation, to analyze how international students can receive social support from their communities to better acculturate in the U.S. This study focused on the role of college sports in providing social support and its effect on international student’s acculturation. Four hundred eighty-seven international students enrolled in 25 Power-5 affiliated colleges participated in this study to analyze the acculturation path model suggested by the primary researcher. The initial path model did not show a statistically significant model fit, which led to modifying the model once following the available theory in academia. As a result, the proposed model resulted in a good model fit (RMSEA = .03, SRMR = .01, CFI = 1.00, TLI = .98). Discussions on utilizing spectator sports to promote international students’ acculturation, suggestions for future study options, and limitations of the study were provided.
... Muzayanah et al. (2020) state that scales of social capital are debated. For Lochner et al. (1999), there is national-scale, community-scale, and family-scale social wellbeing. National-scale social capital is concerned with economic policies, whilst community social capital concerns daily interactions between neighbours (Lochner et al., 1999). ...
... For Lochner et al. (1999), there is national-scale, community-scale, and family-scale social wellbeing. National-scale social capital is concerned with economic policies, whilst community social capital concerns daily interactions between neighbours (Lochner et al., 1999). In addition, Wollny et al. (2010) note that little attention has been given to the family-scale social wellbeing that the current paper will discuss. ...
... In line with our framework, social networks were measured based on social circles and exchanges. Based on the literature review, two questions in the questionnaire were designed to collect data regarding the social circles of the residents (Lochner et al., 1999), while three questions were related to their interactions with neighbors (Lee et al., 1991;Lochner et al., 1999). ...
... In line with our framework, social networks were measured based on social circles and exchanges. Based on the literature review, two questions in the questionnaire were designed to collect data regarding the social circles of the residents (Lochner et al., 1999), while three questions were related to their interactions with neighbors (Lee et al., 1991;Lochner et al., 1999). ...
Article
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The process of urban renewal extensively changes residents' physical and social environments and, at the same time, reconstructs their social networks. Although there is a growing interest in analyzing the determinants of social networks, extant research neither accounts for the change in social networks after urban renewal nor considers the various residential groups affected by urban renewal. This work of research aims to examine the impact of urban renewal on social networks within neighborhoods based on three affected residential groups (in-site stayers, nearby stayers, and relocated residents) using data collected from six renewal areas in Chongqing, China. The results show that physical and social environmental changes significantly influence social networks during urban renewal. Socio-demographic factors such as age and education are associated with social network changes. The three affected residential groups identified significant differences in social networks after urban renewal. Nearby stayers experienced the largest increase in their network, while relocated residents experienced the most significant decrease. Social network changes for the same affected residential group also vary based on socioeconomic factors and perceptions of the residential environment. Targeted policy implications are provided for the specific affected residential groups.
... In line with our framework, social networks were measured based on social circles and exchanges. Based on the literature review, two questions in the questionnaire were designed to collect data regarding the social circles of the residents (Lochner et al., 1999), while three questions were related to their interactions with neighbors (Lee et al., 1991;Lochner et al., 1999). ...
... In line with our framework, social networks were measured based on social circles and exchanges. Based on the literature review, two questions in the questionnaire were designed to collect data regarding the social circles of the residents (Lochner et al., 1999), while three questions were related to their interactions with neighbors (Lee et al., 1991;Lochner et al., 1999). ...
Article
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This study measured the residential satisfaction of residents in six urban renewal projects in Chongqing, China with the aim of determining which social factors should be prioritized during urban renewal. Based on an analysis of 1,086 responses to a questionnaire survey conducted among residents at different stages of the urban renewal process, multilevel linear models were used to examine the determinants of residential satisfaction after urban renewal; model results showed that 49 predictor variables explained 32.29% of residential satisfaction values in the hierarchical regression latent models. Two findings from the empirical analysis are: (1) “Social networks and social protections” represented the strongest predictor of residential satisfaction, followed in order of strength by “social reciprocity and trust,” “community participation and accessibility,” and “sense of community and community cohesion”; and (2) keeping all five social factors balanced is essential for urban renewal projects, since having only one or two strong social factors will not contribute to higher residential satisfaction if the other factors are weak. Urban renewal studies of this kind are essential for monitoring trends in residential satisfaction.
... He is also a priest. Researchers explore whether the elements of the social capital Coleman (1988); Lochner et al., (1999); Mountford et al. (2020) owned by this community can strengthen the solidity of farmer groups and become capital for further economic development. The essence of the constructed interview shown in Table 3. ...
Article
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Agriculture is claimed as Indonesia’s strategic pillar sector. The existence of a community-based enterprise with a traditional business model is often seen as a weakness, while social capital is a strength to thrive. However, a well-managed conventional business model can become one of the foundations of a sustainable livelihood. This community service program wass carried out with the Artha Mandiri Group, which is domiciled in Kemadang Village, Gunungkidul, Special Region of Yogyakarta. This program aimed to increase the economic resilience of group members by empowering and growing business capabilities with their social capital as their fundamental strength. The empowerment method used in this program was Participatory Action Learning and Action Research (PALAR), which is considered an effective tool for strategically transforming paradigms. This method focused on a balance between progressive, collaborative practice accompanied by an action research foundation. The 6-month program has resulted in collaborative business competency learning practice for group members, emphasizing different processing methods to produce business line diversification. This group made flour from land-owned rice paddy harvests with the same quality as commercially produced. This achievement can also have an impact on business cost efficiency.
... Ainda há muito trabalho a ser feito por conta dos mecanismos subjacentes (básicos) que fazem a ligação entre saúde e comunidade (Gillies, 1999; Henderson e Whiteford, 2003) e as inter-relações entre o capital social e saúde mental. Também não está claro se as relações entre estas duas variáveis são multidirecionais, e da causalidade ou correlação (Lochner et al., 1999). ...
Chapter
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De acordo com a carta de Ottawa (WHO, 1986), a Promoção da Saúde é [...] o nome dado ao processo de capacitação da comu-nidade para atuar na melhoria de sua qualidade de vida e saúde, incluindo uma maior participação no controle deste processo. Para atingir um estado de completo bem-estar físico, mental e social os indivíduos e grupos devem saber identificar aspirações, satisfazer necessidades e modificar favoravelmente o meio ambiente (grifo nosso). A saúde mental compartilha dos mesmos determinantes da saúde em geral, como níveis de renda, escolaridade, segurança física e alimentar, acesso a serviços de saúde e às redes de apoio social. Portanto, são necessárias ações políticas mais amplas para modificar e favorecer o meio ambiente onde as pessoas vivem, a fim de promover sua saúde física e mental. Discutir promoção da saúde mental num país como o Brasil, onde 30% dos adultos apresentam sintomas de trans-tornos mentais comuns (Nunes e Onocko-Campos, 2014), parece ser tarefa bastante oportuna para o momento atual. A mobilização social gerada pela Luta Antimanicomial como reação às condições indignas e desumanas da assistência em saúde mental no passado recente do Brasil, colocou o país numa posição central na luta pelos direitos humanos das pessoas com transtornos mentais. A atual Política Nacional de Saúde Mental, produto dessa luta e conquista legítima da sociedade brasileira, tem centrado seus esforços atuais nas várias dimensões da re-forma psiquiátrica: política, clínica, sociocultural, jurídica, assistencial, bem como na formação de recursos humanos, as quais se traduzem na construção e organização dos serviços e da rede assistencial; na capacitação profissional e manutenção de um programa permanente de formação de recursos humanos para reforma psiquiátrica e na pró-pria consolidação dos ideais da reforma (Bezerra-Filho, 2007). Tais assuntos têm norteado as prioridades da atual Política Nacional de Saúde Mental, como não poderia deixar de ser. Contudo, certas questões, como a atenção às pessoas que sofrem com a crise social, a violência e o desemprego, bem como a atenção integral aos usuários de álcool e outras drogas ainda são desafiadoras para a atual Política Nacional de Saúde Mental, o que revela a nossa dificuldade e os entraves para o alcance da integralidade da atenção (Brasil, 2010). A discussão sobre os determinantes sociais do processo saúde-doença, seu impacto na saúde mental e o aprofunda-mento nos aportes teóricos da Promoção da Saúde seriam, portanto, de grande valia no momento atual para os profis-sionais de saúde em geral, já que tais referenciais são funda-mentais para se dar "os próximos passos" da saúde mental no Brasil rumo à integralidade da atenção. Entretanto, para que tal construção se dê, também é necessário-e fundamental-que haja reconhecimento, por parte dos profissionais de saúde em geral, de que a saúde mental é parte integrante da saúde; que os serviços de saúde mental não estão desarticulados e independentes do restante da rede de serviços e, sobretudo, que a atual Política Nacio-nal de Saúde Mental, por ser de base aberta e comunitária, enfatiza o direito das pessoas com transtornos mentais tran-sitarem livremente pelos serviços de saúde em geral, a fim de resolverem seus problemas e necessidades, o que se traduz na presença desses indivíduos diariamente nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS), nas Unidades de Saúde da Família (USF), Ambulatórios de especialidades, bem como nos consultórios odontológicos, Centros de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEO) e nos demais serviços de saúde. As dificuldades encontradas pelos profissionais de saúde em geral (que não sejam especialistas na área mental ou que não estejam lotados em Unidades de Saúde Mental) tradu-zem-se em cenários de desatenção à saúde geral e à saúde bucal dos indivíduos com transtornos mentais. Nesse quadro incluem-se os Cirurgiões-Dentistas. Isso, certamente, é resultado da falta de conhecimento, debate e reflexão sobre a saúde mental, tanto no que diz res-peito à sua importância, aos aspectos ligados aos transtornos, ao cuidado e às abordagens, quanto (principalmente) ao papel de promover saúde, que é inerente a todos esses profissionais. O presente capítulo, nesse sentido, busca induzir à re-flexão em torno da saúde mental e de sua promoção. Para tanto, estrutura-se quatro partes: A primeira parte trata de conceitos, recomendações, experiências e outras reflexões em torno da saúde e da doença mental, segundo a OMS 1;2. A segunda parte traz o histórico de lutas da sociedade brasileira para a construção do atual modelo de atenção, traduzido na Política Nacional de Saúde Mental (PNSM). A terceira parte oferece um panorama do impacto da saúde mental na saúde bucal e vice-versa, bem como a dificuldade dos cirurgiões-dentistas em lidar com o assunto. E a quarta parte busca traduzir o momento atual da saúde mental no cenário brasileiro, seus desafios e barreiras.
