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Visiting the cinema, concerts, museums or art exhibitions as determinant of survival: A Swedish fourteen-year cohort follow-up

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible influence of attending various kinds of cultural events or visiting cultural institutions as a determinant of survival. A cohort of individuals aged 25-74 years from a random sample were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers in 1982 and 1983. The interviews covered standard-of-living variables. Our independent variables covered visiting cultural institutions and attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and music making. The non-response rate was about 25%. The cohort was followed with respect to survival for 14 years up to 31st December 1996. The background covariates that were used for control purposes were age, sex, cash buffer, educational standard, long-term disease, smoking, and physical exercise. Our setting was the Swedish survey of living conditions among the adult Swedish population aged 25-74 years. About 10,609 individuals were interviewed in 1982 and 1983. The outcome measure was survival until 31st December 1996. In all, 916 men and 600 women died during this period. We found a higher mortality risk for those people who rarely visited the cinema, concerts, museums, or art exhibitions compared with those visiting them most often. The significant relative risks ranging between RR 1.14 (95% CI. 1.01-1.31) of attending art exhibitions, and RR 1.42 (CI. 1.25-1.60) of attending museums, when adjusting for the nine other variables. Visits to the cinema and concerts gave significant RR in between. We could not discern any beneficial effect of attending the theatre, church service or sports event as a spectator or any effect of reading or music making. Our conclusion is that attendance at certain kinds of cultural events may have a beneficial effect on longevity.

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... Ample research has focused on workplace predictors of chronic stress, such as work time and job quality, while fewer studies have explored how leisure activities may reduce chronic stress over the life course [2,3]. Specifically, no study has linked arts and cultural activities with biomarkers of chronic stress, such as the widely used allostatic load biomarker [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... Although previous research has linked arts and cultural activities to self-reported health, mental health, and long-term mortality [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10], little is known about whether these activities are associated with biomarkers of physical health and, if so, the role of health behaviors in explaining the relationship. Thus, the first goal of the study was to test the association between arts and cultural activities and allostatic load biomarkers, which indicate the physiological responses to chronic stress over the life course [11].The second goal of the study was to test whether health behaviors, including alcohol consumption and smoking, mediate the association. ...
... An emerging stream of research highlights the association between leisure activities and health outcomes. On one hand, those leisure activities that demand a high level of cultural capital, such as participation in arts and attendance of cultural events [8][9][10], are shown to be associated with better health outcomes, including self-rated health [4][5][6], mental health [3, 7,8], and long-term survival [9,10]. On the other hand, lacking cultural capital to become a critical consumer is associated with risky health behaviors in leisure time, such as smoking and excessive alcohol drinking [15][16][17]. ...
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Aims: Previous research found an association between leisure time activities such as arts and cultural activities and self-reported health over the life course—a measure prone to response bias. This study tested the relationship between arts and cultural activities and allostatic load, a biomarker of chronic stress, and examined risky health behaviors, including alcohol consumption and smoking, as possible mediators. Methods: The sample consists of 8948 adults from the second wave of the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study, which is representative of the British population. The cross-sectional association between arts and cultural activities and allostatic load was tested with negative binomial models, and the mediation roles of alcohol consumption and smoking in the association was tested with the Karlson–Holm–Breen (KHB) decomposition method. Results: Frequent participation in arts, frequent attendance of cultural events, visits to museums or galleries, and visits to historical sites have negative associations with allostatic load. The associations are mediated by lower frequency of alcohol drinking and smoking. Conclusions: Cultural capital may promote health by reducing the frequency of health risk behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. Future research and public health policies should consider whether cultural capital acts as a social determinant of health to promote healthy leisure activities over the life course.
