Effect of Coronary Thrombolysis on the Plasma Concentration of Osteonectin (SPARC, BM40) in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction
Sinai Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, United StatesJournal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis (Impact Factor: 2.17). 11/2000; 10(2):197-202. DOI: 10.1023/A:1018774812613
Osteonectin is a phosphoglycoprotein exclusively located in bone and platelet alpha-granules. Human platelet-derived osteonectin is released into plasma after thrombin-induced activation. Recognizing the unique distribution of the osteonectin pool, we first sought to investigate whether osteonectin could serve as a sensitive marker of platelet activity, and identify patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The second objective was to define the effects of thrombolytic therapy in these patients on the plasma concentrations of osteonectin at prespecified time points following attempted reperfusion. Osteonectin levels by ELISA were determined in AMI patients before thrombolysis and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours thereafter and compared with 12 healthy controls. At baseline, soluble osteonectin plasma levels were similar between controls (447. 7+/-20.6 ng/ml) and AMI patients (425.7+/-43.3 ng/mL; p=NS). A significant increase of the soluble osteonectin was observed at 3 hours after thrombolysis (519.4+/-26.9 ng/mL; p=0.03), and was followed by a decrease to baseline levels at 6 hours after attempted reperfusion. Contrary to expectations, the plasma osteonectin level in our pilot study was not a sensitive marker distinguishing patients with AMI. The early peak of soluble osteonectin at 3 hours after thrombolytic therapy is most likely not related to coronary thrombolysis per se but rather to the phasic changes of platelet activity during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. The unquestionable platelet origin of this protein and the lack of elevated plasma levels of this alpha-granule constituent, challenge the postulate of uniform platelet activation in AMI patients.
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ABSTRACT: Migraine has strong genetic and environmental components and may also be a significant contributor to chronic migraine (CM). It is hypothesized that gene expression changes in peripheral blood cells can be used to detect the interaction of these influences. Distinct genomic expression patterns for migraine and CM will be present. These genomic profiles will help clarify the interactions of inheritance and environment. This initial study begins to examine the feasibility of peripheral blood cell genomic analysis to assist in the understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine and CM. Blood samples from patients were obtained either during an acute migraine or CM. Genomic expression patterns were analyzed using Affymetrix U95A microarrays. Expression patterns of 7 migraine and 15 CM patients were compared to four distinct control groups (total patients, n=56) including healthy subjects. A group of platelet genes were upregulated in both migraine and CM samples. Different gene expression patterns were also seen between migraine and CM. A group of immediate early genes including c-fos and cox-2 were expressed at higher levels in migraine, whereas specific mitochondrial genes were expressed at higher levels in CM. Increased expression of platelet genes in patients with migraine and CM suggests similar underlying pathophysiology. The differences seen between migraine and CM in other genes suggest an overlapping but not identical pathophysiology. Further genomic profiling studies will help define these relationships and provide further insights into headache pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: The matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)/osteonectin was determined in patients with multiple myeloma and related disease to assess the hypothesized role of SPARC as a possible marker of tumor burden and disease progression. Soluble SPARC was measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma of 42 patients, including sequential measurements in individual patients, and in 20 healthy controls. SPARC values were heterogeneous in multiple myeloma patients showing a decline from baseline levels recorded in controls (456+/-195 vs 600+/-63 ng/ml, p=0.00023). A SPARC showed a significant positive correlation with platelet count (r=0.72, p=0.000000, n=42), hemoglobin (r=0.52, p=0.00037, n=42), and IgG level (r=0.43, p=0.0085, n=42) and negative correlation with beta(2)-microglobulin (r=-0.46, p=0.0023, n=42), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (r=-0.42, p=0.0061, n=41), interleukin (IL)-6 (r=-0.41, p=0.008, n=42), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (r=-0.36, p=0.02, n=41), and percentage of plasma cells in bone marrow aspirate (r=-0.34, p=0.029, n=42). No correlation was found between SPARC and "M" component or disease stage. Investigations performed during the course of disease, including sequential measurements in individual patients, showed a trend to downregulation by disease progression, with the lowest level recorded in the terminal stage (217+/-107 ng/ml, n=11). Patients with established osteolytic lesions had lower plasma SPARC at diagnosis (309+/-197 vs 581+/-293, p=0.021), which correlated with osteocalcin by disease progression (r=0.31, p=0.026). The results of this pilot study revealed abnormalities in the level of humoral SPARC in multiple myeloma and an overall trend to downregulation in the advanced stage of the disease. The regulation of SPARC seems to be opposite to the markers of tumor burden and of aggressive multiple myeloma phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we evaluated functional activity of the alternative pathway of complement in schizophrenia by measuring the alternative pathway hemolytic activity (AH50) of complement as well as hemolytic activity of the complement C3 component (C3H50) in the blood of patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. To assess the influence of neuroleptic treatment on measured parameters, both drug-free and medicated patients were examined. In addition, correlation analysis between AH50 and C3H50 has been performed. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate upregulation of the alternative complement cascade in schizophrenia and activator effect of neuroleptics on complement alternative pathway. Based upon the results obtained we hypothesize that hyperactivation of the alternative complement pathway in schizophrenia is stimulated by apoptotic cells.
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