... Notably, SC concerns the goodwill arising from social relationships (Adler and Kwon, 2002) or the sympathy that may result in potential benefits or advantages for an individual beyond the expected in an exchange relationship (Robison et al., 2002). SC is also characterized by collective efficacy, community competence, and a psychological sense of community (Lochner et al., 1999); hence it can be mobilized to cause or support action (Adler and Kwon, 2002). Therefore, the availability of social networks and the cohesion in those social networks are vital aspects of SC (Moore and Kawachi, 2017). ...
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Refugees experience numerous psychological and social problems associated with experiences in their homecountries, during asylum-seeking, and conditions in their new environment. Therefore, refugees are likely toexperience a decline in psychological and social capital, negatively affecting their well-being. Mindfulness is aknown trait-like attribute that is associated with superior well-being outcomes. The present correlational studyinvestigated the mediating role of psychological and social capital in the association between mindfulness andwell-being outcomes (life satisfaction and happiness) among refugees in resource-constrained settlements in Uganda. As part of the RESS-R (Refugee Entrepreneurship and Skilling for Self-Reliance) project, 576 refugees from rural settlements and urban locations took part in the study. The results of the structural equation model revealed that mindfulness was positively associated with psychological and social capital. However, only psychological capital had a mediating effect in the relationship between mindfulness and the well-being variables. Our findings provide insights into the relationships between positive psychological attributes and well-being outcomes among refugees living in resource-constrained settings.
... At the community level, meaningful complex social relationships such as social support/ capital are also likely related to service use (Birkin et al., 2008). For example, a family with higher social capital/support and strong community cohesion, as defined by Lochner et al., (1999), might be more likely to learn about EI/ECSE through their social networks. ...
Article
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Engagement in Early Intervention (EI) and Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) helps to support the development of very young children who might demonstrate delays or other challenges. Research documents underutilization of these essential childhood services. To understand how to increase engagement in EI and ECSE among eligible families, research is needed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with enrollment. The current study examined the relation between proposed barriers and service access outcomes (i.e., child age of delay identification, age at service provision, total number of EI/ECSE hours, and the total types of EI/ECSE services) reported by parents of birth to six-year olds (n = 60). Results revealed higher parent advocacy was significantly related to a younger age of service enrollment and a larger total number of intervention types used. This study is one of the first to provide quantitative evidence of specific barriers related to EI/ECSE enrollment.
... The concept and application of social capital have received a great deal of attention across different arrays of disciplines over the last two decades. Numerous definitions of social capital have been proposed in the literature in different contexts and disciplines touching on key manifestations of the subject; however, there seems to be no consensus on the meaning of social capital (Bhandari and Yasunobu 2009;Fukuyama 2001;Kobayashi et al. 2013;Magson et al. 2014;Lochner et al. 1999;Kawachi 2006;Villalonga-Olives and Kawachi 2015). In other words, the functions of social capital are often used to describe its meaning. ...
Article
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The term social capital has been conceptualized and applied in different fields with different controversial connotations and impacts. Due to the variation in the conceptualization and operationalization of the subject, understanding the application of social capital in education, health, and employment remains incomplete. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide a thorough review of the concept and application of social capital in health, education, and employment using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Findings from the review reveal that the conceptualization of social capital is multidimensional in each context, with common underlining constructs such as social networks, connections, and a sense of community engagement in all three areas of health, education, and employment. Few reviews in the context of health and education extend social capital conceptualization to include trust, reciprocity, the interlinking of physical structure and social structure, and social cohesion. Furthermore, the conclusive consensus is that social capital leads to positive impacts on health outcomes, though negative outcomes may also be expected through behavioural contagion. The review found a bidirectional relationship between social capital and education. The findings for employment outcomes vary from country to country depending on the methodology used and the strength of social capital, with most studies finding a positive relationship with employment. Additionally, operationalizing social capital may benefit from both quantitative and qualitative methods, therefore, further studies using qualitative approaches to social capital may be especially helpful to understand what social capital means to people. It is also worth noting that the application of social capital is mainly within the context of developed countries; hence, further studies in the context of developing countries on the different types and impacts of social capital are recommended.
... Social capital has come to refer to a particularly immediate understanding of the institutional milieu, a broad set of factors including but not limited to: interpersonal connections, reciprocity, trust and trustworthiness, and shared norms and identity (Lochner, Kawachi, and Kennedy 1999). Higher social capital allows communities to mobilize effectively in the face of crises and makes it possible to solve collective action problems. ...
Article
We present a de-identified and aggregated dataset based on geographical patterns of Facebook Groups usage and demonstrate its association with measures of social capital. The dataset is aggregated at United States county level. Established spatial measures of social capital are known to vary across US counties. Their availability and recency depends on running costly surveys. We examine to what extent a dataset based on usage patterns of Facebook Groups, which can be generated at regular intervals, could be used as a partial proxy by capturing local online associations. We identify four main latent factors that distinguish Facebook group engagement by county, obtained by exploratory factor analysis. The first captures small and private groups, dense with friendship connections. The second captures very local and small groups. The third captures non-local, large, public groups, with more age mixing. The fourth captures partially local groups of medium to large size. Only two of these factors, the first and third, correlate with offline community level social capital measures, while the second and fourth do not. Together and individually, the factors are predictive of offline social capital measures, even controlling for various demographic attributes of the counties. To our knowledge this is the first systematic test of the association between offline regional social capital and patterns of online community engagement in the same regions. By making the dataset available to the research community, we hope to contribute to the ongoing studies in social capital.
... Generally, measures of sense of community and collective e cacy fall within cognitive forms of social capital that capture community-level characteristics as opposed to individuallevel traits. 35 As demonstrated from our ndings, the sense of community index was found to be a stronger buffer of psychosocial change scores as compared to the measure for neighborhood collective e cacy among the sample population. Neighborhood collective e cacy may differ from sense of community by capturing dimensions of neighborhood capacity that extend beyond perceptions of social connection into the realm of engagement in shared action. ...
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We assessed the relationship between differences in indicators of social capital before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and their association with self-reported measures of psychological distress. The data was analyzed from an existing cluster randomized control trial (the Healthy Neighborhoods Project ) with 244 participants from New Orleans, Louisiana. Differences in self-reported scores between baseline (January 2019-March 2020) and participant’s second survey (March 20, 2020, and onwards) were calculated. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between social capital indicators and measures of psychological distress adjusting for key covariates and controlling for residential clustering effects. Participants who reported higher than average scores for social capital indicators were significantly less likely to report increases in psychosocial distress between pre and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who reported higher-than-average sense of community were approximately 1.2 times less likely than those who reported lower than average sense of community scores to experience increases in psychological distress before and during the global pandemic (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.70,0.88, p ≤ 0.001), even after controlling for key covariates. Findings highlight the potentially important role that community social capital and related factors may play in the health of underrepresented populations during times of major stress. Specifically, the results suggest an important role of cognitive social capital and perceptions of community membership, belonging, and influence in buffering changes of mental health distress experienced during the initial period of the COVID-19 pandemic among a population that is majority Black and female.
...  The concept of psychological sense of community applies to communities in their geographical and relational interpretation and includes four dimensions: belonging or the sense of being part of a group; influence, a concept that refers to the individual's sense of self in relation to the group and that the group can have ascendancy over its members, creating cohesion through community norms; integration or the understanding that members' needs are met with the resources received through their membership of the group; and shared emotional connection that is linked to the meaning of the community's shared history [9]. ...
Article
Community resilience has been recognised and promoted as a vision and strategy for strengthening health systems in the post-COVID-19 era. The paper sets out the importance of health promotion and building social capital to achieve this goal; it briefly describes the concepts of community ownership, collective efficacy, community capacity and community competence as key categories for managing this process. We conclude with a call for reflection on the need for a clear understanding of these elements for a renewed vision of sustainable and resilient health systems.
