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Dyslexia May Show a Different Face in Different Languages

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Abstract

Since research into dyslexic difficulties has been conducted predominately among those whose first language is English, assumptions may have been made about the nature of dyslexia which are dependent on the complex features of that language. This paper considers first a sample of 'transparent' languages without those particular inconsistencies of phoneme-grapheme correspondence: they seem to produce fewer children with problems but nevertheless do present some different inconsistencies of their own. Another 'opaque' language (French) is shown to present different problems from English. Finally, the paper considers what the difficulties for dyslexics could be in countries with languages having a morphemic script, e.g. Chinese and Japanese kanji. It is suggested that more research is needed into the ways in which particular languages generate particular dyslexic manifestations.

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... According to Miles (2000), it is the inconsistencies in representation in opaque languages that make it difficult for dyslexics to acquire the code. Many studies have clearly suggested that complex, "deep" orthographies hinder children's progress in spelling and reading and the assumption is that reading and writing in other languages that are more regular will not be inhibited to the same extent (German: Landerl & Wimmer, 2000, Italian: Barca, Burani, Di Filippo, & Zocolotti, 2006Cossu et al., 1995, Turkish: Oney & Goldman, 1984, French: Alegria & Mousty, 1994, 1996in Spencer, 2000Caravolas & Volin, 2001;Miles, 2000;Greek: Georgiou, Parrila, & Papadopoulos, 2008;Hatzidaki et al., 2011). ...
... According to Miles (2000), it is the inconsistencies in representation in opaque languages that make it difficult for dyslexics to acquire the code. Many studies have clearly suggested that complex, "deep" orthographies hinder children's progress in spelling and reading and the assumption is that reading and writing in other languages that are more regular will not be inhibited to the same extent (German: Landerl & Wimmer, 2000, Italian: Barca, Burani, Di Filippo, & Zocolotti, 2006Cossu et al., 1995, Turkish: Oney & Goldman, 1984, French: Alegria & Mousty, 1994, 1996in Spencer, 2000Caravolas & Volin, 2001;Miles, 2000;Greek: Georgiou, Parrila, & Papadopoulos, 2008;Hatzidaki et al., 2011). ...
... Thus, in the Greek orthography every letter consistently represents the same sound, but the same sound can be represented by different letters or pairs of letters. This makes spelling more difficult than reading (Mavrommati & Miles, 2002;Miles, 2000). According to Protopapas and Vlahou (2009), the grapheme-phoneme correspondences are as high as 95.1% in reading and 80.3% in spelling. ...
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The aim of our study was to examine the phonological and spelling errors made by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children in two different languages, one (Greek, L1) much more transparent than the other (English, L2). For these purposes, our subjects (poor spellers officially diagnosed as dyslexics) composed two picture elicited narratives, one in Greek and one in English with the aid of Script Log, an online re-cording tool for experimental research on the process of writing. Our results showed that dyslexics gener-ally made statistically significant (p < .05) more mistakes in both languages in comparison to non-dyslexics and statistically significant more phonological mistakes in English than in Greek. In addition, dyslexics made a great number of spelling mistakes in both languages, though of different nature depending on the language in which they occurred. Thus, the dyslexics in our study presented different error profiles in English and in Greek and implications are made that instruction methods should be language specific.
... In this paper, we aimed to analyse the structure of Malay words in order to inform reading intervention programme for Malaylearning struggling readers. This analysis is c r uc ial sinc e many r esear c her s hav e p r ov ided ev i denc e t hat t he inc idenc e and sev e r it y of reading disabilities are influenced by the or t hog r ap hy and p honolog y of a lang uag e (e.g., Ellis et al., 2004;Katz & Frost, 1992;Miles, 2000;Ziegler & Goswami, 2005). For languages with alphabetic and syllabic sc r ip t s, many r esear c her s hav e dif f er ent iat ed bet ween lang uag es wit h t r ansp ar ent and op aq ue let t er -sound correspondences. ...
... Transparent languages, such as German, Greek, Spanish, Turkish and Welsh, hav e let t er s and sounds wit h an almost one t o one r elat ionship , while op aq ue languages such as French and English have inc onsist ent let t er -sound c or r esp ondenc es (see Ellis et al., 2004 for a review). This dist inc t ion is believ ed t o c ont r ibut e t o p r oc essing dif f er enc es in wor d naming , wher e t r ansp ar ent or t hog r ap hy p r omot es dir ec t p hono log i c al dec oding while op a q ue or t hog r ap hy r eq uir es addit ional v isual and onset -r ime p r oc essing , on t op of phonological decoding (Ellis et al., 2004;Katz & Frost, 1992;Miles, 2000;Ziegler & Goswami, 2005). ...
... Lee (2008) previously has indicated that this feature places Malay on a similar g r anular it y-t r ansp a r enc y dimension as German or Italian. Researchers, such as Wydell and Butterworth (1999), Miles (2000) and Ziegler and Goswami (2005), hav e f ound t hat c hildr en who ar e lear ning a transparent language such as Malay acquire p honeme awar eness mor e r ap idly t han t hose who ar e lear ning a less t r ansp ar ent lang uag e such as English. However, a recent study involving a Malay-speaking child, with sev er e r eading imp air ment s in a t r ial reading intervention programme (Lee 2010), indic at ed sev er e dif f ic ult ies in dec oding Malay word stimuli. ...
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Abstract Malay is described as an alphabetic language with salient syllabic structures. In our attempt to develop a reading intervention program for early Malay struggling readers, word analysis of Malay children's stories was conducted. Additionally, in order to have a better understanding of Malay word structures, a cross-linguistic comparison with English was attempted. The results indicate significant cross-language differences for Malay and English words in terms of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, syllabic structure and types of ...
... One view of the cognitive processes involved in reading holds that processes may vary according to the characteristics of each writing code [18,20,21,42]. However, most studies of acquired dyslexia have investigated (relatively opaque) alphabetic scripts, such as English and French. ...
... Specifically, it was of interest to know if the reported dissociation between lexical reading (Kanji and irregular word reading in Portuguese) or nonlexical reading (Kana and nonwords in Portuguese) was selectively impaired following brain damage. A correlation between impaired lexical reading across scripts in a tri-scriptal patient would challenge the hypothesis that the cognitive processes in reading vary according to characteristics of the writing system [18,20,21]. However, if damage to the reading system of a tri-scriptal patient impairs oral reading in one script only, this would be evidence that type of script constrains oral reading in tri-script readers [see 43 for review]. ...
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The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes.
... It is commonly accepted that a highly transparent language is easier to learn to read than an opaque language (Goswami, 2008) as inconsistencies in graphemephoneme correspondences are challenging especially for children with dyslexia. Nevertheless, languages with transparent grapheme-phoneme correspondences still do present some different inconsistencies of their own and may generate particular manifestations of dyslexia (Miles, 2000). Even though Malay uses an alphabetic writing system, syllables are predominant orthographic units in Malay (e.g. ...
... Furthermore, writing systems with salient syllabic structures such as Malay tend to have longer words which may pose additional challenges (Lee & Wheldall, 2011). As postulated by Miles (2000), children with dyslexia may still stumble when learning to read a transparent language due to the different inconsistencies in that particular language. ...
Article
This paper describes a conceptual framework for developing reading instruction in the Malay language for low-progress early readers in Year One who have not responded adequately to the traditional method of reading instruction in schools. Scientific knowledge on reading and reading disabilities is reviewed and forms the basis for informing this conceptual framework. This framework is aligned to the structure of the Malay language and is also based on empirical evidence on word reading among beginning Ma lay readers in Year One. Evidence-based practice in a successful reading program for low-progress readers in English, the MULTILIT Reading Tutor Program, is reviewed to guide instructional practices suggested in this conceptual framework.
... One view of the cognitive processes involved in reading holds that processes may vary according to the characteristics of each writing code [18,20,21,42]. However, most studies of acquired dyslexia have investigated (relatively opaque) alphabetic scripts, such as English and French. ...
... Specifically, it was of interest to know if the reported dissociation between lexical reading (Kanji and irregular word reading in Portuguese) or nonlexical reading (Kana and nonwords in Portuguese) was selectively impaired following brain damage. A correlation between impaired lexical reading across scripts in a tri-scriptal patient would challenge the hypothesis that the cognitive processes in reading vary according to characteristics of the writing system [18,20,21]. However, if damage to the reading system of a tri-scriptal patient impairs oral reading in one script only, this would be evidence that type of script constrains oral reading in tri-script readers [see 43 for review]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes.
... It is commonly accepted that a highly transparent language is easier to learn to read than an opaque language (Goswami, 2008) as inconsistencies in graphemephoneme correspondences are challenging especially for children with dyslexia. Nevertheless, languages with transparent grapheme-phoneme correspondences still do present some different inconsistencies of their own and may generate particular manifestations of dyslexia (Miles, 2000). Even though Malay uses an alphabetic writing system, syllables are predominant orthographic units in Malay (e.g. ...