... In addition, dealing with arts and participating in arts education is expected to have specific transfer effects, such as improvements in auditory, observational, or social skills (Winner et al., 2013). Engagement in arts has also been shown to have a positive longterm effect on mortality (Fancourt & Steptoe, 2019;Konlaan et al., 2000;Väänänen et al., 2009) and to stimulate societal resilience in times of economic crises (Bellandi & Santini, 2017); which could be thought of as indirectly impacting individuals living in "resilient" neighborhoods. Attending to cultural events (active or passive) was shown to yield positive short-term effects on self-perceived health in a randomized Swedish study and in a cross-sectional survey in the United States (Wilkinson et al., 2007) but could not be shown to improve subjective health in a Swiss panel study (Weôziak-Białowolska, 2016). ...
... Resilience to individual (bad health) and/or societal (disasters) crises has been subject to numerous studies. So far, the role of arts and engagement in cultural activities in this context has been studied with respect to longevity (Bygren et al., 1996;Bygren et al., 2000;Fancourt & Steptoe, 2019;Konlaan et al., 2000;Väänänen et al., 2009) or to the impact of cultural activities on health conditions (Cohen et al., 2006;Cuypers et al., 2011;Fancourt & Finn, 2019). Thus, the direction of the research question throughout virtually all studies has been, whether increased artistic activity or attendance at cultural events yields beneficial health effects (Clift, 2014;Fancourt et al., 2014;Jensen, 2013;Nilsson, 2008). ...
... Resilience to individual (bad health) and/or societal (disasters) crises has been subject to numerous studies. So far, the role of arts and engagement in cultural activities in this context has been studied with respect to longevity (Bygren et al., 1996;Bygren et al., 2000;Fancourt & Steptoe, 2019;Konlaan et al., 2000;Väänänen et al., 2009) or to the impact of cultural activities on health conditions (Cohen et al., 2006;Cuypers et al., 2011;Fancourt & Finn, 2019). Thus, the direction of the research question throughout virtually all studies has been, whether increased artistic activity or attendance at cultural events yields beneficial health effects (Clift, 2014;Fancourt et al., 2014;Jensen, 2013;Nilsson, 2008). ...
... We also confirmed a strong positive association between resilience and SPWB [61][62][63][64][65]. Finally, both participation in social activities and physical activity were positively associated with resilience, as well as with SPWB. Since the seminal work of Konlaan et al. [66], the role of leisure activities in improving well-being has been widely explored. Apart from observational studies, intervention studies have also demonstrated the efficacy of leisure activities in the promotion of well-being [67][68][69]. ...
... Appropriate leisure activities may accompany people throughout their life, and at all ages they may improve the resilience→well-being circuitry. Starting from Konlaan et al. [66], several lines of evidence, such as the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT study) [72], show that receptive cultural attendance improves well-being and quality of life in non-mentally ill subjects. Cultural and social engagement may then qualify as preventive interventions at the population level. ...
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We explored the relationship between cultural and social participation, physical activity, and well-being in a group of residents of the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy and the role that resilience plays in this relationship. Naples offers a remarkable urban environment with the potentially beneficial psychological effects of outstanding natural beauty, and one of the world’s most impressive repositories of tangible and intangible cultural heritage. However, Naples was also, and still is, heavily affected by the 2008 economic crisis, in addition to preexisting social and economic issues. The major finding of this study is that, despite this highly contrasting urban environment, the combination of physical activity and engagement in social and cultural activities has a positive effect on subjective (self-reported) psychological well-being (SPWB) in a group of residents, and that resilience mediates this relationship.
... However, null results of the present study are far from the exception in epidemiologic studies investigating performing arts impact. Only one of three studies found a positive effect of performing arts activity on all-cause mortality, 5,27,28 while two of three studies have demonstrated protective effects of performing arts activity on dementia incidence. 3,7,29 Methods of evaluating performing arts participation and receptive engagement vary across this and prior epidemiologic studies, with a notable dearth of validated and/or psychometrically tested approaches. ...