... Lifetime self-reported discrimination experiences were assessed with a modi ed version of the 12-item Williams' major experiences of discrimination scale (unfairly red or not hired because of your ethnicity/sex/weight/etc., unfairly stopped/questioned/physically threatened or abused by the police, etc.) [52,53]. Perceived social capital in each participant's immediate neighborhood was assessed using the Social Environment Assessment Tool (SEAT), a 23-item questionnaire, that was designed to capture four dimensions of social capital: civic disorder (CD), impact of civic disorder (ICD), informal social control (ISC), and social cohesion and trust (SCT) [54][55][56][57]. Subjects answer according to a ve-point Likert-scale (1: unusual, to 5: very common), and a sum of the weighted scores of the 4 subscales were calculated to obtain the total social capital score (SEAT score = zCD + 0.51*zICD + 1.6*zISC + zSCT). ...
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Gene x environment (GxE) interactions have not been reliably established regarding etiology of psychotic disorders, while genes-environment (G-E) associations have been displayed. We studied the role of GxE interaction between psychosocial stressors (childhood trauma, stressful life-events, self-reported discrimination experiences and low social capital) and the polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (PRS-SZ) on subclinical psychosis in a population-based sample. Data were drawn from the EU-GEI study, in which subjects without psychotic disorders were included in six countries. The sample was restricted to European descendant subjects (N = 706). Subclinical dimensions of psychosis (positive, negative, and depressive) were measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale. For each dimension, the interactions between genes and environment were assessed comparing explained variances of “Genetic” models (solely fitted with PRS-SZ), “Environmental” models (solely fitted with each environmental stressor), “Independent” models (with PRS-SZ and each environmental factor), and “Interaction” models (with an interaction term between the PRS-SZ and each environmental factor). There were no direct G-E associations. PRS-SZ was associated with positive dimensions (ß = 0.092, R² = 7.50%), and most psychosocial stressors were associated with all three subclinical psychotic dimensions (except for low social capital and positive dimension). Concerning the positive dimension, Independent models fitted better than Environmental and Genetic models. No significant GxE interaction was observed for any dimension. This study in healthy individuals suggests that i) the etiological continuum hypothesis could concern particularly the positive dimension of subclinical psychosis, ii) genetic and environmental factors have independent effects on the level of this positive dimension, iii) and that interactions between genetic and individual environmental factors could not be identified in this sample.
... La mesure des effets du capital social sur la santé de la population, au-delà même de la complexité à le définir, implique des enjeux de mesures, notamment lorsqu'on cherche à caractériser ses 38 Le rapport recense trois grands types de facteurs collectifs, soutien social, capital social et position hiérarchique ressentie, ces derniers influençant l'état de santé et variant selon le milieu social des individus. effets au niveau communautaire et plus seulement sur l'agrégation des donnéesindividuelles(Lochner, Kawachi, Kennedy, 1999). La difficulté posée par ces indicateurs est particulièrement l'accès à l'information. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse explore les déterminants pluriels de la santé sur le territoire Régional des Pays de la Loire dans le but de construire un indice composite capable de refléter les différentes dimensions de la santé. Cette étude se saisit des outils de la géographie et sollicite les approches quantitatives et qualitatives pour construire une recherche en trois étapes : - l’analyse des différents modèles de déterminants de la santé pour choisir un cadre conceptuel, - le choix des indicateurs statistiques pertinents pour illustrer chaque déterminant de la santé, - la construction d’indicateurs composites pour la réalisation de typologies de territoires. L’objectif de ce travail n’est pas de solutionner la «boîte noire » de Susser and Susser (1996) en expliquant le fonctionnement interne et l’influence des déterminants sur la santé. Il s’agit davantage de caractériser les territoires devant un panel d’indicateurs statistiques qui nous permettent de dégager des profils en fonction de leurs similitudes. De plus, l’analyse conjointe des dimensions multiples de la santé par cet indice devra permettre de caractériser les territoires selon qu’ils favorisent un bon accès à la santé dans toutes ses dimensions ou au contraire selon qu’ils recèlent des facteurs défavorables, creusant de ce fait des inégalités territoriales de santé.
... Social capital has been linked to a variety of outcomes, such as success in job seeking behavior (Green et al., 1995), entrepreneurism (Portes and Sensenbrenner, 1993) and successful community action or development (Woolcock, 1998;Flora et al., 1997). It is defined as those features of social structures, such as levels of interpersonal trust and norms of reciprocity and mutual aid, which act as resources for individuals and facilitate collective action (Coleman, 1990;Putnam, 1993a) and is characterized by levels of trust, civic engagement and norms of reciprocity (Putnam, 1993a;Lochner et al., 1999). Putnam presented that two of the key theoretical ingredients of social capital are general community trust and generalized reciprocity (Putnam, 1993b). ...
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Social capital can potentially be used for wrong reasons such as criminal activities, self interests and the creation of unequal communities. In this regard, the issue of developing communities raises concern because social capital has not sufficiently been researched and documented in rural areas of the developing world. The purpose of this study was the assessment of social capital between rural farmers in Behbahan County in Iran and identified effective factors on it. For access to this purpose, 20 variables that measured social capital by questionnaire were used. 205 farmers were selected by systematic sampling between 7314 Behbahan farmers. This sample was selected from 38 villages by random sampling method from 150 villages of the county. Results of this study showed that majority of the farmers have a low level of social capital. According to the result, there are positive correlation between farmers' literacy, family cost, off-farm income, extension participatory, human capital, financial capital, physical capital and social capital between farmers. Also there are negative significant relationships between social capital indicators with variables such as; farmer's age, family size, experience in agricultural activities and agrarian land. Regression results showed that the six variables as human capital, participatory extension, agrarian land, off-farm income, family cost, and physical capital entered into the equation model and these variables explained 56.7% of the variance of the social capital indicator among the farmers.
... Thus, it is possible that collective efficacy, which is closely related to social capital [28,29], has also declined throughout the pandemic. By extension, if collective efficacy has decreased in the neighborhood where intimate partners live, then their IPV may have been more likely to escalate. ...
Article
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Following the logic of studies showing that collective efficacy within neighborhoods deters intimate partner violence (IPV), the promotion of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic may have weakened that effect. To examine that possibility, we analyzed panel data from 318 adults in Japan regarding IPV victimization and perceived collective efficacy at four time points. A latent growth model (LGM) analysis for each measure revealed that informal social control, a subscale of collective efficacy, has declined since the pandemic began, whereas no significant changes have occurred in social cohesion and trust, another subscale of collective efficacy, and IPV victimization. Furthermore, two parallel LGM analyses revealed that although collective efficacy before the pandemic suppressed subsequent IPV victimization, changes in collective efficacy during the pandemic have been positively associated with changes in IPV. Those results suggest that collective efficacy’s protective effect on IPV is moderated by whether interactions between intimate partners and their neighbors are socially normative.
... Communities provide important resources to the people who live in them. These resources might include physical and economic resources-shared open space, libraries, commercial establishments, etc.-as well as less identifiable resources including a sense of membership and other forms of social capital [1]. Indeed, access to these resources is a primary reason why communities exist [2], as well as a long-motivating objective in transportation infrastructure planning [3]. ...
Article
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Understanding who in a community has access to its resources—parks, libraries, grocery stores, etc.—has profound equity implications, but typical methods to understand access to these resources are limited. Travel time buffers require researchers to assert mode of access as well as an arbitrary distance threshold; further, these methods do not distinguish between destination quality attributes in an effective way. In this research, we present a methodology to develop utility-based accessibility measures for parks, libraries, and grocery stores in Utah County, Utah. The method relies on passive location-based services data to model destination choice to these community resources; the destination choice model utility functions in turn allow us to develop a picture of regional access that is sensitive to: the quality and size of the destination resource; continuous (non-binary) travel impedance by multiple modes; and the sociodemographic attributes of the traveler. We then use this measure to explore equity in access to the specified community resources across income level in Utah County: the results reveal a discrepancy between which neighborhoods might be targeted for intervention using space-based analysis.
... The data ontology for the ATPG3 Study, and by consequence the Australian CMS, has been primarily informed by socio-ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1986), social determinants theory (Wilkinson and Marmot, 2003;Allen et al, 2014) and social capital theory (as described in Lochner et al, 1999). These frameworks have resulted in an instrumentation design that captures three developmental pathways (internalising, externalising, positive development), and five social climates (family, school, peer, digital, community; see Box 1). ...
Article
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Findings from longitudinal research, globally, repeatedly emphasise the importance of a taking an early life course approach to mental health promotion; one that invests in the formative years of development, from early childhood to young adulthood, just prior to the transition to parenthood for most. While population monitoring systems have been developed for this period, they are typically designed for use within discrete stages (i.e., childhood or adolescent or young adulthood). No system has yet captured development across all ages and stages (i.e., from infancy through to young adulthood). Here we describe the development, and pilot implementation, of a new Australian Comprehensive Monitoring System (CMS) designed to address this gap by measuring social and emotional development (strengths and difficulties) across eight census surveys, separated by three yearly intervals (infancy, 3-, 6-, 9- 12-, 15-, 18 and 21 years). The systems also measures the family, school, peer, digital and community social climates in which children and young people live and grow. Data collection is community-led and built into existing, government funded, universal services (Maternal Child Health, Schools and Local Learning and Employment Networks) to maximise response rates and ensure sustainability. The first system test will be completed and evaluated in rural Victoria, Australia, in 2022. CMS will then be adapted for larger, more socio-economically diverse regional and metropolitan communities, including Australian First Nations communities. The aim of CMS is to guide community-led investments in mental health promotion from early childhood to young adulthood, setting secure foundations for the next generation.