... Furthermore, writing systems with salient syllabic structures such as Malay tend to have longer words which may pose additional challenges ( Lee & Wheldall, 2011). As postulated by Miles (2000), children with dyslexia may still stumble when learning to read a transparent language due to the different inconsistencies in that particular language. ...
Article
This paper synthesizes research on dyslexia remediation, word recognition development and the Malay language writing system to design and develop a Malay language word recognition intervention program (MyBaca) for children with dyslexia. Malay is alphabetic, is highly transparent, with salient syllabic units. The program is designed based on theories of the Simple View of Reading and Ehri’s phase theory of word development. The objectives of the program are to teach the full alphabetic knowledge of Malay and the consolidated alphabetic knowledge of grapho-syllabic spelling-sound patterns of Malay. The instructional strategies are designed based on pedagogic principles of the Orton-Gillingham approach, the National Reading Panel review, and elements of Structured Literacy. The curriculum is sequenced according to evidence-based research on Malay GPC knowledge acquisition and the grapho-syllabic spelling-sound patterns. The design process which integrates both theory and empirical evidence may provide some insights toward overall dyslexia intervention.
... Ponadto zasady są nieregularne, skomplikowane i obfitują w wyjątki (Nijakowska, 2010). Dla porównania, chociaż średnio transparentna (Awramiuk i Krasowicz-Kupis, 2014;Miles, 2000) pod względem morfologicznym i fonetycznym ortografia polska sprawia, że łatwiej jest dany wyraz przeczytać, niż zapisać (Awramiuk i Krasowicz-Kupis, 2014), to sam zapis wyrazów jest oparty na zaledwie czterech zasadach: fonetycznej (jedna głoska odpowiada jednej literze lub grupie liter; zgodnie z tą regułą można zapisać większość polskich wyrazów), morfologicznej, historycznej i konwencjonalnej (Gajda, 1999). Dlatego nauczanie pisania w języku polskim (który będzie dalej określany w tekście jako L1) opiera się na metodzie analityczno-syntetycznej, w której podstawą analizy i syntezy jest wyraz zawierający ćwiczoną głoskę lub literę, a dzieci uczą się dzielić słowa na głoski (Awramiuk i Krasowicz-Kupis, 2014). ...
... Tradycyjnie stosowaną metodą nauczania poprawnego pisania w języku angielskim jest ustrukturyzowana metoda foniczna, wykorzystująca podejście wielozmysłowe (Miles, 2000;Nijakowska, 2010). Natomiast Margaret Crombie (2000) podkreślał znaczenie metapoznawczej świadomości najefektywniejszych strategii uczenia się poprawnego pisania w L2. ...
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Celem artykułu jest podjęcie tematów związanych z uspołecznieniem zarządzania szkołami w Polsce. Wycho-dząc od charakterystyki przemian systemu edukacji po 1989 r., omawiam stan uspołecznienia polskich szkół w świetle dotychczasowych badań, by zaproponować nowe ujęcie tej problematyki i wskazać kluczowe kwe-stie z nią związane. W artykule przedstawiam wyniki badania jakościowego przeprowadzonego w gminnych placówkach oświatowych zlokalizowanych w różnych częściach Polski, w którym wzięli udział pracownicy szkoły, rodzice, przedstawiciele samorządu lokalnego oraz partnerzy szkoły. W trakcie wywiadów indywidu-alnych i grupowych poruszano zagadnienia ogniskujące się wokół możliwości i konsekwencji wprowadze-nia społecznych rad nadzorczych w polskich szkołach, wzorem rozwiązań funkcjonujących w Anglii i Walii. W ten sposób została zbadana gotowość przedstawicieli społeczności szkół i ich otoczenia do uspołecznienia placówek edukacyjnych (przez poszerzenie grona interesariuszy oraz zwiększenie ich wpływu). W artykule szczegółowo przeanalizowałam argumenty podawane przez badanych, a na ich podstawie powstała typolo-gia postaw wobec uspołecznienia zarządzania szkołami. Opracowanie kończy się podsumowaniem wniosków z badania oraz wynikającymi z nich propozycjami działań. Słowa kluczowe: uspołecznienie szkoły; rada szkoły; społeczne rady nadzorcze; decentralizacja; rodzice; partnerzy szkoły. © Instytut Badań Edukacyjnych * Adres: ul.
... Thus, in the Greek orthography every letter consistently represents the same sound, but the same sound can be represented by different letters or pairs of letters. This makes spelling more difficult than reading (Mavrommati & Miles, 2002;Miles, 2000). According to Protopapas and Vlahou (2009), the grapheme-phoneme correspondences are as high as 95.1% in reading and 80.3% in spelling. ...
... Furthermore, there are examples of letters within words which remain more or less silent (e.g., the letter υ in "Δύβνηα"-/"evia/). Of course, we should say that although Greek is not an entirely transparent orthography (since in the oral-to-written direction it is somewhat opaque (Miles, 2000), it is much less obscure in its sound-spelling correspondences in comparison to other alphabetical systems, such as English or French. ...
Article
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In our study spelling skills of 40 dyslexic (mean age 13,2 years) and 40 non dyslexic children (mean age 10,9 years) matched on the basis of their general level of language proficiency and foreign language acquisition, were assessed through a dictation passage spelling test and the composing of picture elicited narratives, in both Greek (L1) and English (L2). Results indicate that spelling performance is affected by the distinct nature of each orthographic system. In both groups, phonological errors were the least frequent type of spelling errors, while the predominance of morphological and etymological errors indicates both groups' persistent difficulties with applying linguistic rules and systematicities. As expected, dyslexics made more errors of all types despite the fact that the two groups' error profiles did not differ qualitatively. Finally, both groups‟ revising and pausing behaviour indicated that spelling has been the main concern for both dyslexic and non dyslexic writers and confirmed the dyslexics' deficient error detection mechanism.
... Ponadto zasady są nieregularne, skomplikowane i obfitują w wyjątki (Nijakowska, 2010). Dla porównania, chociaż średnio transparentna (Awramiuk i Krasowicz-Kupis, 2014;Miles, 2000) pod względem morfologicznym i fonetycznym ortografia polska sprawia, że łatwiej jest dany wyraz przeczytać, niż zapisać (Awramiuk i Krasowicz-Kupis, 2014), to sam zapis wyrazów jest oparty na zaledwie czterech zasadach: fonetycznej (jedna głoska odpowiada jednej literze lub grupie liter; zgodnie z tą regułą można zapisać większość polskich wyrazów), morfologicznej, historycznej i konwencjonalnej (Gajda, 1999). Dlatego nauczanie pisania w języku polskim (który będzie dalej określany w tekście jako L1) opiera się na metodzie analityczno-syntetycznej, w której podstawą analizy i syntezy jest wyraz zawierający ćwiczoną głoskę lub literę, a dzieci uczą się dzielić słowa na głoski (Awramiuk i Krasowicz-Kupis, 2014). ...
... Tradycyjnie stosowaną metodą nauczania poprawnego pisania w języku angielskim jest ustrukturyzowana metoda foniczna, wykorzystująca podejście wielozmysłowe (Miles, 2000;Nijakowska, 2010). Natomiast Margaret Crombie (2000) podkreślał znaczenie metapoznawczej świadomości najefektywniejszych strategii uczenia się poprawnego pisania w L2. ...
Article
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Spelling in Polish is mediated by the relationship between the phonological processing skills in Polish and spelling in English in adolescents without, but not in adolescents with dyslexia The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between phonological processing skills in L1 (Polish language): short-term verbal and phonological memory, phoneme segmentation and blending and rapid automatized naming (RAN) and spelling in L2 (English) by Polish students with and without dyslexia. 63 (45%) high school and middle school students with dyslexia and 78 (55%) without dyslexia participated in the study. The results demonstrated that dyslexia, the time of L2 learning in school and privately, phonological processing in L1 were predictors of spelling in L2. The results also showed that spelling in L1 mediated between the phonological processing skills in L1: verbal short-term memory, phoneme blending, RAN (partial mediation), phonological short-term memory, and spelling in L2, but only in the group without dyslexia. Keywords: psychology; dyslexia; spelling; phonological processing; English as a foreign language.
... Dyslexia affects speakers of all languages in the world, and the prevalence in non-Chinese-speaking countries is 5% to 20% [46]. Due to the complexity of the logographic characters of Chinese [52] and the thousands of characters to be recognized [34], the visual perception skills of Chinese-speaking children are challenged more than those of non-Chinese-speaking children. The prevalence rate of Chinese language dyslexia in school-age children seems to be underestimated, but current estimates range from 3.0% to 12.6% [25]. ...