... Notably, studies which more directly assessed performing arts activity -for example, questionnaires regarding the type and/or frequency of performing arts activities -have also returned conflicting null and positive results. 3,5,7,[27][28][29] This suggests that direct assessment methods are not inherently the solution. However, one prior study interrogating links between dancing and cardiovascular disease mortality provides guidance regarding an approach that could be expanded to evaluate performing arts more broadly. ...
Article
Aims: Recent reviews have demonstrated broad links between performing arts participation (e.g. music-making; dancing; acting) and receptive engagement (e.g. listening to music; attending a dance/theatre performance) and improved health, including reduced disease and mortality risk. However, no investigations to date have interrogated the links between community-level performing arts activity (i.e. participation + receptive engagement) and health outcomes – that is, do the performing arts help create healthy communities? This study aims to address this question by examining links between performing arts activity and health outcomes across 500 cities in the US. Methods: Secondary analysis of demographic, health outcome, performing arts activity (estimated by annual performing arts revenue), and preventive/unhealthy behaviour data for 500 large cities in the US – data extracted from the US Centers for Disease Control 500 Cities Project, Dun & Bradstreet Hoovers Database, and US Census. Links between performing arts activity and 12 health/disease outcomes were evaluated using a series of hierarchical beta regression models which progressively controlled for demographic variables and preventive/unhealthy behaviour prevalence. Results: The 500 analysed US cities comprise 33.4% of the total US population and 84,010 performing arts businesses (total annual revenue $27.84 billion). No significant associations were found between performing arts activity and 9 of 12 health outcomes in fully adjusted models (p ⩾ .17). Statistically significant relationships (p < .01) between increased performing arts activity and increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were determined to be clinically equivocal. Conclusions: This study contributes to a growing body of conflicting epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of the performing arts on health/disease and mortality outcomes, evaluated using a range of disparate methodologies. A consensus, psychometrically rigorous approach is required to address this prevailing uncertainty in future epidemiologic studies examining the effects of performing arts activities both within and across countries and communities.
... The positive impact on arts and culture participation (and more generally leisure time) on health-and even life expectancy-has been confirmed by influential longitudinal studies (Konlaan, Bygren, and Johansson 2000;Konlaan, Theobald, and Bygren 2002), although the actual mechanisms at work still have to be clarified to a large extent. To the current state of knowledge, the channels through which arts and culture participation affects human biology are almost unknown, with partial exceptions such as the characterization of the neural pathways through which music affects the brain and allows rehabilitation (Särkämö et al. 2016). ...
... There is, on the other hand, some research on the effects of exposure to music (Swaminathan and Schellenberg 2015), and in particular of its neurochemistry (Chanda and Levitin 2013) and of its psycho-neuro-immunological (Fancourt, Ockelford, and Belai 2014) and metabolic (Yamasaki et al. 2012) effects, and it has been found that music listening causes a reduction in stress levels, with a relevant mediating role of the social context (Linnemann et al. 2015;Linnemann, Strahler, and Nater 2016), and of musical education (Cervellin and Lippi 2011). These results provide a medium-specific elaboration of by now classical evidence (Konlaan, Bygren, and Johansson 2000) of the positive effects of physical exercise and cultural participation on the levels of blood lipids, blood pressure and prolactin, and of the possible pathways of the positive influences of participating in cultural activities via stress reduction that decreases the oxidative DNA damage and the formation of 8-hydrox-ydeoxyguanosine, whose high levels tend to be associated to increased susceptibility to diseases. ...
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We provide an experimental evaluation of the impact of aesthetic experiences in terms of stress reduction (cortisol levels) and wellbeing increase. The test experience is a visit to the vault of the Sanctuary of Vicoforte, Italy. Data have been collected using a double step method. A structured interview in relation to the individual subjective well-being has been administered to a sample of 100 subjects. In addition, a sample of their saliva has been taken, and its cortisol level measured, before and after the experience, and likewise for momentary wellbeing measured on a Visual Analogous Scale. Subjects reported an average increase of 40% in wellbeing and a decrease of the 60% in the cortisol level. The recorded cortisol level values dropped on average well beyond the decrease normally associated to its circadian cycle. The modulating role of various variables has been appreciated, and profiling of the typical subjects who are wellbeing respondents/non-respondents and cortisol respondents/non-respondents has been carried out. We conclude that aesthetic experience seems to have a noticeable impact on individual physical and mental health. In both dominions, cultural participation intensity is significantly correlated to the response. The study underlines the potential of the arts and culture as a new platform for public health practices and new approaches to welfare policy design.
