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On the Morphology of the Liver in the Two-humped Camel (Camelus bactrianus)

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Abstract

The liver of a two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus) was examined by means of gross anatomy and histology. The liver appeared characteristically as an enlarged triangle in visceral aspect, and showed the following lobation: the left lateral and medial lobes, the right lobe, the caudate lobe and the quadrate lobe. These findings were similar to those for the one-humped camel. Histologically, a distinct lobulation, a typical arrangement of the interlobular connective tissue, and the trias was confirmed.

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... In the neonate, the liver has a structure that is similar to the adult organ. Trabeculae of connective tissue dividing the lobules were not observed, in agreement with the reports for the llama (Castro, 2007) and unlike to the observation for dromedary camels (Lalla and Drommer, 1997) and adult Bactrian camel (Endo et al., 2000). Regarding the shape of the adult organ, the results contrast with those for the llama (Castro et al., 2009), which was constantly observed as an irregular triangle. ...
... However, in others, the shape was more compact, at expenses of less development of left lateral and medial lobes. In other aspects, such as location, conformation, direction of the major axis and lobulation, the liver of the alpaca shows similarities with the observations for the liver of the llama (Castro et al., 2009), the Bactrian camel (Endo et al., 2000) and the dromedary camel (Abdala et al., 1971). Important anatomical similarities also exist with the Old World camelids, especially when considering the relative underdevelopment of the quadrate lobe and the absence of gallbladder (Ouhsine, 1989). ...
... The caudal border is related with the distal ansa of the ascending colon, the caudal compartment of the stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum and the dorsal angle is related with the right adrenal gland. These results are coincident with the findings for the llama (Castro et al., 2009) and the Old World camelids (Endo et al., 2000). ...
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South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
... Similar findings were also noticed by Pareek (2000) in sheep. Endo et al. (2000) observed that the liver of a two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus) appeared characteristically as an enlarged triangle in visceral aspect. W hile Osman (2008) observed in the liver of the pig that it was divided into two independent segments, right and left. ...
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Background: The present study was aimed for the promotion and advancement of the anatomical knowledge at the gross, light microscopic and electron microscopic level in Zovawk (mizo local pig). Methods: The current investigation was done at the Instructional livestock farm, Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram and Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF), North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, Meghalaya. Six liver samples were collected from six apparently healthy zovawk animal of either sex and gross morphological observations were done directly after collection. Thereafter tissue samples were collected as such and were preserved in neutral buffer formalin (NBF) and in Karnovsky’s fixative for routine histology and transmission electron microscopic examination, respectively. Results: Zovawk liver shows four distinct borders, i.e. medial, lateral, dorsal and ventral border, two surfaces, i.e. parietal surface or diaphragmatic surface and caudal or visceral surface, and six distinct lobes. The average weight of zovawk liver was 1.402 kg. Weight of the liver was highly correlated with body weight of animal. Histologically, Zovawk liver was characterized with thick Glisson’s capsule and thick connective tissue septa emerging from it, which gives the hepatic lobules its hexagonal shape. Sinusoids of adjacent hepatocytes were lined by stellate shaped Kupffer cells. The ultra-structural examination of liver shows that, the hepatocytes were rich in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and glycogen granules. Free ribosome and well developed rER and dense lysosomal granules were common in those hepatocyte.
... These differences may be due to the phylogenical or evolutional and/or developmental. The same results confirmed by paunch 2012 in the same animal, Hall (1996) in rat, Endo et al. (2000) in camel, Galletti and Jauregui (2000) in human and Eroschenko (2008) in mammalian liver. ...
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Quite recently, considerable attention has been paid to water buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis) and its economic importance. Liver is complex organ and susceptible to many diseases. So, this paper concentrated on the buffalo liver in terms of their anatomy, histology, histochemistry and immunohistochemical characteristics of its cells, with regard to the functional importance. 20 samples of fresh buffalo liver selected, 5 injected by latex for anatomical studies, 5 injected by urographine for radiograph pictures and the last 10 directly fixed in neutral buffered formalin 10% and processed for histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical examination. The result revealed that Portal vein divided into three main branches right, left and caudal omental ones. The hepatic vein branches classified as right, middle and left branch. The common bile duct formed by union of right hepatic duct, left hepatic duct and cystic duct. The liver of buffalo showed a well fibrous capsule of Glisson's with high amount of collagen fibers by Masson's Trichrome stain. Reticular fibers found to have dispersed characteristic shape with Gomori's method. PAS and Best's carmine stains gave positive results. Perl's Prussian demonstrated the presence of hemosiderin and ferric salts in von kupffer cells. These cells stained positive to CD68. Anti-insulin and anti-glucagon showed positive reaction. CK7 and CD10 were immune positive to biliary epithelium.CD34 gave positive to portal endothelial cells. Alfa smooth muscle actin showed unique normal positivity along the hepatic tissue. The results obtained, not only contribute to the knowledge of buffalo species; but also define a normal structure reference for the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases.
... The fibrous tissue is very abundant not only in the capsule and the number of partitions. This fibrous zone is traversed by numerous blood and lymphatic vessels, an overview has given a clear picture of several regular nodes (mammalian deviation) and juxtaposed together in the same housing (Gui-Fang et al., 2000). The cortex is observable under the capsule with the follicles and germinal centers; but is also observed in the middle of the node, in contact partitions. ...