Article
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Visual processing of complex character configurations is especially challenging for Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia (CSCD). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of visual occlusion on postural control between dyslexic and non-dyslexic Chinese-speaking children by examining their visual-perceptual capacity and movement coordination with scale measures. Sixteen dyslexic children (10 males and, 6 females, 9.46 ± 1.26 yrs) and sixteen non-dyslexic children (10 males and 6 females, 9.91 ± 1.18 yrs) were recruited from the campus in Taiwan. Motor and visual perceptual performance were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) and the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills, 4th Edition (TVPS-4). Root mean square (RMS) and sample entropy (SampEn) of center of pressure (COP) were characterized during a bilateral upright stance with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). The results showed significant group differences in six of the seven TVPS-4 subscales (P < .001–.017) and one category of the MABC-2 (P = .006). In the EO condition, the children with dyslexia showed a greater RMS of COP specifically in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction than did the non-dyslexic children (P = .029). However, SampEn of COP in the two directions were not group dependent (P > .05). In the EC condition, RMS and SampEn of COP did not vary with group (P > .05). RMS of COP in the AP direction was negatively correlated with the sub-score of visual figure-ground in the TVPS-4 (r = - .381, P = .031). In summary, postural control of Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia is more affected with eyes open than with eyes closed, and the effect is related to visual disturbance of the foreground and background.
... On the other hand, Spencer (2000) argues that there is a considerable deviation in the one-to-one mapping of phonemes to graphemes in English while the Greek language deviates only a little as Greek phoneme-grapheme correspondence is straightforward in reading but not in writing (Miles, 2000). Therefore, the Greek alphabetic system is more transparent than the English (Goswami, 1997). ...
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This article deals with differentiation of teaching methods and extra time in class for pupils with dyslexia by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in two Greek state secondary schools. Activity theory is applied to analyse the contradictions that emerge around the issue of differentiation for pupils with dyslexia from data compiled from interviews with teachers, pupils and parents and field notes from lesson observations across two schools. The analysis shows that contradictions are created when participants try to achieve their goals for differentiation by lack of teachers’ knowledge, inadequate diagnosis, unclear school and Ministry policy, short duration of lessons and the number of pupils in class. The findings suggest the necessity of teacher training in dyslexia and the improvement of school and Ministry policy.
... There are different manifestations of developmental dyslexia in various languages [27]. Dyslexia is not a general deficit that will apply to any orthography, but it is an interaction between a cognitive deficit and the specific demands of the orthography to be learned [28]. ...
... The study of reading development and reading disabilities has been predominantly focused on findings from British and American research (Miles, 2000). ...
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Children growing up in an Arabic-speaking community must learn both a colloquial language variety (Spoken Arabic or SA) used in everyday life, and a standard language variety (Modern Standard Arabic or MSA) used for writing and formal language functions. A diglossic situation such as this poses special challenges for professionals engaged in the assessment of children’s emergent learning skills, such as speech language pathologists, reading specialists and teachers. Despite a rapidly growing number of published works on Arabic language and reading acquisition which take into account Arabic diglossia, most, if not all available Arabic language and reading assessment tools do not enable the examination of the direct effect of linguistic overlap or lack of it on children’s performance in language and literacy tasks. In contrast with the traditional approach, in which language performance within literacy testing is evaluated only in MSA, recent approaches have suggested inclusion of evaluation in SA only, or in both MSA and SA, depending on the modality: written tasks versus spoken tasks. It follows from this that the identification of children with learning disorder versus learning difficulty in Arabic is rendered more complex by issues related to the simultaneous acquisition of two distinct linguistic systems. Later in this chapter, the development of “ADAT,” the Arabic Diglossic Knowledge and Awareness Test, will be outlined which was designed to assess diglossic and metadiglossic knowledge at the elementary school level in the two language varieties of Arabic, across all language domains (semantics, morphosyntax, and phonology) and targeting features that are distinct in MSA and Palestinian Spoken Arabic (PSA), a prevalent SA variety.
... Diese Annahme wurde in den letzten Jahren von einigen Autoren gründlich untersucht (z.B. Frith und Frith, 1996;Goswami, 1997;Miles, 2000;Spencer, 2001;Wimmer, 1996). ...
... However, emerging data indicate that dyslexia is manifested in distinctly varied ways in different orthographies (Joshi & Aaron, 2006;Katzir, Shaul, Breznitz, & Wolf, 2004;Miles, 2000). The alphabetic writing systems are situated along a continuum of opacity-transparency, depending on their code consistency. ...
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Spanish-speaking children learn to read words written in a relatively transparent orthography. Variations in orthographic transparency may shape the manifestation of reading difficulties. This study was intended to help clarify the nature of developmental dyslexia in Spanish. Developmental dyslexic group (DD) were compared to two control groups, a chronological age-matched control group (CA) and a reading level-matched control group (RL). Measures included naming speed, verbal working memory (WM), phonological short-term memory (STM), phonemic awareness, and different reading subtests (letter, word and pseudoword reading, punctuation mark, reading skills). On the reading subtests, accuracy and reading speed were measured. Results demonstrated that developmental dyslexics show a severe deficit in lexical access on accuracy and speed measures, in addition to reading-related cognitive deficits in areas such as naming speed, verbal WM, phonological STM, and phonemic awareness. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that a subgroup of children with DD showed lower IQs and more severe reading-related cognitive deficits in naming speed, verbal WM, and phonological STM. Our results are consistent with studies conducted in the Spanish language and in other transparent orthographies.
... The manifestation of dyslexia has been well established for English readers, but cross-linguistic studies has revealed that the manifestation of dyslexia varies depending on the type of orthographic transparency of language that children are learning (Defior, 2004;Joshi & Aaron, 2006;Katzir, Shaul, Breznitz, & Wolf, 2004;Miles, 2000). The orthographic transparency refers to the consistency or phonemic system between the grapheme-phoneme (G-P) correspondences (Joshi & Aaron, 2006). ...
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Spanish-speaking children learn to read words written in a relatively transparent orthography. Variations in orthographic transparency may shape the manifestation of reading difficulties. This study was intended to help clarify the nature of developmental dyslexia in Spanish. Developmentally Dyslexic children (DD) were compared to a chronological age-matched control group (CA). Measures included rapid automated naming, verbal working memory, phonological short-term memory, and phonemic awareness. Results demonstrated that developmental dyslexics show reading-related cognitive deficits in areas such as naming speed, verbal working memory, phonological short-term memory, and phonemic awareness. Our results are consistent with studies conducted in the Spanish language and in other transparent orthographies.
... First, our findings can be generalized only to the languages under investigation and for the ages of the participants we had in our sample. Many researchers have used Greek as an example of a consistent orthography (Ellis et al., 2004;Seymour et al., 2003) but there are still objections to this conceptualization (Miles, 2000). To the extent that the purpose of this study was to identify differences in processes involved in reading in a consistent orthography and in an inconsistent orthography, then using Greek might not have been an optimal solution compared to languages such as Finnish or Turkish, which are considered close to 100% consistent. ...
Article
We examined whether the effect that different non-cognitive and cognitive factors have on reading acquisition varies as a function of orthographic consistency. Canadian (n = 77) and Greek (n = 95) children attending kindergarten were examined on general cognitive ability, phonological sensitivity, and letter knowledge. The parents of the children responded to a questionnaire on home literacy activities and the teachers reported on children's task-focused behaviour. In Grades 1 and 2 the children's word decoding and reading fluency were assessed. Results indicated that direct teaching of letter names and sounds at home was associated with better letter knowledge in both languages. Task-focused behaviour and letter knowledge in kindergarten predicted significantly nonword decoding in Grade 1, but their effect was stronger in English than in Greek. This pattern was not replicated for reading fluency in Grade 2.
... La velocidad de denominación de letras es el mejor predictor temprano del desarrollo lector en español las investigaciones de la dislexia en otros idiomas, lo que podría llevar a considerar supuestos no necesariamente generalizables y a subestimar la importancia de otros factores inherentes a la ortografía de cada lengua (ver Miles, 2000). Algunas de las características que se han asociado con la dislexia, como la decodificación ineficiente a nivel de palabras, parecen estar particularmente influidas por la compleja correspondencia fonemagrafema de la lengua inglesa. ...
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Resumen: En este trabajo se estudió longitudinalmente, en 121 niños, el valor predictivo de la velocidad de denominación y las habilidades fonológicas sobre el aprendizaje de la lectura y sus alteraciones. La denominación de letras predijo mejor la ejecu-ción lectora e identificó correctamente a 63% de los niños que posteriormente presentaron dificultades en la velocidad para leer, la cual se ha considerado como el rasgo distintivo de la dislexia en español. Algunas tareas de conciencia fonológica contribuyeron a explicar la eficiencia y la comprensión lectora. Los niños con un doble déficit, en velocidad de denominación y conciencia fonológica, presentaron el peor rendimiento lector. La evaluación de la velocidad de denominación en etapas tempranas puede tener importantes implicaciones para el diagnóstico y la intervención de los niños con dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura. Abstract: This project was a longitudinal study, in 121 children, of the predictive value of naming speed and phonological awareness in learning to read and its alterations. Naming letters best predicted the execution of reading and correctly identified 63% of the children who subsequently showed difficulties in reading speed. Such difficulties have been considered the distinctive trait of dyslexia in Spanish. Some tasks of phonological awareness contributed to explaining reading efficiency and comprehension. Children with a double deficit, in naming speed and phonological awareness, had the worst performance in reading. The evaluation of naming speed at early stages can have important implications on diagnosis and intervention in children with difficulties in learning to read.