... Extant research from different social science fields such as sociology, public health, community life, education and business and management contextually discusses different perspectives on social capital (Coleman, 1988;Lochner et al., 1999;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;Putnam, 1993Putnam, , 2000Walumba & Christensen, 2013). Bourdieu (1986) and Field (2003) concurred that social capital is a currency that can be used to access other forms of capital. ...
Book
COVID-19 had a global impact on health, communities, and the economy. As a result of COVID-19, music festivals, gigs, and events were canceled or postponed across the world. This directly affected the incomes and practices of many artists and the revenue for many entities in the music business. Despite this crisis, however, there are pre-existing trends in the music business – the rise of the streaming economy, technological change (virtual and augmented reality, blockchain, etc.), and new copyright legislation. Some of these trends were impacted by the COVID-19 crisis while others were not. This book addresses these challenges and trends by following a two-pronged approach: the first part focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on the music business, and the second features general perspectives. Throughout both parts, case studies bring various themes to life. The contributors address issues within the music business before and during COVID-19. Using various critical approaches for studying the music business, this research-based book addresses key questions concerning music contexts, rights, data, and COVID-19. Rethinking the music business is a valuable study aid for undergraduate and postgraduate students in subjects including the music business, cultural economics, cultural management, creative and cultural industries studies, business and management studies, and media and communications.
... Extant research from different social science fields such as sociology, public health, community life, education and business and management contextually discusses different perspectives on social capital (Coleman, 1988;Lochner et al., 1999;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;Putnam, 1993Putnam, , 2000Walumba & Christensen, 2013). Bourdieu (1986) and Field (2003) concurred that social capital is a currency that can be used to access other forms of capital. ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the question of how Australian-based music professionals perceived the changing role and function of music charts in the contemporary music economy following the epochal moment in 2017 when streaming was first included in the Australian Recording Industry Association charts. By investigating the impact of music streaming services such as Spotify and Apple Music on patterns of taste making in Australian popular music culture shortly following this historical moment, this chapter examines how music streaming services changed the cultural ecology of music in Australia at this time. In doing so, this chapter contributes to our understanding of the impact that northern hemisphere curated streaming service playlists have on Australia’s homegrown talent, and the country’s popular music industries more broadly. The research informing this chapter was conducted in 2018–19 and it is significant because at that time Spotify’s curation practices were mysterious to the music professionals we interviewed. This meant that they felt their livelihoods had come to depend on a service they did not know how to influence.
... They enable individual and neighbourhood-level social interactions and shape local social relations (Tarulevicz, 2013). Such activities have been shown to facilitate social bonding and group membership (Conein, 2011;Forrest & Kearns, 2001), which in turn help build and maintain collaborative and social capital (Lochner et al., 1999). The latter can lead to greater social cohesion, more active participation in civic affairs, and better public health (Kawachi et al., 2008). ...
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This article sets out to examine how the use of social spaces, namely hawker centres, has contributed to community well-being during the Covid-19 pandemic. Using an extensive thematic analysis of online conversations, we have identified that the use of social spaces can have a positive influence on individual, relational and social wellbeing. Access to social spaces during stressful events contributes to the feeling of normalcy, supports routines and structured activities, encourages responsible behaviours, facilitates social connectedness, and helps maintain community resilience. We present a new framework for urban social space characterisation containing three dimensions: coaction, copresence, and colocation (the three Cs). Here, coaction is associated with better visibility of community practices, copresence enhances the sense of connectedness, and colocation is concerned with the use of spatial design factors for influencing movement and interactions. The framework is central to our understanding of social space and its impact on wellbeing. Underpinning the three Cs is the notion of the integration of policy, community wellbeing, and various urban agendas. The findings were considered in terms of their relevance for social space development in Singapore.
... Several definitions of social capital exist (Lochner et al., 1999;Paldam, 2000), which despite different nuances share the view that social capital can be an asset for societies in that it recognizes the importance of informal and formal networks in supporting individuals and communities through difficult times and increases their opportunities for improving and sustaining health through better access to information and resources (Ottejberg, 2005). A lifecourse perspective to social capital has been brought out to recognize that the social space and experience of children and adolescents differs from that of adults. ...
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According to the WHO, globally, one in seven adolescents experiences a mental disorder, being in a detrimental situation toward educational achievement, social cohesion, future health and life chances. Calls to identify risk and resilience factors to develop effective preventive actions have been made. Following a systemic approach, we conducted a cross-sectional study on the relationship between social capital and psychological distress in a sample of Catalan adolescents in Barcelona, taking into account a range of other relevant aspects at different levels influencing mental health, including gender, age, migrant status, family background, lifestyle factors, body mass index, and self-rated health. Data were collected through validated questionnaires in December 2016 from 646 of 14- to 18-year-old adolescents from three public and private high schools in Barcelona (Spain). Data analysis included descriptive analysis, a correlational study and logistic regression to obtain the odds ratio for social capital indicators to be associated with psychological distress. Our results suggest that reporting higher levels of family support and higher levels of teacher-student trust reduce the likelihood of suffering psychological distress. Higher levels of neighborhood informal control were associated with mental health, but a possible detrimental effect cannot be ruled out. Being a girl, reporting low self-rated health or higher media use was also associated with higher likelihood of psychological distress. Current results may encourage interventions that focus on social capital as a means to reduce psychological distress and foster well-being in youth.
... According to Perrewe et al. (2004), political skill is an individual-level of coping strategy that reduces the negative effects of role conflict on all types of strain. On the other hand, politically skilled employees usually have a diverse and rich social capital (Ferris et al. 2007), which will allow them to use it as a social support when they need it (e.g., Lochner, Kawachi & Kennedy 1999;Lin, 1999;Portes 1999). Thus, through their extensive networking ability, politically skilled employees should feel less lonely in this situation. ...
Conference Paper
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Program Imunisasi COVID-19 Kebangsaan merupakan usaha kerajaan Malaysia untuk memastikan rakyat tidak dijangkiti virus Covid-19. Namun begitu, peratusan rakyat Malaysia terutamanya golongan belia yang mendaftar untuk menerima suntikan vaksin masih rendah. Pelbagai promosi giat dilaksanakan bagi menyebar luas maklumat berkaitan dengan program tersebut kepada masyarakat terutamanya melalui media sosial. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh media sosial terhadap persepsi vaksinasi dalam kalangan belia. Kajian yang dilakukan akan menggunakan kaedah analisis kandungan untuk melihat bagaimana media sosial mempengaruhi persepsi golongan belia terhadap isu vaksinasi Covid-19 berdasarkan isu-isu semasa.
... this relationship holds across a variety of settings, study designs or health outcomes (14). Put another way, social capital is both geographical and relational (15,16). Thus, when it comes to the measurement of social capital, measures are correspondingly situational. ...
Article
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Background Social capital is a well-known health determinant with both relational and geographic aspects. It can help mitigate adverse events and has been shown to impact behaviors and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health has declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, and social capital, may serve to buffer those declines. Methods Building from this, we assessed whether pre-pandemic social capital and contemporaneous social policy, which included indicators of social trust, civic participation, and presence of mask mandates, affected pandemic mental health, measured as the percent of the population experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety at the state level. Results Generalized social trust and state mask mandates were significantly associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety. Conversely, states with greater civic engagement prior to the pandemic experienced more anxiety and depression. Conclusions Findings suggest that existing social capital, particularly social trust, may protect against anxiety and depression and contribute to community resilience during times of adversity. States should invest in policies and programs that increase social trust.
... While acknowledging that these two kinds of social capital are sometimes mutually conducive, we distinguish them herein in order to determine their respective effects on participatory behaviors. As for community social capital, in Putnam's and others' view, it refers to the community-based mutual reciprocity, trust and norms based upon in-group social processes and social relations [1,2,25]. The main mechanisms of impact of community social capital on community participatory behaviors are that residents are subject to in-group social norms and expect reciprocal benefits from others, which then mobilizes them to participate in civic affairs. ...
Article
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A social capital framework has been widely adopted to interpret participatory behaviors. While there is substantial literature regarding the effects of community-based social capital on grassroots participation, less attention has been paid to the relationship between different sources of social capital and community participation. This is particularly relevant for understanding community development undergone restructuring of individual social capital, such as China. To address this deficiency in the literature, this paper integrates both individual and social capital that is accessed within and outside a community to analyze their relation to different forms of community participation. Multilevel analysis is based on a large-scale community survey conducted in Guangzhou at the end of 2012. The results reveal a shift in social relations such that personal social resources are now mainly accessed outside the community. They further reveal that social resources outside communities are consistently and significantly related to all forms of participation. This implies that although residents’ personal networks have gradually diffused out of their communities, this has not only not reduced their enthusiasm toward the communities themselves but also facilitated participation in community affairs.