... esim. Konlaan, Bygren & Johansson 2000) on tutkinut kuolleisuuden ja kulttuuriin osallistumisen yhteyttä. Myös Suomessa hyvinvointipainotteista tutkimusta taiteen vaikutuksista ikääntyneiden terveyteen ja elämänlaatuun on tehty runsaasti (ks. ...
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What is Meant by the Cultural Services for Elderly? Analysis of the Concepts Keywords: cultural services for elderly, cultural policy, cultural gerontology, analysis of the concepts, cultural well-being Cultural services for elderly consist of many societal constructions. This research focuses on how the concepts of cultural services for elderly are structured into meanings. The data consist of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Social and Health ministry documents in 2010‒2017. Four extensions are established as the result of the analysis: extension for the tendency to structures and methodicalness, individual and customer focused extension, professional extension and societal extension. The results reveal the complexity of cultural services for elderly as a phenomena. Values and cultural rights as well as promotion for health and well-being and labor market for artists exist on the backround of the meanings. As a new recognized field of work, the concept “cultural services for elderly” is under progress.
... [18][19][20][21][22] Additionally, two Scandinavian studies of receptive arts engagement (especially going to the cinema, concerts, art exhibitions, and museums) have also found preliminary evidence of protective benefits from attending cultural events. 23 24 However, these previous studies have drawn exclusively on Scandinavian datasets with baseline data collected in the 1970s, 1980s, or 1990s. 18-21 23 24 Given that arts engagement has different values and patterns across generations and countries, we lack evidence from the current generation of older adults in other countries. ...
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Objective To explore associations between different frequencies of arts engagement and mortality over a 14 year follow-up period. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort of 6710 community dwelling adults aged 50 years and older (53.6% women, average age 65.9 years, standard deviation 9.4) who provided baseline data in 2004-05. Intervention Self reported receptive arts engagement (going to museums, art galleries, exhibitions, the theatre, concerts, or the opera). Measurement Mortality measured through data linkage to the National Health Service central register. Results People who engaged with receptive arts activities on an infrequent basis (once or twice a year) had a 14% lower risk of dying at any point during the follow-up (809/3042 deaths, hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.96) compared with those who never engaged (837/1762 deaths). People who engaged with receptive arts activities on a frequent basis (every few months or more) had a 31% lower risk of dying (355/1906 deaths, 0.69, 0.59 to 0.80), independent of demographic, socioeconomic, health related, behavioural, and social factors. Results were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses with no evidence of moderation by sex, socioeconomic status, or social factors. This study was observational and so causality cannot be assumed. Conclusions Receptive arts engagement could have a protective association with longevity in older adults. This association might be partly explained by differences in cognition, mental health, and physical activity among those who do and do not engage in the arts, but remains even when the model is adjusted for these factors.
... The findings are also consistent with those of longitudinal Scandinavian studies undertaken in the 1990s and 2000s that associate arts and cultural participation with increased well-being and longevity (Bygren et al., 1996;Konlaan, Bygren & Johansson, 2000;Bygren et al., 2009;Johansson, Konlaan & Bygren, 2001). ...