... First, our findings can be generalized only to the languages under investigation and for the ages we tested. Greek has been used by many researchers as an example of a transparent orthography (e.g., Goswami et al., 1997;Seymour, Aro, & Erskine, 2003), but there are still objections to this conceptualization (e.g., Miles, 2000). Because the purpose of this study was to compare reading processes in a consistent orthography with an inconsistent orthography, using Greek might not have been as optimal a comparison language as Finnish or Turkish, which are considered nearly 100% consistent. ...
Article
Very few studies have directly compared reading acquisition across different orthographies. The authors examined the concurrent and longitudinal predictors of word decoding and reading fluency in children learning to read in an orthographically inconsistent language (English) and in an orthographically consistent language (Greek). One hundred ten English-speaking children and 70 Greek-speaking children attending Grade 1 were examined in measures of phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid naming speed, orthographic processing, word decoding, and reading fluency. The same children were reassessed on word decoding and reading fluency measures when they were in Grade 2. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that both phonological and orthographic processing contributed uniquely to reading ability in Grades 1 and 2. However, the importance of these predictors was different in the two languages, particularly with respect to their effect on word decoding. The authors argue that the orthography that children are learning to read is an important factor that needs to be taken into account when models of reading development are being generalized across languages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... There was a proliferation of publications about orthographic differences across languages, including nonalphabetic languages, and their implications for individuals with learning difficulties (see, e.g., Durgunoglu &Verhoeven, 1998;Harris & Hatano, 1999;Leong, Cheng & Lam, 2000;Leong & Joshi, 1997;Miles, 2000;Perfetti, Rieben & Fayol, 1997). ...
... However, Smythe and Everatt (2000) note that despite developmental dyslexia being recognised throughout the world, tests to identify the difficulties experienced by individuals with developmental dyslexia exist in relatively few languages. Miles (2000) observes that most research studies concerned with the difficulties of individuals with dyslexia in acquiring literacy and accompanying phonological difficulties were conducted in the American/British vernacular by American, Canadian, Scandinavian or British researchers. The majority of subjects in such studies were monolingual English-speaking participants and assumptions might have been made about the nature of dyslexia 'which are dependent on the complex features of that language' (Miles, 2000, p. 193). ...
Article
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Despite advancements in empirical studies of developmental dyslexia, progress on methods of dyslexia assessment have been hampered by ongoing debate concerning diverse issues such as the role and validity of IQ in the assessment process, labelling and definitions (Miles, 1994; Stanovich, 1991, 1992). With the emergence of cross-linguistic studies of dyslexia came the realisation that the manifestation of dyslexia is different in different languages (Goulandris, 2003; Smythe, Everatt & Salter, 2004). It follows that the assessment of dyslexia should consider specific linguistic features of the language spoken by the individual to be assessed. This paper argues for the need of culture-fair assessment and calls for considerations to be given when assessing monolingual Arabic-speaking individuals with dyslexia which would take into account the specific linguistic feature of the Arabic language.
... Therefore, radicals play important roles in the development of orthographic representation for Chinese children. Given the importance of orthographic processing in Chinese (e.g., Ho et al., 2002Ho et al., , 2004 and the fact that the manifestations of deficits for dyslexia may vary for speakers of different languages (Miles, 2000), in the present study we carried out an event-related potentials (ERPs) examination to explore the electrophysiological reflection of observed orthographic representations so as to utilize radical positions in Chinese character recognition. From 80% to 90% of Chinese characters are compound characters (Shu et al., 2003). ...
Article
The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to examine group differences in processing of orthographic information in Chinese children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Twelve dyslexic (ages 100-125 months) and 11 control (ages 104-124 months) children were given a character decision task (similar to a lexical decision task). For the control group, the radical position information influenced the character processing at a later stage of semantic information processing as reflected by a more negative N400 component in the pseudocharacter condition, in which the semantic and phonetic radical were combined following correct orthographic rules, as compared to the noncharacter condition, in which the structure of the semantic and phonetic radicals was reversed from that for each real character. In contrast, the dyslexic group showed no such differences across the experimental conditions for the N400 component. Results suggest that Chinese children with dyslexia may have a deficit in processing orthographic information (specifically, radical position). Furthermore, a late positive component (LPC) was elicited in both groups, suggesting that children may have to back track on their earlier semantic memory in order to make a final decision as to whether the character is real or not.
... Σύμφωνα με τον Porpodas (1999) όμως, ενώ είναι εύκολο για τους έλληνες μαθητές να μάθουν να αποκωδικοποιούν σωστά δυσκολεύονται να γράφουν ορθά. Στην ελληνική γλώσσα, η πιστή γραφοφωνημική αντιστοίχιση και ο υψηλός βαθμός κανονικότητας που συναντάται κατά την ανάγνωση έρχονται σε αντίθεση με την ασυνεπή αντιστοίχιση των γραμμάτων και των φωνημάτων που παρατηρείται κατά τη γραφή (Πρωτόπαπας, 2010;Miles, 2000). Η διαφορά τους έγκειται στη γραπτή απόδοση των φωνημάτων. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to illustrate the differences of 8th-grade students with and without Learning Disabilities (LD) in their competence in ancient Greek. All students were assessed in reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, cognitive and metacognitive strategy knowledge as well as the spelling in ancient Greek texts and words. The further aim of the current study was to find out what variables may predict students competence in the previously mentioned skills. Results showed that the groups did not have significant differences in strategy and vocabulary knowledge, but the non-LD group was significantly better in reading comprehension and spelling than the LD group. Furthermore, vocabulary and strategy knowledge are significant predictors of rea - ding comprehension, while vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of phonological and morphological spelling.
... In this sense, our sample may not be representative of the deaf population implanted at an early age and who received adequate rehabilitation, and therefore with a much higher level of oral competence than our participants. Also, although our instruments were very finely tuned to the specific needs and profile of deaf readers, and evaluators trained by the authors of the instruments themselves, administration fidelity was not specifically assessed and could add some additional measurement error, Finally, due to our goals, some of the conclusions of this work may applicable only to Spanish, and, reasonably, to other languages with a similar degree of orthographic transparency, but not to other to the overestimation or underestimation of the importance of certain factors (Miles, 2000). ...
Article
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Different studies have showed poor reading performance in the deaf compared to the hearing population. This has overshadowed the fact that a minority of deaf children learns to read successfully and reaches levels similar to their hearing peers. We analyze whether deaf people deploy the same cognitive and learning processes in reading as their hearing peers. For this purpose, we analyzed the relation between phonological processing, speechreading, vocabulary, reading speed, and accuracy with reading efficiency in a sample of deaf people and two control groups respectively matched on chronological age and reading level. The results indicate that deaf people's level of reading efficiency is lower than hearing people's of the same age, but that deafness status in itself is not a good predictor of reading level. The results do not support the idea that deaf people's reading is the result of different processes from the hearing population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
... Ganschow: We know from research on differences across orthographies that individuals with dyslexia whose first language has a transparent orthography (i.e., direct sound/symbol correspondences), such as Italian, appear to learn to read (at least initially) more easily than individuals whose first language has a more opaque orthography, such as English (see, e.g., Miles, 2000;Paulesu, et al. (2001). What are the implications of this research for identifying and teaching learners who have difficulties learning a second language? ...
Conference Paper
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The essential question addressed by participants concerns the emphasis placed on surface forms and how, or whether, they are connected with meanings. Oller insists that the meaning is critical, though some participants argued that progress can be made by teaching surface forms without reference to their meanings.
... Le pôle savoir 31 Si les neurosciences cognitives permettent de confirmer, par des techniques de neuroimagerie, qu'il existe une base neurocognitive universelle à la dyslexie, indépendamment de la culture de l'individu (Paulesu et al., 2001) ; elles ne permettent pas d'expliquer pourquoi la prévalence de ce trouble varie considérablement d'un pays à l'autre (Paulesu et al., 2001 ;Lindgren et al.,1985). Ces variations pourraient être attribuées aux différents critères utilisés et aux différentes définitions de la dyslexie selon les cultures (Lindgren et al., 1985) mais également à la structure interne des idiomes considérés (Lindgren et al., 1985 ;Paulesu et al., 2001 ;Miles, 2000Miles, et 2004. ...
... La mayoría de los trabajos sobre las dificultades fonológicas de los disléxicos se han realizado en niños de habla inglesa. Estos hallazgos han influido en E las investigaciones de la dislexia en otros idiomas, lo que podría llevar a considerar supuestos no necesariamente generalizables y a subestimar la importancia de otros factores inherentes a la ortografía de cada lengua (ver Miles, 2000). Algunas de las características que se han asociado con la dislexia, como la decodificación ineficiente a nivel de palabras, parecen estar particularmente influidas por la compleja correspondencia fonemagrafema de la lengua inglesa. ...