... The individual-level social capital further manifests in different forms, including regularised expectation and trust, participation in collective activities, and social ties. Today scholars define social capital as the embedded resource in one's relational or affective connection with other people and institutions (Lochner et al., 1999;Peng et al., 2019). Exchanging goods and information generates a greater quantity of social capital for the parties involved in the circulation by building and strengthening their mutual relational ties. ...
Article
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The widespread exchange of tobacco cigarettes as a gift in some societies normalises the symbolic desirability of tobacco products and promotes smoking. Little is known about how and why people exchange toxic substances as gifts. This study argues two key factors involved in social exchange processes - reciprocity and social capital - can explain gift cigarette circulation. We conducted a multistage survey among household heads from China and measured the quantity and monetary values of outgoing and incoming gift cigarettes circulated by each household and measured social capital in three dimensions: collective participation, social ties, and trust. Ordinary Least Square regressions showed that reciprocity is strongly and significantly associated with both the value and quantity of gift cigarettes. All three dimensions of social capital are varyingly associated with gifting cigarettes. Income and higher classes are also associated with greater quantity and value of received cigarettes. This study broadens the phenomenon of gifting cigarettes to the more universal patterns of reciprocity and social capital, wherein better social capital and socioeconomic position ironically lead to a higher risk of tobacco use and endanger health. We suggest policymakers target the endemic social need for gift exchange in China's informal economy.
Article
This paper examines the links between place attachment and older persons’ preferences to age in place, and factors that disrupt these preferences. We use data from the 2001–2021 Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and panel-data modelling to confirm strong associations between several place attachment dimensions and aging-in-place preferences. Strong ties to children, strong social capital, residence in social housing, homeownership status, housing wealth, and home and neighborhood satisfaction are all positively linked to a stronger preference to age in place. Our findings reveal important differences between older homeowners and older non-owners. For owners, closeness to children is a strong predictor of aging-in-place preferences, although mortgage debt can trigger involuntary moves. For non-owners, tenure security achieved through longer durations at one’s address of residence is linked to stronger aging-in-place preferences. However, private renters are more often exposed to involuntary moves. We discuss the policy implications of these disruptions.
Technical Report
This paper presents a literature review and analysis of strategies for analyzing social capital. Our aim is to systematically document the various different types of social capital, and then to outline: (i) current ways of measuring each form of social capital; (ii) potential ways of improving the measure; and (iii) its relevance for the Quebec context. The overriding objective of the research is thus to document the most advantageous manner of measuring social capital, and how optimal approaches can best be utilized and developed in Quebec. More specifically, in distilling our results, our objective was to document how social capital can best be measured through (i) aggregation of individual level data and (ii) assessing community level indicators. In investigating both of these levels of measurement, (individual or communal), we will separately document and analyze measures that are (or could potentially be) (i) routinely collected through existing systems and procedures or (ii) specifically collected for the purposes of assessing social capital.
Article
Este artículo muestra que el desarrollo teórico, empírico e institucional del concepto cohesión social, ha implicado una elevada ambigüedad que se manifiesta en seis dilemas de indefinición y en un solapamiento entre este concepto y los de comunidad y de capital social. Partiendo de ello, y admitiendo dicha ambigüedad, los objetivos de este trabajo son: 1) localizar las dimensiones definitorias de la cohesión a partir de las variables utilizadas en 54 artículos académicos, 2) vincular los resultados con el modo con que comprenden el concepto los organismos internacionales y 3) poder concluir que la cohesión social se define a partir de ocho dimensiones, que remiten a una doble ecuación de pertenencia objetiva y subjetiva al grupo, y por las que se solapa con la comunidad y el capital social, pero que, además, cuenta con una dimensión diferenciadora: la desigualdad.
Article
Engaging the public and community organizations in local health actions greatly assists disease prevention and control. However, it remains unclear how organization-public relationships (OPR) and communication networks within communities contribute to community health actions. To fill this gap, a survey was conducted among community members in Shanghai, China, who were challenged by the Omicron wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results revealed that integrated connectedness to a storytelling network (ICSN) was a significant predictor of residents' community engagement. Trust, control mutuality, commitment, and ICSN were positively associated with community engagement intentions through the sense of community and organizational efficacy. This study is a step toward understanding how organizations and members collectively respond to health crises at the community level.
Article
Social cohesion can influence health. It is higher among rural versus urban residents, but the burden of chronic disease is higher in rural communities. We examined the role of social cohesion in explaining rural/urban differences in healthcare access and health status. Rural (n = 1080) and urban (n = 1846) adults (ages 50+) from seven mid-Atlantic U.S. states completed an online, cross-sectional survey on social cohesion and health. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to evaluate the relationships of rurality and social cohesion with healthcare access and health status. Rural participants had higher social cohesion scores than did urban participants (rural: mean = 61.7, standard error[SE] = 0.40; urban: mean = 60.6, SE = 0.35; adjusted beta = 1.45, SE = 0.54, p < .01). Higher social cohesion was associated with greater healthcare access: last-year check-up: adjusted odds ratio[aOR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.17-1.33; having a personal provider: aOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.18; and being up-to-date with CRC screening: aOR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.10-1.25. In addition, higher social cohesion was associated with improved health status: higher mental health scores (adjusted beta = 1.03, SE = 0.15, p < .001) and lower body mass index (BMI; beta = -0.26, SE = 0.10, p = .01). Compared to urban participants, rural participants were less likely to have a personal provider, had lower physical and mental health scores, and had higher BMI. Paradoxically, rural residents had higher social cohesion but generally poorer health outcomes than did urban residents, even though higher social cohesion is associated with better health. These findings have implications for research and policy to promote social cohesion and health, particularly for health promotion interventions to reduce disparities experienced by rural residents.
Article
Although housing tenure mix policy has been widely used in improving the quality of life for low-income populations, it is inconclusive whether it can deliver any mental health benefits for residents. This study explores the implications of housing tenure mix on residents’ mental health through investigating the intermediatory roles of the perception of neighborhood environment and sense of place. With 501 samples from six representative neighborhoods in Guangzhou, we constructed path analysis to test three potential mechanisms: the socioeconomic mechanism, the environment mechanism, and the person-place transactional mechanism. The results revealed that housing tenure mix level was significantly associated with neighborhood socioeconomic attributes and the perception of neighborhood environment, which shaped the sense of place. Dual mental health effects of housing tenure mix were identified: on the one hand, housing tenure mix resulted in income differentiation at the neighborhood level, which impeded individual mental functioning; on the other hand, the housing tenure mix protected residents’ internal well-being via improving the perceived social cohesion and providing a nurturing ground for a sense of place. Different mechanisms function simultaneously on the associations of housing tenure mix with mental health, which should be carefully referred to during the decision-making of public housing development.
Book
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This book proposes a review on social capital, including trends, measurement and effects of social capital
Article
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This study demonstrates the mechanisms of housing tenure mix affecting residents' mental health via intervening community social environment within public housing practices in urban China. Using a purposive sampling data of six representative public housing estates, we used structural equation models to examine total, direct, and indirect effects of housing mix status on mental health, highlighting the intermediatory roles of social environment variables. On the whole, we find no significant impact of housing tenure mix on mental health; however, housing tenure mix thwarted mental health in a direct way but contributed to it through the mediation of social participation. Regarding the neighborhood effects, we unfold the behavioral, psychological, and socially interactional mechanisms for affecting mental health, by highlighting the direct health implications of social capital, and the mediation of sense of community and social control between social capital and mental health. Finally, we suggest to consider social effects on health grounds into mixed housing strategies in future.
Article
Social science research on disaster-affected communities uses social capital to explain a variety of post-disaster outcomes. A promising recent line of inquiry looks at how disasters generate new forms of social capital, and reinvigorate place-based social networks and place attachment. Using survey data collected from 407 Calgary residents affected by the catastrophic 2013 Southern Alberta Flood, as well as interview data from 40 residents, this article examines factors that contributed to residents’ expansion of their social networks during the disaster, and the impact of expanded social networks on residents’ post-disaster place attachment and civic engagement. Findings reveal that people most affected by the flood, i.e., those who experienced house flooding and longer evacuations, were most likely to make new contacts during the disaster and immediately after it. However, results also indicate that these new forms of social capital did not translate into greater place attachment, even though they did engender some post-flood civic engagement. Overall, inundation, evacuation, and displacement are predictive of lesser post-disaster place attachment. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of the findings for theory and disaster scholarship.
Article
Inspired by the analytical shift toward understanding altruism from an institutional perspective, this article presents an empirical analysis of the impact of institutionalized solidarity on attitudes toward payment for blood or plasma donations, in terms of both the level of welfare provision and confidence in the welfare system. Postulating that institutionalized solidarity is intertwined with group-based solidarity, this article offers a more refined understanding of the relationship between institutional context and attitudes toward paid donation by incorporating measures of social cohesion in the analysis. Based on Eurobarometer data from 2014, the results indicate that support for cash payment for donation is lower in European countries where social spending is higher. Similarly, aggregated levels of trust in the social security system are associated with less support for payment for donation. These findings point to the importance of institutionalized solidarity for the manifestation of support for non-remunerated blood and plasma donation.
