Micromethod for the Investigation of the Interactions between DNA and Redox-Active Molecules
A novel microscale and surface-based method for the study of the interactions of DNA with other redox-active molecules using DNA-modified electrodes is described. The method is simple, convenient, reliable, reagent-saving, and applicable for DNA studies, especially those involving microsamples. Information such as binding site size (s, in base pairs), binding constant (K), ratio (K0x/KRed) of the binding constants for the oxidized and reduced forms of a bound species, binding free energy (delta Gb), and interaction mode, including changes in the mode of interaction, and "limiting" ratio K0x0/KRed0 at zero ionic strength can be obtained using only 3-15 micrograms of DNA samples. The method was developed using [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+ (Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)/double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-modified gold electrodes and [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ (2,2'-bipyridyl)/dsDNA-modified gold electrodes as model systems. For the [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+/dsDNA-modified gold electrode system, a K2+ of (2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1 and an s of 5 bp were obtained in 5 mM pH 7.1 Tris-HCl buffer solution containing 50 mM NaCl. For [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+/dsDNA-modified gold electrodes, K3+ and s values of (1.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1 and 3 bp, respectively, were obtained. While the s values are consistent with those reported in the literature obtained by solution methods, the K values are almost an order of magnitude larger. A transition in the nature of the interaction between dsDNA and [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+, from electrostatic to intercalative with increasing ionic strength, was found in our studies. Negative values of delta E0' for [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ bound to dsDNA suggest that its interaction with dsDNA is predominantly electrostatic over the ionic strength range of 5-105 mM. The "limiting" ratio K3+0/K2+0 of 22 obtained for [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+ bound to dsDNA at zero ionic strength suggests that electrostatic interactions are predominant over intercalative ones under these limiting conditions. The ratio for [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ of 16 also indicates that the 3+ form binds to dsDNA more strongly than the 2+ form at zero ionic strength. For [Co(Phen)3]3+/2+/single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold electrodes, the nonuniformity of the surface structure of ssDNA-modified gold electrodes greatly complicates the analysis. A system consisting of a dsDNA-modified gold electrode and [Co(tppz)2]3+/2+ (tppz = tetra-2-pyridyl-1,4-pyrazine) was studied by this method, with a K2+ value of (5 +/- 1) x 10(5) M-1 and an 8 value of 7 bp being obtained.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.