Article
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Even though it is well known that the reading skills in dyslexia children turn more efficient with age, it is still not clear whether they equal the reading performance of their peers without this type of ailment. The purpose of this work is to know if the reading skills of dyslexic Spanish speaking children equal the ones of their regular reader peers in a period of two years. Sixty children: 30 regular readers (CC) and 30 with reading problems (GE), from 2(nd) to 6(th) grade elementary school pet-formed reading and oral recovery tasks from a text. The GE shows that the deficit in reading prevents them from equalizing CC, even when becoming better with age.
... While phonological deficit has been shown to be the dominant type of deficit among children learning to read and write alphabetic languages (Miles 2000), the majority of children with Chinese developmental dyslexia exhibited three or more types of cognitive deficits including rapid naming deficit, orthographic deficit, morphological deficit, and visual deficit (Ho et al. 2002;Wu, Packard, and Shu 2009). Findings from ongoing research have informed the development of screening and diagnostic tools for children with dyslexia, for example, the Hong Kong Reading Ability Screening Test for Preschool Children ) and the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD) (Ho et al. 2000). ...
Article
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This introductory article for the special issue of “The International Journal of Diversity in Education” weaves the research interests and histories of members of the local organizing committee for the Fifteenth International Conference on Diversity in Organizations, Communities & Nations held at the University of Hong Kong (HKU) in July 2015. These members share a common research context—diversity and education in Hong Kong and the article aims to reflect that, although from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and concerns with different sectors and approaches to education, our collective interest centers on education and social justice in Hong Kong. Issues explored in K-12 schooling range across: inclusive education, Chinese language support for special education needs children and non- Chinese speaking (NCS) learners, and multicultural education. ssues explored in higher education focus on the academic workforce in Hong Kong, both in terms of internationalization policy and academic mobility in professional education, and with regard to gender equity and the role of women in the academy.
... In general, one should question this assumption (Vachek, 1945;Luelsdorff, 1987;Sproat, 2000Sproat, , 2012Neef et al., 2012). For the particular languages we investigate here-Czech and German-it is less problematic, as they are have fairly "transparent" mappings between spelling and pronunciation (Matějček, 1998;Miles, 2000;Caravolas and Volín, 2001), which enables them to achieve higher performance on grapheme-tophoneme conversion than do English and other "opaque" orthographic systems (Schlippe et al., 2012). These studies suggest that we are justified in taking orthography as a proxy for phonological form. ...
... English, French) the rules of grapheme pronunciation are ambiguous. Polish is semitransparent (Miles 2000). ...
Article
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Research has shown that learners of different linguistic backgrounds make similar errors, which is due to linguistic transfer. Cross-linguistic similarities between L1 and L2 can result in: positive transfer, negative transfer, and differing lengths of acquisition. The bigger the difference between the languages, the bigger Second Language Acquisition difficulties and more numerous potential negative transfer areas. This effect is visible in the case of Polish as L1 and English as L2. English and Polish differ in terms of pronunciation (e.g. vowel-based vs. consonant-based), spelling (e.g. opaque vs. semi-transparent), grammar (e.g. fixed vs. flexible word order), syntax (e.g. analytic vs. synthetic), and vocabulary. Therefore, second language instruction should include the errors caused by linguistic transfer, which would facilitate the selection and development of effective instruction methods and techniques.
... While phonological deficit has been shown to be the dominant type of deficit among children learning to read and write alphabetic languages (Miles 2000), the majority of children with Chinese developmental dyslexia exhibited three or more types of cognitive deficits including rapid naming deficit, orthographic deficit, morphological deficit, and visual deficit (Ho et al. 2002;Wu, Packard, and Shu 2009). Findings from ongoing research have informed the development of screening and diagnostic tools for children with dyslexia, for example, the Hong Kong Reading Ability Screening Test for Preschool Children ) and the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD) (Ho et al. 2000). ...
... In general, one should question this assumption (Vachek, 1945;Luelsdorff, 1987;Sproat, 2000Sproat, , 2012Neef et al., 2012). For the particular languages we investigate here-Czech and German-it is less problematic, as they are have fairly "transparent" mappings between spelling and pronunciation (Matějček, 1998;Miles, 2000;Caravolas and Volín, 2001), which enables them to achieve higher performance on grapheme-tophoneme conversion than do English and other "opaque" orthographic systems (Schlippe et al., 2012). These studies suggest that we are justified in taking orthography as a proxy for phonological form. ...
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The noun lexica of many natural languages are divided into several declension classes with characteristic morphological properties. Class membership is far from deterministic, but the phonological form of a noun and/or its meaning can often provide imperfect clues. Here, we investigate the strength of those clues. More specifically, we operationalize this by measuring how much information, in bits, we can glean about declension class from knowing the form and/or meaning of nouns. We know that form and meaning are often also indicative of grammatical gender---which, as we quantitatively verify, can itself share information with declension class---so we also control for gender. We find for two Indo-European languages (Czech and German) that form and meaning respectively share significant amounts of information with class (and contribute additional information above and beyond gender). The three-way interaction between class, form, and meaning (given gender) is also significant. Our study is important for two reasons: First, we introduce a new method that provides additional quantitative support for a classic linguistic finding that form and meaning are relevant for the classification of nouns into declensions. Secondly, we show not only that individual declensions classes vary in the strength of their clues within a language, but also that these variations themselves vary across languages. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/rycolab/declension-mi.
... First, the majority of previous studies that have examined the possible comorbidity of dyslexia and SLI have been conducted in English, an "outlier" orthography (Share, 2008). Second, the cognitive and language deficits associated with dyslexia or SLI may differ across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Miles, 2000). Finally, most of the previous studies focused on samples of younger participants, making it difficult to examine the question about the discreteness of these two common language disorders at a later age (e.g., Snowling & Melby-Lervåg, 2016). ...
Article
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Specific language impairment (SLI) and reading disability (RD) are familial, moderately heritable comorbid developmental disorders. The key deficit of SLI is oral language, whereas children with RD exhibit impairment in learning to read. The present study examines the possible co-occurrence of RD and SLI and the nature of this co-occurrence at a linguistic and a cognitive level in an orthographically consistent language. Four groups of children participated in the study: an RD group (n = 10), an SLI group (n = 13), a possible comorbid group (n = 9), and a control–no deficit group (n = 20). Analysis showed that all three clinical groups in our sample performed similarly in phonological awareness and naming-speed tasks. However, significant group differences were observed in orthographic processing, reading, semantics, and phonological memory measures, thus supporting the view that SLI and RD are distinct disorders. Results are in line with previous findings indicating that SLI and RD share common characteristics, although the two conditions are manifested with different symptoms.
... Finally, it seems that failure in word boundaries discrimination along with persistent problems with syllable and phoneme discrimination are quite specific to English dyslexic children 24 . Such an observation raises the important issue of the effect different orthographies exert on dyslexic readers. ...
Article
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The authors of the present paper describe the probable pathogenetic mechanisms of specific reading disability, i.e. dyslexia. This analysis is grounded on the most widespread, yet hypothetical, cognitive deficit theories which account for the emergence and causation of dyslexia. These theories, coupled with the neurobiological underpinnings, imply that it is difficult to adopt a single approach in order to locate the causal relationships inherent to the disorder. Each one of the approaches provides critical insights to the mechanisms that underlie the development of literacy skills in normally developing children when exposed to literacy acquisition. Additionally, each theory attempts to explicate the factors that may be involved in the unexpected disruption of the learning process. The difficulty in establishing accurate phonological and orthographic representations in spite of adequate exposure to print, the transparency of mother tongue, brain architecture, and familial predisposition, all seem to contribute drastically to the deficient development of dyslexic children. Neuro-imaging studies along with molecular advances have been shedding even more light onto the backstage of dyslexic reading performance. Apparently, dyslexia could only be accounted for by an interactive approach within the framework of which the different influences from scientific trends may delineate the dyslexic phenotype.
... END's and ED's acquisition of English as NL started at birth, in a family environment, when such acquisition is the most natural and effective (Carroll, 2008;Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011). During subsequent formal education, they were taught to read via methods specifically designed for opaque, irregular, and inconsistent orthography, for example, structured phonic strategy (Miles, 2000;Nijakowska, 2010). Polish students are instructed with the usage of an analytic-synthetic method (Dobkowska, 2014) adjusted to a relatively high orthographic transparency for reading in Polish. ...