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The "Creating Healthy Communities through Cross-sector Collaboration" white paper presents the views of more than 250 thought leaders from the public health, arts and culture, and community development sectors who were convened in working groups in 2018 and 2019. Their voices are joined by over 500 participants in a national field survey and focus groups, and are supported by findings of a scoping review of arts + public health literature. With the public health sector as a primary intended audience, this white paper frames the value of the arts and culture for advancing health and well-being in communities. It offers examples and recommendations for expanding cross-sector collaboration and innovation, with the following goals: - Advance collaboration among those working at the intersections of art and culture, public health, and community development - Stimulate upstream interventions—aimed at systems, cultures, and policies—that reduce barriers to health and well-being - Assert the value of arts and culture for increasing health, wellbeing, and equity in communities - Foster transformative social change that advances health and wellbeing This paper is also intended to offer value and guidance to community development, arts and culture, and other allied health sectors by providing examples of impactful cross-sector collaborations that engage arts and culture to address five critical public health issues: collective trauma, racism, social isolation and exclusion, mental health, and chronic disease. These concrete examples inform the paper's recommendations and call to action, which assert the value of the arts and culture for community health transformation, and for advancing the culture of health being envisioned today.
... The majority of the evidence to date describes health and well-being benefits associated with participatory arts engagement for older adults [13,14]. Nonetheless, frequent receptive arts engagement has been previously linked, among others, with lower odds of incident depressive symptoms and higher levels of happiness, life satisfaction, self-realisation and perceived independence in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) dataset [16,17] as well as lower odds of poor self-rated health and mortality in Swedish adult population-representative, prospective studies [18,19]. ...
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Purpose Loneliness in older adulthood is a societal and public health challenge warranting identification of sustainable and community-based protective factors. This study investigated whether frequency of receptive arts engagement is associated with lower odds of loneliness in older adults. Methods We used data of respondents from waves 2 (2004–2005) and 7 (2014–2015) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and examined cross-sectional (n = 6222) and longitudinal (n = 3127) associations between frequency of receptive arts engagement (including visits to the cinema, museums/galleries/exhibitions, theatre/concerts/opera) and odds of loneliness (cut-off ≥ 6 on three-item short form of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale). We fitted logistic regression models adjusted for a range of sociodemographic, economic, health and social, community and civic engagement factors. Results Cross-sectionally, we found dose–response negative associations between engagement with all receptive arts activities and odds of loneliness. Prospectively, in the fully-adjusted models we found most robust evidence for the negative association between engagement with museums/galleries/exhibitions and odds of loneliness (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.48–0.95) for those who engaged every few months or more often compared with those who never engaged. We found weaker evidence for lower odds of loneliness for more frequent engagement with theatre/concerts/opera. Conclusions Frequent engagement with certain receptive arts activities and venues, particularly museums, galleries and exhibitions, may be a protective factor against loneliness in older adults. Future research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which this process may occur, leading to better understanding of how arts activities and venues can reduce loneliness among older adults.
... Second, in this study we found no associations with well-being outcomes for frequent engagement with cinema in the fully adjusted models. Engaging with cinema as an art form may have positive impact on subjective well-being and some evidence links cinema attendance with lower mortality rate (Konlaan, Bygren, & Johansson, 2000). However, previous studies also link screen time, such as watching television, with increased depressive symptoms, sedentary behavior, and other unfavorable health behaviors in older adults (Hamer, Poole, & Messerli-Bürgy, 2013). ...
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Objectives: This study investigated whether frequency of receptive arts engagement over 10 years contributes to experienced, evaluative and eudaimonic well-being in older adults. Methods: We used repeated data of 3,188 respondents from waves 2 to 7 (2004/2005-2014/2015) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We examined longitudinal associations between short-term (frequent engagement at one wave), repeated (frequent engagement at 2-3 waves), and sustained (frequent engagement at 4-6 waves) arts engagement and experienced, evaluative and eudaimonic well-being. We fitted linear and logistic regression models adjusted for baseline well-being and a number of sociodemographic, economic, health and social engagement factors. Results: In the fully-adjusted models, short-term engagement was not longitudinally associated with well-being, but repeated engagement with the theatre/concerts/opera and museums/galleries/exhibitions was associated with enhanced eudaimonic well-being and sustained engagement with these activities was associated with greater experienced, evaluative and eudaimonic well-being.