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Aims Gene x environment (G×E) interactions, i.e. genetic modulation of the sensitivity to environmental factors and/or environmental control of the gene expression, have not been reliably established regarding aetiology of psychotic disorders. Moreover, recent studies have shown associations between the polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (PRS-SZ) and some risk factors of psychotic disorders, challenging the traditional gene v. environment dichotomy. In the present article, we studied the role of GxE interaction between psychosocial stressors (childhood trauma, stressful life-events, self-reported discrimination experiences and low social capital) and the PRS-SZ on subclinical psychosis in a population-based sample. Methods Data were drawn from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study, in which subjects without psychotic disorders were included in six countries. The sample was restricted to European descendant subjects ( n = 706). Subclinical dimensions of psychosis (positive, negative, and depressive) were measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale. Associations between the PRS-SZ and the psychosocial stressors were tested. For each dimension, the interactions between genes and environment were assessed using linear models and comparing explained variances of ‘Genetic’ models (solely fitted with PRS-SZ), ‘Environmental’ models (solely fitted with each environmental stressor), ‘Independent’ models (with PRS-SZ and each environmental factor), and ‘Interaction’ models (Independent models plus an interaction term between the PRS-SZ and each environmental factor). Likelihood ration tests (LRT) compared the fit of the different models. Results There were no genes-environment associations. PRS-SZ was associated with positive dimensions ( β = 0.092, R ² = 7.50%), and most psychosocial stressors were associated with all three subclinical psychotic dimensions (except social capital and positive dimension). Concerning the positive dimension, Independent models fitted better than Environmental and Genetic models. No significant GxE interaction was observed for any dimension. Conclusions This study in subjects without psychotic disorders suggests that (i) the aetiological continuum hypothesis could concern particularly the positive dimension of subclinical psychosis, (ii) genetic and environmental factors have independent effects on the level of this positive dimension, (iii) and that interactions between genetic and individual environmental factors could not be identified in this sample.
Article
The present study builds on prior research by examining the moderating relationships between different types of capital on physical functioning, emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms using a 2.5‐year longitudinal design with a national sample of African–American adults. Results indicated a significant T1 social capital × T1 religious capital interaction such that among low T1 religious capital participants, those with high T1 social capital had lower T2 physical functioning than those with lower T1 social capital. There was also a marginally significant T1 social capital × T1 spiritual capital interaction suggesting that among low T1 spiritual capital participants, those with higher T1 social capital reported a decline in depressive symptoms compared to those with lower T1 social capital. Future research and implications for intervention and policy development are discussed.
Chapter
This Chapter shares the findings of a 2016 cross-sectional online survey carried out among participants who live in high-risk areas for flooding in the United Kingdom (N = 1,025). According to an exploratory factor analysis, participants interpreted elements of community resilience as three attributes of a community: Strong Fellowship, Trust in the System, and Memories of Disasters. The participants understood a community’s psychological, social, and economic impacts caused by severe flooding as adverse outcomes with two impact levels (personal and community). Participants with a strong fellowship in the community or fewer memories of disasters perceived that a potential flood would have a personal impact (p < 0.05). In contrast, participants with a weak fellowship in the community, more memories of disasters, or a lack of trust in the system and leadership thought a likely flood would have a community impact (p < 0.001). Lastly, participants who felt that they belonged to their community or vaguely knew the location of the local disaster support center in their community thought a severe flood would have no community impact on them (p < 0.001). The findings did not suggest the existence of a hierarchy with priorities among community resilience elements.
Chapter
Social capital is the currency through which agents compete for access to other forms of capital in the field. Drawing on my doctoral research into the government’s role in Zimbabwe’s live music sector, this study examines how social capital impacted the musical careers of three Zimbabwean female musicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. It assesses how these musicians utilised their social capital to traverse their COVID-19 circumstances. I employed a case study-based qualitative research design, and I gathered data through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The overarching finding was that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the three Zimbabwean female musicians differently and in both positive and negative ways. Overall, the loss of live music performance opportunities had negative economic, social and cultural impacts. It forced them to regenerate their human capital by learning new skills. The learning process augmented their extant social capital and enhanced their proficiency as they created new COVID-19-friendly networks. They utilised their cognitive, bonding, bridging, linking, relational and structural forms of social capital to exploit and expand existing networks. Henceforth, social capital, albeit to varying degrees, sustained the three Zimbabwean female musicians by allowing them access to economic, cultural and symbolic capital during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
The predictive power of three intersecting environmental dimensions (built structures, social infrastructure, and social capital) on late-life walking was investigated, conceptually based on the ecological framework of place, which posits that a living environment is simultaneously a physical place, a social place, and a set of social bonds. Multilevel models were used to examine the extent to which environments, defined as interactions of the social and material environmental dimensions, reliably predicted walking for transportation among U.S. adults aged 60 years or older in the 2015 National Health Interview Survey ( n = 11,180). Random intercepts representing 221 environments showed an intraclass correlation of 21%, indicating high levels of between-environment variance in walking. Social infrastructure had the highest predictive power for walking, followed by material structures and social capital. Synergistic interventions that incorporate the intersecting nature of the sociomaterial environment may be most effective in promoting physical activity in later life.
Thesis
This dissertation traces the history of urban informality in Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic. Concurrently, it examines the resettlement of La Barquita, a large barrio (local term for informal settlement) that occupied flood-prone land for over four decades. As the oldest existing city in the Americas, Santo Domingo is an ideal setting to investigate the largely untheorized intricacies between historical and contemporary informal urbanization and interventions aiming formalization. There, extreme climate events and longstanding political legacies rooted in colonialism, imperialism, authoritarianism, and neoliberalism have converged to perpetuate a culture of socio-spatial exclusion spanning over five centuries. La Barquita became Santo Domingo's most infamous barrio, a site at the intersection of poverty, informality, crime, and environmental risks. In 2012, in the aftermath of Hurricane Isaac, the central government announced the resettlement of this community. Replacing the old barrio, La Nueva Barquita (the new Barquita), with over 1700 apartments distributed across 54 hectares, was the result of a design competition juried by a panel of local and international architects. As the apotheosis of interventions in the city's barrios, the state promoted this project, completed in 2016, as a 'historic' event and as a model to be replicated across the country. Using data obtained from surveys to 102 resettled households, this study discusses respondents' perceptions of their new community and the impacts of the relocation on their socioeconomic standing. It is found that while respondents largely endorse their new built environment, the resettlement resulted in reversed economic mobility and significant disruptions to community ties. To mitigate these negative impacts, residents are turning to subtle modes of informality, challenging the neoliberal formal order imposed upon them. Several arguments are advanced in this dissertation. First, challenging local hegemonic narratives that informal settlements are places with no history, I demonstrate that Santo Domingo’s barrios have been permanent and vital communities for over five centuries. As places of everyday life for a large part of the city's population, their urban history is irrespective of negative comparisons to the planned city. A second argument, by way of La Nueva Barquita, is that, in resettlement sites, high-quality architecture and urban design alone are unable to ignite socioeconomic progress. Third, I argue that it is only through historical analysis that we can fully grasp recent interventions in Santo Domingo's barrios. This study reveals how the state used historical narratives to advance the intervention in La Barquita, how residents' place-based memories facilitated and hampered their adaptation in the resettlement site, and how the name La Barquita metamorphosed from being associated with planning failure and environmental vulnerability into a national brand mediating how barrio interventions are approached. The socio-spatial actuality in Santo Domingo's barrios, and in La Nueva Barquita, cannot be dissected through binary interpretations of good or bad, positive or negative, formal or informal. These are complex territories where the politics of history, urbanism, and resettlement often come together in unexpected ways. At the crossroads of multifaceted discourses within the fields of architecture, urban studies, history, and Dominican studies, Santo Domingo's barrios and La Nueva Barquita tell us a lot about how questions of urban development, citizenship, and nationhood are constantly shaped and interrogated—through formal and informal built environment developments—in postcolonial cities of the Global South.
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In this paper, we present a critical reflection on the concept of social capital. We argue that there is no such idea of an umbrella concept of social capital. Instead, two overarching conceptualizations of social capital exist, namely individual social capital and collective social capital. As these conceptualizations of social capital are completely different, we emphasize that studies using social capital as a theoretical lens should clarify the concept as well as be consistent in the interpretation of the concept, from its definition to its methodological operationalization. In this article, we first map the two different conceptualizations of social capital. Next, these conceptualizations are illustrated with well-known teacher research studies, followed by examples of studies in which individual and collective social capital are mixed. Finally, we discuss the consequences of the use and the mix of these different conceptualizations in terms of measurement methods. Additionally, implications for teacher education are presented.
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In Britain there has been a long tradition of research into associations between area of residence and health. Rarely has this involved investigating socio-economic or cultural features of areas that might influence health; usually studies use area level data, for example about specific pathogens or about levels of deprivation, as surrogates for individual level data, rather than being interested in the areas themselves. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between area and health. It advocates directly studying features of the local social and physical environment which might promote or inhibit health, illustrating this approach with some findings from a study in the West of Scotland, and suggests that improvements in public health might be achieved by focusing on places as well as on people.