Article
We aimed to investigate the relationship between reading difficulties in native language (NL: Polish) and English as a foreign language in dyslexia in English and Polish students, respectively, and to develop a model of relations between NL phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short‐term memory, and reading in English. Thirteen English students with dyslexia (ED), 15 without (END) and 16 Polish students with dyslexia (PD) and 16 without (PND) participated. We found that dyslexic deficits and different phoneme‐to‐grapheme correspondence rules between Polish and English interfered with the accuracy and fluency of word and nonword decoding and word recognition. Whereas END scored higher than PD and PND in all reading measures, ED did not, despite a NL advantage. When compared with PND, ED performed equal in nonword decoding, which depends to a higher degree on phoneme‐to‐grapheme conversion rather than lexical access. When compared with PD, ED performed equally in nonword fluency, which is most likely a nonscript‐dependant skill. More variance in reading was explained by NL than FL factors, even if analogical NL/FL skills predicted a given variable. While in ED and END, these relationships agreed with the literature; in PD and PND, NL phonological awareness was not beneficial for English as a foreign language reading.
... La mayoría de los trabajos sobre las dificultades fonológicas de los disléxicos se han realizado en niños de habla inglesa. Estos hallazgos han influido en E las investigaciones de la dislexia en otros idiomas, lo que podría llevar a considerar supuestos no necesariamente generalizables y a subestimar la importancia de otros factores inherentes a la ortografía de cada lengua (ver Miles, 2000). Algunas de las características que se han asociado con la dislexia, como la decodificación ineficiente a nivel de palabras, parecen estar particularmente influidas por la compleja correspondencia fonemagrafema de la lengua inglesa. ...
... However, the heterogeneity of dyslexia suggests that the PD might not be sufficient to explain differences between dyslexic children: This possibility implies a number of diverse sources underlying reading disabilities (Shany & Share, 2011). In line with this view, research findings have reported that a PD is not the only source of dyslexia (Miles, 2000;Vaessen, Gerretsen, & Blomert, 2009;Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001) and that dyslexic children also show problems in the speed of naming well-known visual items measured by rapid automatized naming (RAN) of various stimuli (Wolf, Bowers, & Biddle, 2000). Although phonological awareness (PA) is related to accurate reading through the conversion of written letters into the speech codes they represent (Rack, Snowling, & Olson, 1992), RAN is related to reading speed (Breznitz, 2006;Cardoso-Martins & Pennington, 2004) by inducing and extracting orthographic patterns (Bowers, Sunseth, & Golden, 1999) and enriching the number and quality of orthographic patterns in memory (Thaler, Ebner, Wimmer, & Landerl, 2004;Wolf & Bowers, 1999). ...
Article
We examined the double‐deficit hypothesis in Arabic by investigating the reading and cognitive profiles of readers with selective deficits in naming speed, phonological awareness, or both. In a nationally representative sample of 486 children in the third and fourth grades, we identified 171 children with reading difficulties: 20 (12%) were classified as having a phonological deficit, 31 (18%) as having a naming speed deficit, and 41 (24%) as having a double deficit. Differences between the subgroups extended to reading, cognitive, and linguistic processes beyond phonological and naming abilities. Children with a double deficit performed worse than those with a naming speed deficit but similar to those with a phonological deficit. Numerous unconfirmed theories led to an in‐depth analysis of the nature of rapid automatized naming and its relation to orthographic processing. Surprisingly, our findings revealed that orthographic processing may be considered a novel and separate core deficit, suggesting a triple deficit in Arabic rather than a double deficit. The findings are discussed in light of the uniqueness and complexity of Arabic orthography and orthographic transparency in the Arabic language.
Article
In this review, we describe a series of cognitive neuropsychological studies of Chinese speaking aphasic patients that reveal subtypes of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese. These subtypes can be understood with reference to a cognitive framework that assumes reading and writing to dictation in Chinese depends on the division of labor between two pathways: a lexical-semantic pathway and a direct or nonsemantic pathway. This framework generates a number of predictions about the types of literacy problems that might be observed in native Chinese speakers who are learning to read and write. We argue that the language environment, and specifically the type of script used to read and write, will play a role in determining the phenotype of dyslexia in Chinese. We conclude that dyslexia in Chinese can be caused by psycholinguistic impairments at multiple levels including orthographic, semantic (morphological), and phonological processing.
Article
But de l’étudeL’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer l’impact des modifications proprioceptives induites par un traitement postural sur les troubles cognitifs d’une population d’enfants souffrant de dyslexie de développement.Patients et méthodesIl a été constitué un groupe de 20 enfants dyslexiques traités par prismes posturaux, semelles « de posture » et rééducation posturale, et un groupe témoin de 13 enfants dyslexiques portant uniquement des lunettes sans prismes. Tous les enfants étaient de sexe masculin. Lors de leur inclusion dans l’étude (M0) et 6 mois plus tard (M6), tous les participants ont été évalués par un bilan ophtalmologique et postural et ont reçu un examen neuropsychologique concernant les processus visuo-lexicaux par un examinateur en insu ainsi que les processus phonologiques et métaphonologiques.RésultatsL’âge moyen des enfants du « groupe traité » était de 11 ans et 5 mois et celui des enfants du « groupe non traité » de 11 ans et 7 mois. Quatre enfants du « groupe traité » ont été exclus à M6 pour non-observance du traitement. Tous les patients dyslexiques présentaient un syndrome de déficience posturale lors de l’inclusion. Chez les sujets traités, le traitement a été bénéfique pour les signes fonctionnels et la plupart des signes physiques par rapport au « groupe non traité ». Chez 13 des 16 enfants traités, il a amélioré de manière significative certains paramètres de la dyslexie, notamment le test de leximétrie globale, la lecture des mots réguliers et irréguliers, et les épreuves de décision orthographique et de complétion graphémique. Les épreuves concernant les processus phonologiques et celles concernant la manipulation mentale des sons du langage (conscience phonologique) n’ont pas été significativement améliorées.ConclusionLes résultats de cette étude ouvrent une nouvelle voie de recherche en montrant qu’une modification de la proprioception peut être bénéfique sur certains éléments cliniques rencontrés dans la dyslexie de développement. Le niveau d’action du traitement postural sur les signes de dyslexie qui se sont améliorés reste à préciser. Cette étude préliminaire doit être complétée par un essai thérapeutique sur un plus grand nombre de patients et pendant une plus longue durée.PurposeTo evaluate the consequences of proprioception changes induced by a postural treatment on cognitive disturbances in children suffering from developmental dyslexia.Material and methodsTwenty male dyslexic children were treated with prisms within their spectacles and a postural treatment. A control group of dyslexics (n=13) only received spectacles without prisms. All participants were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 6 months later with reading impairment tests and postural examinations.ResultsMean age was 11 years and 5 months in the treated group and 11 years and 7 months in the control group. Four children were excluded from the 6-month analysis because of poor compliance. All dyslexic children presented with a postural deficiency syndrome. In 13 out of 16 treated children, dyslexia was improved at 6 months, especially for the global leximetric test and the reading of regular and irregular words. However, the treatment did not allow a complete recovery of reading ability when compared with age-matched individuals.Conclusion Our results show that postural modifications may favorably influence some clinical signs associated with developmental dyslexia. Further studies with a larger sample and with a longer follow-up period are required to better assess the role of postural treatment in developmental dyslexia.
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This qualitative study addresses a conceptual framework for integrating naqli (religious education) and aqli (conventional knowledge) into Arabic language learning tools for dyslexic students. Literature reviews and document analysis techniques were used in order to study backgrounds and processes related to the proposed framework. The results are then presented narratively, starting with the four identifiable categories of naqli and aqli integration and how it can help determine the set-up of an instrument of Arabic language knowledge transfer, which is designed to help individuals with dyslexia. Each level is established to serve either as an independent entity that balances each other out, or to take the form of a stage in a process that influences other processes. Understanding how the integration works is fundamental to bringing about effective implementation of Dyslexia Arabic Language Learning Tools (DALT). Within the framework of the naqli-aqli integration, knowledge and expertise will have to be coupled with good character to foster learners’ civic development.
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Cross-linguistic studies showed that young readers are sensitive to the orthographic and phonological structures of the languages in use. In our attempt to develop a Malay reading remedial programme, we conducted a word count analysis on Year 1 and Year 2 Malay textbooks. The results provided empirical evidence to describe the orthographic and phonological features of Malay, which functions to inform the cross-linguistic adaptations needed for a Malay-reading remedial programme. The results revealed that words with single-letter grapheme are common, and grapheme–phoneme mappings are transparent in the Malay language. However, different from English, monosyllabic words are few in the Malay language. The under-representation of monosyllabic words necessitates the use of two-syllabic words as the primary set of word stimuli for a reading remedial programme. It is also shown that the Malay language is more complex at the syllabic and morphological levels, which we argue will affect word reading acquisition, despite having a transparent orthography.