... On a more general arena, cultural activity in life as a whole, several prospective population studies have been published which show that lack of cultural activity in life is associated with poor health and vice versa (Bygren et al. 1996(Bygren et al. , 2009aClift et al. 2007Clift et al. , 2008Clift et al. , 2012. Konlaan et al. 2000, Tuisku et al. 2012, Väänänen et al. 2009). A recent large prospective population study (Løkken et al. 2008) in Norway has shown that cultural activity has a predictive value, however, differently for men (decreased mortality) and women (improved self-rated health). ...
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Purpose Several studies have shown that cultural activities may promote health. There are also prospective population studies which show that regular participation in cultural activities could reduce morbidity and mortality. To what extent such associations could be applied to the work arena is not so well known, although findings in a few studies support the assumption that cultural activities organized from the work site might improve employee health. An important question discussed in the literature is the extent to which associations between cultural activity at work and employee mental health could be reversed, for instance, with depressive mood resulting in withdrawal from cultural activity at work (backwords) rather than the opposite (forwards). The present study addresses this question. Methods Using a biennial national job survey with seven waves (SLOSH), we examined 2-year follow-up periods in 7193 men and 9313 women in the years 2006–2018. The question regarding cultural activity at work was examined prospectively (using multilevel structural equation modelling) both forwards and backwards in relation to a standardized score for depressive mood (SCL-CD6) in participants working at least 30% both at start and end of the 2-year period. Results The analyses were made separately for men and women and with age and education level as confounders. The findings show that there are highly significant prospective relationships for both men and women in both directions concomitantly. Conclusions Participation in cultural activity at work may protect employees from worsening depressive feelings, but depressive feelings may also inhibit participation in such activities.
... In addition to the widely reported impact on mental and social wellbeing, such as feelings of loneliness, absence of intimacy and lack of connectedness in personal relationships, Dhand et al. noted that 'social isolation is a potent determinant of poor health and neurobiological changes, and its effects can be comparable to those of traditional risk factors ' (Dhand et al., 2016: 605). In younger people, the need for social interaction and access to cultural spaces as a contribution to wellbeing has also been widely reported (Konlaan, Bygren and Johansson, 2000), as evidenced in the case studies later in this paper. ...
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Article Info. Abstract One of the most pervasive messages about group music-making is its ability to contribute to social unity and cultural bonding. The notion of COVID-19 as a vehicle for cultural change is currently being examined in detail, particularly the development of improved digital platforms and the widespread globalism of music. The impact of community music-making in Western cultures has been extensively reported; for example, it has been shown to boost confidence, improve social skills and bring together communities. Much research has been done into the practice of using technology in the classroom, such as the inclusion of electronic keyboards and digital audio workstation (DAW) software, though success here has depended on teachers and learners sharing the same space and time to access necessary technology. In contrast, the potential and limitations of virtual, online music-making across widespread geographical locations are relatively new. It is clear that group music-making can play a key role in maintaining social unity and assuaging societal pain, and, in this extraordinary time, online alternatives can offer some form of coherence and opportunity.
... 4,14,15,53 It is of note that nonactive activities have also increased in the general population in the recent years. 53 Enjoyable leisure activities as for example attending cultural events have been associated with psychological and physical well-being and increased survival in the general population, 54,55 Fig 5 CTREE for the USER-Participation satisfaction scale. The upper part shows the sequential splits based on early predictors (nodes 1, 2, 4, 6,9,10,13,14); the lower part represents the attained partition of the initial study group into 8 subgroups (terminal nodes 3,5,7,8,11,12,15,16,17). Boxplots in the terminal nodes show the weighted number of observation and distribution of the USER-Participation satisfaction scale within each subgroup. ...