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For several years many of us at Peabody College have participated in the evolution of a theory of community, the first conceptualization of which was presented in a working paper (McMillan, 1976) of the Center for Community Studies. To support the proposed definition, McMillan focused on the literature on group cohesiveness, and we build here on that original definition. This article attempts to describe the dynamics of the sense-of-community force — to identify the various elements in the force and to describe the process by which these elements work together to produce the experience of sense of community.
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Factors affecting residents" attachments to their communities are investigated using data collected from telephone interviews with 1,620 adults in three U.S. cities. Two dimensions of community attachment are identified: social bonding and physical rootedness. A typology based on these two dimensions yields four key patterns of community attachment; profiles are presented of demographics and community-related attitudinal and behavioral correlates of each of the four patterns. Implications are discussed for the development of natural helping networks and the proliferation of profesional services as strategies for promoting mental well-being within communities. The provision of social support through bonds within communities has become a key area of interest for mental health professionals. The recent President's Commission on Mental Health included a separate Task Panel on Community Support Systems (1978) which emphasized that social and community support not only can reduce the consequences of emotional stress, but also can help prevent stress from developing. The Task Panel recommended that a major new Federal initiative be launched which would
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The development of an instrument measuring a variable that represents a synthesis of the concepts of psychological sense of community, attractionto-neighborhood, and social interaction within a neighborhood is reported. When this individual-level variable (termed "sense of community/cohesion") is assessed in a random sample of residents in a geographically bounded neighborhood, the mean value forms a measure of the neighborhood's cohesiveness. The stages of instrument conceptualization, development, and testing are outlined. In administration to 206 residents in three separate neighborhoods the instrument demonstrated good internal consistency and testretest stability at the individual-level of analysis. When evaluated at the neighborhood-level of analysis the Neighborhood Cohesion Instrument exhibited good discriminatory power and evidenced criterion-related validity in the assessment of neighborhood cohesion.
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Tested a model for understanding the relationship of participation in block associations to block-level variables (i.e., demographics, the built environment, crime, the transient social and physical environment). Data were obtained from 48 city blocks using (1) a telephone survey of 1,081 residents, (2) a block environmental inventory (BEI), (3) police records of reported crime, and (4) a survey of 469 block association members. The BEI was reliable and correlated significantly with the social climate, crime, demographics, and participation. The transient portion of the framework received particular support as 4 variables independently explained almost 40% of the variance in participation. A combination of catalysts in the physical environment and enablers in the social environment may increase participation.
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The authors investigated whether neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics are associated with coronary heart disease prevalence and risk factors, whether these associations persist after adjustment for individuai-Iovel social class indicators, and whether the effects of individual-level indicators vary across neighborhoods. The study sample consisted of 12,601 persons in four US communities Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Jackson, Mississippi) participating in the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk In Ccmrnunfties Study (1987-1989). Neighborhood characteristics were obtained from 1990 US Census block-group measures. Muttilevel models were used to estimate associations with neighbortood variables after adjustment for individual-level indicators of social class. Living in deprived neighborhoods was associated with increased prevalence of coronary heart disease and increased levels of nsk factors, with associations generally persisting after adjustment for individual-level variables. lnconsisten associations were documented for serum cholesterol and disease prevalence in African-American men. For Jackson African-American men living in poor neighborhoods, coronary heart disease prevalence decreased as neighborhood characteristics worsened. Additionally, in Affican-Ameiican men from Jackson, low social class was associated with Increased seum cholesterol in richer" neighborhoods but decreased serum cholesterol in "poorer" neighborhoods. Neighborhood environments may be one of the pathways through which social structure shapes coronary heart disease risk.
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To examine the reasons for the association between socioeconomic status and poor health, the authors examined the nine-year mortality experience of a random sample of residents aged 35 and over in Oakland, California. Residents of a federally designated poverty area experienced higher age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mortality over the follow-up period compared with residents of nonpoverty areas (relative risk = 1.71, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.20-2.44). This increased risk of death persisted when there was multivariate adjustment for baseline health status, race, income, employment status, access to medical care, health insurance coverage, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, sleep patterns, social isolation, marital status, depression, and personal uncertainty. These results support the hypothesis that properties of the sociophysical environment may be important contributors to the association between low socioeconomic status and excess mortality, and that this contribution is independent of individual behaviors.
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This survey and field observation study replicates Donald Foley's Neighbors or Urbanites? (1952) in the same urban neighborhood twenty-five years later to test the dynamic hypothesized "loss of community" in urban life. Three indexes reflecting three dimensions of community were explored. "Local facility use" declined, "informal neighboring" showed no change, while "sense of community" increased. The latter two did not decline because the area has attracted residents who economically and ideologically "value" the changes which have occurred in the area and the resulting "ecological niche" which the area has come to occupy. It is middle-class, racially integrated and urban. Residents have consciously sought out this area because of these characteristics and have consciously attempted to create community in part through an active local community organization. Drawing upon Mannheim's distinction between utopia and ideology, the area is defined as a consciously created "ideological community."
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Ethnic gaps in mortality persist in the United States but the specific causes remain elusive. We propose a broader mortality framework that includes neighborhood characteristics that we test using data from a file that links the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 1986 through 1990 with information from death certificates from the National Death Index (NDI), and additional census tract-level data from the 1990 Census STF-3A files. Cox proportional hazards models, which include measures of minority concentration and median income at the neighborhood level, for all-cause mortality during the follow-up, are estimated for men and women separately. The concentration of African Americans in the neighborhood of residence, in addition to individual socioeconomic status, fully account for differential mortality between African American and non-Hispanic white men and women. For Mexican Americans, the concentration of Hispanics in the neighborhood slightly enhances their significant mortality advantage. From additional analyses, it appears that the pathway between residential segregation and mortality is routed through poorer neighborhood economic conditions for men and high levels of female headship in segregated neighborhoods for women. The final analysis conducted for men by age at death shows that both young and middle-aged African American men are affected by the concentration of African Americans in the community.
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Journal of Democracy 6.1 (1995) 65-78 As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone." You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually "civic" (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. "Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition," he observed, "are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types -- religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America." Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful "network capitalism" of East Asia. Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible "industrial districts" based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy. Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs -- these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity...
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Based on a deductive process, several objective items were developed to measure people's sense of community with their city of residence. An item analysis produced a 17-item scale, which was then evaluated for homogeneity and external validity in three studies using telephone interviews on random samples in Alabama and South Carolina. Of seven hypotheses that were tested, six received support. Results described the scale as internally reliable and unidimensional, and the scale differentiated between people who differed in terms of demographics, home ownership, and civic contributions. Contrary to prediction, the scale did not relate to how long people had lived in their city. Explanations for this were offered and then conclusions were drawn about the potential usefulness of the scale.
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The development and testing of an instrument designed to measure '"psy-chological sense of community" (PSC) is described. A discussion of the historical background of the PSC concept is presented and results of the use of the instrument in three U.S. and Israeli communities are described. Specific attention is given to the relationship of PSC and the variables of community satisfaction and competence as well as to applications of the PSC instrument. Since results suggest that certain manipulable variables may be associated with PSC, and that PSC itself may have the properties of a construct, suggestions for further research, and the potential im-portance of PSC for community development and maintenance are given.
Article
This study presents a multilevel empirical test of a systemic theory of community attachment in mass society. The data bases are derived from a recent national sample of 10,905 residents of 238 localities in Great Britain that vary across an urban-rural continuum. The first stage of analysis examines the structural determinants of between-community variations in local friendship ties, collective attachment, and rates of local social participation. Community residential stability has positive effects on all three dimensions of community social integration, independent of urbanization, density, and numerous other controls. The second stage of analysis examines the extent to which community characteristics affect individual-level local social bonds. Residential stability has both individual-level and contextual effects on locality-based friendships and on participation in social and leisure activities. The results support the systemic model and demonstrate the importance of linking the micro- and macro-level dimensions of local community bonds.
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The authors link the notion of subterranean traditions to the concepts of control theory, anomic aspirations, and social capital to explain right-wing extremism and school delinquency among German youth. Weakened informal social controls and anomic aspirations lead to delinquent drift and extremist and delinquent involvements. East Berlin youth are uniquely exposed and vulnerable to anomic aspirations and associated right-wing extremism, but their schools and parents play significant roles in suppressing their right-wing attitudes. Schools and families are underappreciated sources of informal social control and resulting social capital that constrain right-wing extremism and related problems of young people during a period of rapid social change in the former East Germany.
Article
This research evaluated a local United Way planning process that was designed to provide a forum for citizen participation in United Way policy decisions. Study participants were randomly assigned to high, moderate, or low levels of participation. High level of participation represented the traditional mechanism by which United Way has elicited citizen contributions to planning decisions. The researchers predicted that as a result of participation, participants at the high level of participation would exhibit a relatively strong sense of empowerment, congruence with United Way policy decisions, and sense of community. Results indicated a significant effect of participation related to sense of empowerment, but no differences between the groups at the high, moderate, and low levels of participation in either the congruence of their attitudes with United Way policy decisions, or their sense of community.