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Artykuł omawia zagadnienie organizacji i przebiegu edukacji językowej w odniesieniu do nauczania języków obcych w Polsce. W polskim systemie kształcenia językowego poziomy zaawansowania opisywane są według Europejskiego Systemu Opisu Kształcenia Językowego i odnoszone do kolejnych etapów edukacyjnych. Artykuł charakteryzuje metodykę nauczania języków obcych oraz umiejętności językowe polskich uczniów na podstawie analizy dostępnych raportów i doniesień z badań teoretycznych i empirycznych. This article discusses the organization and development of language education in relation to foreign language teaching in Poland. In the Polish language training system, the levels of proficiency are described in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and referenced to the subsequent educational stages. The article describes the methodology of language teaching and the language skills of Polish students based on the analysis of available papers and reports from theoretical and empirical research.
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To identify the indicators of persistent reading difficulties among Chinese readers in early elementary grades, the performance of three groups of Chinese children with different reading trajectories ('persistent poor word readers', 'improved poor word readers' and 'skilled word readers') in reading-related measures was analysed in a 3-year longitudinal study. The three groups were classified according to their performance in a standardized Chinese word reading test in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Results of analysis of variance and logistic regression on the reading-related measures revealed that rapid naming and syntactic skills were important indicators of early word reading difficulty. Syntactic skills and morphological awareness were possible markers of persistent reading problems. Chinese persistent poor readers did not differ significantly from skilled readers on the measures of phonological skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In transparent orthographies like German, isolated learning disabilities in either reading or spelling are common and occur as often as a combined reading and spelling disability. However, most issues surrounding the cognitive causes of these isolated or combined literacy difficulties are yet unresolved. Recently, working memory dysfunctions have been demonstrated to be promising in explaining the emergence of literacy difficulties. Thus, we applied a 2 (reading disability: yes vs. no) × 2 (spelling disability: yes vs. no) factorial design to examine distinct and overlapping working memory profiles associated with learning disabilities in reading versus spelling. Working memory was assessed in 204 third graders, and multivariate analyses of variance were conducted for each working memory component. Children with spelling disability suffered from more pronounced phonological loop impairments than those with reading disability. In contrast, domain-general central-executive dysfunctions were solely associated with reading disability, but not with spelling disability. Concerning the visuospatial sketchpad, no impairments were found. In sum, children with reading disability and those with spelling disability seem to be characterized by different working memory profiles. Thus, it is important to take both reading and spelling into account when investigating cognitive factors of literacy difficulties in transparent orthographies.
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Adolescents with dyslexia dysorthographia have some phonological skill deficiency and/or visual-attention deficit. Knowing that these same skills are required to use SMS codes, the main objective of this study is to understand how these subjects use texting language. To understand this, we compared the SMSs of adolescents with dyslexia dysorthographia with the SMSs of typical writers in a dictation task. We analyzed the number and the type of SMS codes used by the subjects. This study shows less use of SMS codes in quantitative terms in adolescents with dyslexia dysorthographia (DD), but globally equivalent use in terms of quality, in comparison with normal writers. Keywords: adolescent; SMS language; dyslexia; dysorthographia; writing; development
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This paper investigates the collaboration of Greek secondary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) with psychologists and advisers for dyslexia issues. Data were collected through audio recorded observations and interviews with head teachers and teachers. Taking a Vygotskian approach to learning, activity theory is applied to analyse the contradictions that emerge around the collaboration of teachers and head teachers with specialist provision for dyslexia issues from data in interviews and field notes across two schools. The analysis shows that contradictions are created when the participants try to achieve their goals for dyslexia support by the absence of ‘what’ artefacts – such as knowledge on dyslexia – and ‘how’ artefacts – processes and procedures such as collaboration with a counsellor – to support the collaboration of EFL teachers with EFL and special educational needs advisers and psychologists, the lack of staff at diagnostic centres and lack of funding for training. This finding indicates that the collaboration between psychologists, advisers and teachers to exchange information on pedagogy needs to be established through meetings and in-service training of teachers.
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There is no genetically determined brain area for writing, alphabetization affects brain regions preadapted for other cognitive functions. Dyslexias, with a well documented genetic basis, are conditioned by cortical developmental anomalies in regions assigned to phonological and orthographic representational matching. There would be a posterior left hemispheric circuit with a ventral component linked to rapid orthographic visual discrimination, and a temporo-parietal dorsal one involved in the more effortful orthography-to-phonology matching between lexical and sublexical representations. Disorders in these posterior circuits are specific to dyslexia. The anterior circuit, centered by the inferior left frontal gyrus, is associated to the reading effort, when it requires phono-articulatory recoding. Disorders in other brain areas have been found. Magnocellular disturbs (rapid visual and auditive sequential discrimination) and cerebellar dysfunction (rapid association capacities, procedural learning) also have been described, although they are an inconstant phenomena and barely interpreted. For an adequate interpretation of multiple dyslexia cases, it must be considered the serie of co-morbidities that are frequently found, and usually are indicators of a more extended brain disorder
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The aim of our study was to describe specific difficulties in reading and spelling in English (L2) of Polish (L1) students with dyslexia, as compared with Polish students without dyslexia. We found that Polish students with dyslexia, as compared with the controls, were less accurate and fluent in reading actual words and nonwords in L2. They made more phonological and orthographic errors in single L2 word spelling task; phonological spelling errors were more frequent than orthographic errors in both groups. The criterion group had more limited L2 vocabulary, regardless of the word difficulty. We also observed a positive correlation between the speed and accuracy of reading, and spelling in the two languages, though this relationship was more conspicuous in the control group. Our results corroborate Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis. Acquiring a second language poses substantial problems for the dyslexic students, who struggle with phonological processing deficits in L1 and L2.
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The cognitive profiles of children with Developmental Reading Disorder (RD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) have been extensively studied in alphabetic language communities. Deficits in phonological processing and rapid naming have been implicated as core features of RD although whether the latter is a deficit specific to RD remains controversial. Similar research aiming to explore the cognitive profiles of children with both RD and ADHD in non-alphabetic language communities is limited. The specificity of rapid naming deficit to RD among Chinese has yet to be studied. In the first study, 43 Chinese children with confirmed diagnoses of RD+ADHD were assessed on their cognitive abilities in relating to reading. In the second study, the specificity deficit hypothesis of rapid naming to RD but not ADHD was examined. A digit naming test was administered to the RD+ADHD group (43 subjects) and an ADHD only group (49 subjects). In regard to cognitive profiling, rapid naming and orthographic knowledge were found to be the most common deficits among the Chinese RD+ADHD group. This co-morbid group was also found to have a significant deficit performance on the rapid naming task than the ADHD only group. The present findings support the double dissociation hypothesis in cognitive deficit between RD and ADHD. The results of both studies are discussed with reference to the findings of the Western counterparts.
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The present study assessed reading difficulties and cognitive impairments of German-speaking dyslexic children at grade levels 2, 3, and 4. It was found that German dyslexic children suffered from a pervasive speed deficit for all types of reading tasks, including text, high frequency words, and pseudowords, but at the same time showed generally rather high reading accuracy. For pseudowords, reading refusals or word responses were absent, and the majority of errors was close to the target pronunciation. Reading speed seemed to be most impaired for pseudowords and function words that did not allow the children to take a short-cut from phonemically mediated word processing. The discussion offers a developmental framework for the interpretation of these reading difficulties. For the cognitive tasks, dyslexic children did not differ from age-matched control children on the pseudoword repetition task or the digit span task, indicating that auditory perception and memory were not impaired. On phonological awareness tasks (rhyme oddity detection, vowel substitution, and pseudoword spelling), dyslexic children scored lower than age-matched control children, but not lower than younger reading-level control children. The performance of the dyslexic children on the phonemic segmentation tasks (pseudoword spelling and vowel substitution) was high in absolute terms. In contrast, marked differences between dyslexic and age-matched controls were found on rapid naming tasks: dyslexic grade 4 children showed lower numeral-naming speed than reading-level grade 2 children. Numeral-naming speed turned out to be the most important predictor of reading speed differences. These findings are discussed in relation to the phonological impairment explanation of dyslexia and to recent alternative explanations that posit an underlying impairment in automatizing skills which demand the fast execution of low-level cognitive processes.
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This study investigated the effectiveness of improving the reading comprehension of sixth‐grade social studies students through the use of metacognitive strategies. The control and experimental groups for this field based study consisted of 152 white and Hispanic, lower‐middle‐class students from an elementary school in rural, southeastern Arizona. Teachers were trained in the instruction of five metacognitive strategies which they implemented in their classrooms for 12 weeks. Cloze and error detection tests were designed and administered as pre and posttests to determine improvement in reading comprehension of the control and experimental groups. The results indicate students who are instructed in the use of metacognitive strategies increase their reading comprehension more than students who do not receive such instruction. The findings also suggest support for training classroom teachers to provide instruction in metacognitive skills.
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To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a simple model of reading is proposed, which holds that reading equals the product of decoding and comprehension. It follows that there must be three types of reading disability, resulting from an inability to decode, an inability to comprehend, or both. It is argued that the first is dyslexia, the second hyperlexia, and the third common, or garden variety, reading disability.