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The architecture of the lymph node dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) differs from that shown in the conventional patterns of other mammalian animals, generally formed of a plurality of aggregates, the latter are surrounded by a connective tissue which extends over the whole area surface lymph node and each cluster is a node itself. Vascular distribution in these lymphoid aggregates is relatively abundant and each node receives one or two afferent lymphatic's and is drained by four or five efferent lymphatics. In approximately half of nodes examined, there was extra nodal communications between the lymphatic vessels (afferent and efferent), allowing to bypass the lymph node. Lymph nodes are characterized by their dromedary lobule appearance and size. This lobulated appearance is acquired with age. Indeed in a camel one day we noticed that although the lymph nodes are large, but rather the lobulation is not clear. All forms are possible was lymph nodes ovoid, flattened, elongated, notched, triangular or rounded in some cases.
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The liver has multiple functions that change throughout ontogeny. South American camelids (SAC) have unique characteristics related to adaptation to extreme environments and metabolism. However, the process of hepatic cell differentiation has not been studied in any SAC. We study the patterns of cell differentiation and proliferation in the liver of the alpaca at different times of the ontogeny, excluding the hematopoietic components. Immunohistochemical techniques were performed in 66 specimens, including embryos, fetuses, neonates and adults. Supplementary analyses were performed by lectinhistochemistry. The hepatocytic differentiation was performed by the identification of Hepatocyte (Clone: OCH1ES Dako®). It began in the specimens of 1.8-2.5 cm of crown to rump length (CRL), from Days 25-29 (ovulation = Day 0), continued during gestation and intensified towards its end. The cholangiocytic differentiation was performed by the identification of cytokeratin 7 (CK7, Dako®). It was manifested at the final of gestation (specimens of 28.4 cm CRL, from Day 223 onwards). Parenchymal cells underwent a process of gradual differentiation (differentiation of hepatocytes preceded that of cholangiocytes). Cell proliferation was observed along gestation using the nuclear proliferation antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67. Hepatic organogenesis in the alpacas shares similar differentiation and proliferation mechanisms with other altricial, but phylogenetically distant, species.
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Hepatic lobe torsion is a rare condition in domestic animals. Clinical signs are variable, with some cases remaining subclinical and others resulting in death. Most cases are diagnosed either by laparotomy or during postmortem examination. During postmortem inspection of 670 slaughtered dromedary camels, hepatic lobe torsion of the quadrate lobe was detected in 3 adult female camels. Clinical signs had not been noted on antemortem veterinary inspection, and hepatic lobe torsion was likely an incidental finding. Histologically, the affected liver lobe exhibited severe hepatocellular loss with replacement by fibrous connective tissue. When investigating abdominal pain in camels, veterinarians should include hepatic lobe torsion in the list of differential diagnoses.
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Introduction. In all animals a lymph node consists of lym-phoid tissue, tissue where white blood cell types stay and multiply. There are B cells grouped in rounded clusters, called follicles, which are bor-dered by areas where T cells dominate [11]. The lymph node is supplied by lymphatic and blood capillaries. knowing that all mammals have stem cells "committed" (derived from a common stem cell lymphoid blood) contribute pyramid hemato-poietic differentiation (where red blood cells, [1] granulocytes are derived monocyts and thrombo-cyts) while the other is the pyramid lymphoid dif-ferentiation ( which differentiate the T and B lym-phocytes) [2]. Some lymph nodes have been put in evidence of T and B lymphocytes in the lymph nodes of the dromedary and by immunohisto-chemical staining was observed in the active areas of T and B lymphocytes with antigen reaction caused by antibodies CD3 and CD22. There were no obvious structural differences between these lymph nodes [8, 10, 12]. Lymphocytes and macrophages are the main active cells in the lymph node as they carry out the clearance and filtration of lymph inside the lymph node [3]. This DJALLAL EDDINE RAHMOUN, post graduation in morphology, oncology and animal pathology LIESHCHOVA M. A., Ph. D. in vet. sciences Dnepropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economical University, Dnepropetrovsk deddine44@hotmail.com lieshchova07@gmail.com The histological and cytological study of lymph node camel is highlighted by the use of immunohistochemical technique; we used two monoclonal antibodies CD3 and CD22 that have demonstrated the localization of lymphocytes in the lymph node. The appearance of follicular lymphoid cells detected by the reaction of the CD3 antibody was supported by a network of reticular fibers. The interfollicular tissue is composed mainly of lymphocytes. CD3 positive diffuse distributed. This reaction is expressed by most lymphocytes and interfollicular follicle tissue, lymphatic sinuses and post-capillary venules. Some cells are located in the cells of the cortex follicles. Superficial nodes are arranged in lymphoid follicles essentially spherical, are the major sites of localization and proliferation of B-cells. From this it was possible to classify the primary lymphoid follicles; that have no clear center and secondary follicles which include a clear center. The centers are the site of light proliferation of B-cells and germinal centers are called. Follicles "primary" could be "secondary" to rest. As the paracortex area consists mainly of T-lymphocytes, which is never as follicles in any case. Note that the medullary cords contain primarily B-cells (PDF) IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE LYMPH NODES OF THE ONE HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320617201_IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL_STUDY_OF_THE_LYMPH_NODES_OF_THE_ONE_HUMPED_CAMEL_CAMELUS_DROMEDARIUS [accessed Feb 05 2020].
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The objetive of this study was the description of the macroscopic characteristics of the liver: position, anatomic relationships, peritoneal folds, lobes, irrigation, innervation, lymphatic drainage and biliary tree.The histologic description was carried out under the classic morphologic organization model (classic hepatic lobule). The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver in 6 adult llamas (4 males and 2 females) was observed. The liver was situated in the cranial abdominal region, to the right of the medial plane.The gall bladder was abscent in llamas.The bile duct was joined to the pancreatic duct at 3 cm from the duodenum forming the hepato-pancreatic duct, which empties by means of the intramural course in the second curvature of the sigmoid flexure of the duodenum. The hepatic lobules was limited by connective tissue near the portal area. Morphological studies offer a structural support to the specific diagnostic techniques of this organ, for example, liver biopsy