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This study focuses upon the relationship between communication and “sense of community” in a demonstrably typical and stable neighborhood area of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Factor analysis is applied to survey data as a means of examining patterns and relationships among items. The result is a six factor, multi‐dimensional scale which taps the construct, Sense of Community. Recommendations are made for comparative studies among various kinds of urban neighborhoods leading to a general theory about communication and sense of community in urban settings.
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Contends that community psychology has failed in its efforts at social reform. The adverse consequences of segregating the mentally ill, aged, and others in residential institutions are discussed. A new community psychology is proposed which emphasizes a sense of belonging and responsibility among community members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Summarizes research concerning the dimensions and correlates of psychological sense of community, and describes some potentially useful approaches for further research in this field. Among these are the idea that psychological sense of community is context specific, must be understood as involving more than individual behaviors, and should be researched at a community level. It is suggested that research on psychological sense of community could best be accomplished using a multidisciplinary approach and that the assumption that psychological sense of community is on the decline in modern American society should be empirically examined. Finally, it is suggested that in order to have a complete understanding of psychological sense of community, we need to begin to research its related construct, a sense of transcendence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relationship between sense of community and subjective well-being (SWB) was tested by conducting telephone interviews with three random samples in South Carolina and Alabama (ns = 151, 399, and 442). Respondents answered the 17-item Sense of Community Scale (Davidson & Cotter, 1986), a measure of three facets of SWB (happiness, worrying, and personal coping), and questions about their demographic characteristics and subjective evaluations of their community. Partial correlation coefficients were computed between sense of community and SWB, partialling out the influence of demographic and community-evaluation variables. Sense of community was significantly related to SWB in all three samples. The effects were especially pronounced for the happiness facet of SWB. Implications are drawn for theory and intervention, and recommendations are made for further research.
Article
Although sense of community was heralded by Sarason (1974) as the “overarching value” of community psychology, no theory or definition of the phenomenon has been operationalized or empirically tested. The difficulty in the scientific exploration of sense of community is in the value-laden and phenomenological nature of the experience. Following McMillan and Chavis (this issue), it is theorized that sense of community is represented by four elements: membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection. Brunswik's lens model offers an appropriate method for determining the shared domain of the experience within a diverse population. The goal of this study was to develop a Sense of Community Index (SCI) that would allow the determination of the relative influence of various factors on the judgment of sense of community. Twenty-one judges, representing four professional groupings selected from three urban centers, where employed in the rating of 100 sense of community profiles of randomly selected individuals. There was a high degree of consensus among the diverse groups of judges, and a regression equation with 23 predictors derived from the sense of community profile accounted for 96% of the variance of mean judges, ratings of overall sense of community. The results were interpreted as supporting the theory of McMillan and Chavis, which appears suitable both for scientific investigation and as a framework for intervention. The relationships of specific profile items (e.g., neighboring behavior, length of residence, home ownership, involvement in voluntary associations) are related to the four elements and to the prediction of overall sense of community.
Article
In this study, 234 white female and male 13 to 18 year olds were interviewed in informal social settings. They completed questionnaires regarding their neighborhood and school psychological sense of community (Sense of Community Index), experiences of social support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviours) and loneliness (Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale), and rated statements assessing subjective well-being. Multiple regression and correlation analyses indicated that social support and sense of community were distinctive aspects of the adolescent's community context. Neighborhood sense of community, followed by non-directive guidance, support, and age, predicted adolescent loneliness. Sense of community was the primary correlate with subjective evaluations of well-being. Sense of community scores for neighborhood and school settings were significantly lower for older adolescents. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental research implications and the importance of sense community in prevention programs to facilitate adolescent development. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Starting out from the relationship between income equality and indicators of social cohesion and social trust, this paper explores the social processes which might account for the relationship between greater income equality and lower population mortality rates. We note that: homicide shows an even closer relationship to income inequality than does mortality from all other causes combined; there are several reports that homicide rates are particularly closely related to all cause mortality; and that there is a growing body of research on crime in relation to social disorganisation. We use US state level data to examine the relationships between various categories of income inequality, median state income, social trust and mortality. The data suggest that violent crime, but not property crime, is closely related to income inequality, social trust and mortality rates, excluding homicide. The second half of the paper is devoted to literature on the antecedents of violence. Feeling shamed, humiliated and disrespected seem to be central to the picture and are plausibly related to the way in which wider income differences are likely to mean more people are denied access to traditional sources of status and respect. We suggest that these aspects of low social status may be central to the psychosocial processes linking inequality, violence, social cohesion and mortality.
Article
Two studies explored adolescents' neighborhood and school psychological sense of community. Multiple regression analyses of subscale scores from two social support measures showed that psychological sense of community was related to different aspects of social support depending on the community setting; the number of supportive persons identified was most significantly related to neighborhood sense of community, and the amount of tangible assistance received was most significantly related to school sense of community. Multiple regression results indicated that school sense of community accounted for the highest proportion of variance on the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, followed by satisfaction with social support, and nondirective support received. The data suggest that sense of community is a significant aspect of adolescents' environments, as demonstrated by its relationship to loneliness. Further investigation of the components of adolescent sense of community and their relevance to adolescent development is warranted.
Article
This article provides a review and expansion of the concept of neighboring. We broaden the concept of neighboring to involve the social interaction, symbolic interaction, and the attachment of individuals with the people living around them and the place in which they live. Literature from several areas including social psychology, environmental psychology and community psychology, and sociology is brought together to discuss three components of neighboring: (a) the social component (e.g., emotional instrumental informational support, and social network linkages); (b) the cognitive component (e.g., cognitive mapping, and the physical environment and symbolic communication); and (c) the affective component (e.g., sense of community and attachment to place). The implications of knowledge about these components of neighboring are explored through a discussion of the relationship of neighboring to participation in neighborhood organizations.
Article
Neighbors frequently interact informally to provide socioemotional support as well as material goods to each other. They also may join together in neighborhood organizations to collectively ameliorate problems in their residential environment. This study explores the relationship between informal neighboring and the development of block organizations. Neighbors were interviewed in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1977 and 1978, before and after block organizations were established. Results indicate that successful block organizations are more likely to develop on blocks where more informal neighboring activities are already occurring. Individual membership in block organizations is also related to a resident's level of neighboring activities prior to an organization's development. Participation in block organizations was associated with an increase in members" social interactions with their neighbors. Some implications for block organizational development are discussed.
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Article
Shaw and McKay's influential theory of community social disorganization has never been directly tested. To address this, a community-level theory that builds on Shaw and McKay's original model is formulated and tested. The general hypothesis is that low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disorganization, which, in turn, increases crime and delinquency rates. A community's level of social organization is measure in terms of local friendship networks, control of street-corner teenage peer groups, and prevalence of organizational participation. The model is first tested by analyzing data for 238 localities in Great Britain constructed from a 1982 national survey of 10,905 residents. The model is then replicated on an independent national sample of 11,030 residents of 300 British localities in 1984. Results from both surveys support the theory and show that between-community variations in social disorganization transmit much of the effect of community structural characteristics on rates of both criminal victimization and criminal offending. Sociology
Article
A procedure was developed for assessing residents' perceptions of community functioning. A questionnaire, derived from Cottrell's work in the area of community competence and elaborated upon by community workers and researchers, was constructed and field tested in five rural communities. In a telephone interview, 433 residents were surveyed. Responses were analyzed to determine which items discriminated among the communities and to what extent they represented Cottrell's original model. Representing six of Cottrell's eight conditions of competence, 14 items were judged to discriminate among the communities (analysis of variance, F-test, maximum p = .008). A factor analysis of the 14 items revealed four factors that were labeled Democratic Participation Style, Crime, Resource Adequacy and Use, and Decision-Making Interactions. The factors are consistent with Cottrell's model and explain 35% of the variance. These findings are discussed in relation to current community research and methodological constraints.
Article
If political dynamics are included in the definition of community, health promotion programs have a greater potential to recognize that assisting people to empower their communities is as important as assisting them to improve their health. This paper reports on the evaluation methods employed for a health promotion program in a rural poor county of the Mississippi Delta that chose to define community in this way. The evaluation took an action research approach so that the methods would not contradict or interfere with the program's empowerment agenda. The methods required a close and collaborative working relationship among evaluators and local service providers, community leaders, and program staff who defined and operationalized eight dimensions of community competence, determined the units of analysis, and developed the data collection protocol. Emphasis was placed on using the data to engage the program and three communities in a dialogue on how to confront a system with the difficult issues they faced. The findings revealed that after 1 year of implementation, community competence moved from social interactions internal to communities to those more externally focused on mediating with outside institutions and officials. At the same time, measures of self-other awareness and conflict containment showed a decrease or virtual nonexistence.
Article
Cities in the United States have undergone major social transitions during the past two decades. Three notable factors in these shifts have been the development of a black political elite sustained rates of black poverty, and intensified racial segregation. Indications of the effect of these social forces on black-white differentials in health status have begun to surface in the research literature. This article reports analyses of data from all U.S. cities with a population of 50,000, at least 10 percent of which is black. These results indicate substantial geographic variation in black-white infant mortality rates. Racial residential segregation, black political empowerment, and black and white poverty are the characteristics that distinguish cities that have a high degree of disparity in black-white infant mortality from cities that do not.