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The phonetic consistency of the spelling system makes reading in Czech relatively easy. As soon as a Czech child learns to pronounce correctly one letter after another, he can read almost any word and any text. Reading speed is the best individual indicator of reading development. One to two per cent of school children are regarded as dyslexic and remedial provision is planned and available for about 4% of the child population. ‘Early readers’ are defined as those who have learnt to read before 4 years of age. Findings on 76 such children are presented. Four stages of acquisition of reading skill can be distinguished: (i) naming of letters; (ii) discovering letter–sound constant correlation; (iii) latent period of apparently no progress; (iv) synthesizing the sounds and letters into syllables and words (i.e. the processes of coding and decoding). The advance from one stage to another seems to be regular and ordered—extremely accelerated in our ‘early readers’ and extremely retarded in our dyslexics. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The present studies investigated the adequacy of an interpretive lin- guistic approach to the description of the knowledge communicated by sentences by asking whether sentence retention was primarily a function of memory for the semantically interpreted deep structural relations under- lying the input sentences or a function of memory for the overall semantic situations that such sentences described. Results were shown to be pri- marily a function of memory for the semantic situations. A constructive approach to sentence memory was outlined that dealt with memory for individual sentences as well as memory for sets of semantically related sentences contributing to the same overall idea.
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THIS STUDY investigated the role of phonetics for children learning to read Chinese. Participants were 45 Chinese first graders and 45 second graders recruited in Hong Kong. The study revealed that children name phonologically regular Chinese characters more accurately than irregular ones, and phonetic-related errors were the most dominant type in reading Chinese characters and words. There were statistically significant correlations among Chinese pseudocharacter reading, Chinese real character reading: and rhyme detection for the first graders. These findings suggested that Chinese first and second graders do rely on phonetics for sound cues in naming Chinese characters, and phonological awareness seemed to be important in learning these script-sound regularities in Chinese. It therefore appeared that beyond the logographic phase, there was also a phonological phase in learning to read Chinese.
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Investigated 24 7–8 yr olds' use of implicit inferences in understanding stories. Two groups of Ss, differentiated by their ability at text comprehension, read 4 short stories and were asked a series of questions after each one. Results show that skilled readers were better than less skilled readers at answering questions from memory shortly after reading a story, both when the questions could be answered directly from the text and when they required an inference. However, when the text was made available, the less skilled group remained poorer at answering questions that required an inference, although their performance on literal questions improved to the same level as that of the skilled group. Results support the idea that a major distinguishing characteristic of skilled readers is that they are good at making inferences that enable them to relate one idea in a text to another and to general knowledge. Results do not support the claim that differences in ability to make inferences can be attributed to differences in memory for prose. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the performance of a group of Liverpool university students with dyslexia on a series of spelling, reading, and related tests. Ss had not been classified as dyslexic during childhood. 25 dyslexics also completed a nonword reading task. Ss has significant reading and spelling impairments when compared with a control group of undergraduates, and norms for the Graded Naming Test indicate that dyslexics' reading vocabulary is lower than would be predicted from their picture naming skills. Overall, dyslexics showed poor nonword reading and phonological awareness skills. However, while the majority of Ss fit the profile of developmental phonological dyslexia, 3 of the 33 dyslexics closely resembled the profile of developmental surface dyslexia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A child must be able to do more than decode single words to become a skilled or fluent reader. This book explores the psychology of that process. Although it includes a summary of how children learn to read words, it concentrates on the development of reading comprehension skills. "Becoming a Skilled Reader" distinguishes between the problems of poor word decoding and poor comprehension in children. The authors analyse both the skills of fluent adult readers and the development of children's language from the age of five, when most are starting to read. Against this background they survey psychological research into the way children understand text, and discuss the differences between good and poor comprehenders. The book concludes with a valuable chapter on the educational implications of this research, which discusses how comprehension problems can be identified and how professional aids, training and remediation can help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The picture span performance of developmental dyslexic teenagers (mean age 14 years 1 month) was compared to the picture span performance of both RA (mean age 9 years 0 month) and chronological age match controls (mean age 14 years 1 month). Three stimulus lists were manipulated for visual and phonological similarity. Findings indicated that all three groups showed a significant phonological similarity effect but only the dyslexic group showed a significant visual similarity effect. The presence of dual visual-verbal coding is postulated to be responsible for the ‘noisy’ encoding which others (e.g. Johnston and Anderson, 1998; Swan and Goswami, 1997) have suggested is a root cause of dyslexia. The results are discussed in terms of developmental deficits in the central executive of the working memory system.
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One hundred and fifty-four adult relatives of children with specific reading disability, and a group of 90 adults matched for age, sex, educational level and IQ, were given a battery of intelligence, reading and spelling tests and a questionnaire on their reading history, habits and attitudes. Data obtained from the latter group were used to derive multiple regression equations for the prediction of reading and spelling scores. An index was derived for each adult, expressing actual scores relative to those predicted. A definition of severe and borderline reading disability was validated, using the scores from the questionnaire.
Article
Two experiments studied individual differences among normal adults in performance on the Nelson-Denny reading test to cast light on the processes involved in reading. Experiment 1 correlated reading comprehension with performance on the Daneman and Carpenter working memory span test, vocabulary, lexical decision with both homophonous and nonhomophonous nonwords, and Posner's letter matching task, based on both physical and name matching. Working memory span proved to be a significant predictor as did lexical decision with nonhomophonous nonwords, letter name matching, and vocabulary. A derived measure indicating degree of phonological coding in lexical decision was only weakly correlated with comprehension while the physical name match difference on the Posner task was uncorrelated with reading performance. A second experiment explored further the working memory span task, comparing it with a nonlinguistic span test devised by Case. Kurland, and Goldberg based on memory and counting. While the verbal working memory measure again correlated significantly with comprehension, the counting measure was much more weakly related. As in Experiment 1, vocabulary also correlated significantly with comprehension. It is concluded that reading comprehension is dependent on a number of separable components including vocabulary, working memory, and a general lexical access process.
Article
Two short-term memory functions can be distinguished by their roles in language comprehension. One is short-term memory capacity and was estimated in the present study by a probe digit task. The other is memory for structured language, measured by a probe discourse task. Third and fifth grade IQ-matched children representing two levels of reading comprehension skill were found not to differ in probe digit performance. However, skilled readers showed performance superior to less skilled readers on the discourse memory task. A structural variable, clause location of the discourse probe, did not differentially affect reader groups. A language-specific memory function beyond mere short-term memory capacity appears to be an important component of comprehension skill. The results are also consistent with the view that reading comprehension skill is best understood as dependent upon general language comprehension skill.
Article
The performance of a group of 23 13-year-old dyslexic children was compared with that of same-age controls on a battery of tests of motor balance. A dual-task paradigm was used--subjects performed each test twice, once as a single task, and once as a dual task concurrently with a secondary task. Two alternative secondary tasks were used, the classic counting-backwards task and an auditory choice reaction task. Both secondary tasks were calibrated for each subject to ensure that their performance on the secondary task alone fell between pre-specified performance criteria. In all single-task conditions there was no difference between the performance of the two groups. By contrast, in 19 out of the 20 tests performed under dual-task conditions, the dyslexic group were significantly impaired, whereas the controls showed no impairment, thus resulting in significantly better performance by the control group than the dyslexic group. The sole exception was that the dyslexic children were not impaired on the easiest balance condition with the choice reaction task. Under the dual-task conditions the dyslexic children also performed worse than the controls on the secondary task. It is very hard to accommodate the findings within the traditional framework of a deficit specific to lexical skills. One plausible explanation of the results is that, unlike the controls, the dyslexic children need to invest significant conscious resources for monitoring balance, and thus their performance is adversely affected by any secondary task which serves to distract attention from the primary task. This need for "conscious compensation" suggests that for dyslexic children the skill of motor balance is poorly automatized. It is possible, therefore, that many of the reading deficits of dyslexic children are merely symptoms of a more general learning deficit--the failure to fully automatize skills.
Article
American subjects and Hong Kong Chinese subjects were asked to judge the positive/negative affective polarity of words in their respective languages. Response times were significantly quicker for Chinese, although there was no difference in latencies in simply pronouncing “positive” and “negative” in the two languages. Pronunciation durations for the English test words, however, were shorter than those for Chinese. The results are related to the alphabetic versus morphemic nature of English and Chinese, and to their difference in the requirement for phonological recoding in word processing.
Article
A common hypothesis has considered apparent differences in the incidence of reading disability in Asian and Western languages to be related to orthographic factors. A reading test was constructed in English, Japanese, and Chinese to assess the validity of this proposal. Large samples of fifth-grade children in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States were given the test and a battery of 10 cognitive tasks. Strong evidence was found that reading disabilities exist among Chinese and Japanese as well as among American children. In discriminating between groups of poor and average readers by means of the cognitive tasks, the combined effects of general information and verbal memory proved to be the most powerful predictors in Japan and Taiwan. General information and coding emerged as the most effective predictors for American children. The results cast doubt upon the crucial significance of orthography as the major factor determining the incidence of reading disabilities across cultures.
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