Article
Objective: To describe different domains of participation such as productive, leisure and social activities and describe sociodemographic and spinal cord injury (SCI)-related characteristics that are associated with participation in these domains in a large sample of community-dwelling individuals with SCI in Switzerland. Design: Cross-sectional population-based survey within the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Participation in major life domains was measured by the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-Participation). Univariable unconditional analysis and unbiased recursive partitioning were used to identify the predominant associations of sociodemographic and SCI-related characteristics with multiple dimensions of participation. Setting: Community. Participants: Swiss residents aged 16 years or older and living with traumatic or nontraumatic SCI (N=1549). Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measure: The USER-Participation, a 32-item self-report questionnaire with 3 scales (Frequency, Restrictions, and Satisfaction) to assess key domains of participation (productive, leisure, social). Results: Frequency (median 34.5 out of 100) in productive, outdoor leisure, and social activities was reduced with distinctive perceived restrictions in work and education, sports, and partner relationships. Domestic leisure activities (65.4%) and maintaining social relationships (76.1%) were those activities most often performed and with least perceived restrictions. Participants were generally satisfied with their current daily life activities. Lower scores across all participation scales were associated with more severe SCI, higher age, being female, not having a partner, and lower level of education. Conclusions: This study provides a thorough analysis of participation in major life domains of individuals with SCI in Switzerland. Different risk groups for reduced levels in participation in productive, leisure, and social activities were identified. This population-based evidence is instrumental to the better targeting of rehabilitation and policy interventions that aim to improve community participation.
... Much of the relevant research pertaining to the psychological impact of art has conceptualized the arts as cultural engagement and leisure, including activities such as visits to museums, libraries, and historical sites, and leisure activities such as visiting friends and pursuing hobbies. Psychological explanations offered for the positive effects of cultural engagement and leisure on physical and mental health and cognition have included: affectenhancement, stress-reduction, and social contact (Fancourt & Steptoe, 2018); needs gratification, arousal, communication, and enriched environment (Konlaan, Bygren, & Johansson, 2000); recovery, autonomy, mastery, meaning and affiliation (Newman, Tay, & Diener, 2014); and preparation for future events (Bygren, Konlaan, & Johansson, 1996). In a review of arts engagement and health-related research, Gordon-Nesbitt (2015) categorized the principal explanations as involving effects of increased social capital, improved cognition, protection from strain, and enriched environment. ...
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Evidence about the impact of art on well-being is confined to studies of participatory arts and receptive arts that involve attending cultural events. This investigation examined the impact of art on well-being by framing people's engagement with art as encounters with artistic imagination. These encounters include traditional forms of cultural activity, such as a gallery or theater visit, but also encompass everyday activities, such as watching a screen drama or reading fiction. Three studies examined how such encounters affect emotional well-being, life satisfaction, meaning in life, and mental well-being. A survey study (N = 544) found that participants on average spent over 4 hr engaged with art the previous day. This study and an experience-sampling study (N = 50), in which participants completed a questionnaire via their smartphones twice daily for 10 days (854 responses), revealed that individuals' variety of encounters with art and accompanying elevating emotional experiences were associated with well-being. Live arts engagement was positively associated with all aspects of well-being, and visual and literary arts with greater meaning in life, whereas screen arts, audio arts, and sports spectating (for comparison) were not positively associated. A third study using (live) arts attendance and well-being data (n = 27,918) from 2 waves (3-year interval) of a large longitudinal panel survey showed that frequency of attendance predicted subsequent well-being, whereas arts participation did not. Overall, the evidence indicates that encounters with artistic imagination contribute to people's well-being, with effects varying according to the art form and the type of well-being assessed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... A key reason was that asylum seeker status in the UK would not have permitted alternative occupation or employment, so clients might not have otherwise left their homes or met people on a regular basis. In keeping with previous research, participants reported that participation in cultural and social activities contributed to their social health, 18 and aligned with a growing body of evidence 1 to suggest that creative activities enhanced mental wellbeing, [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] helping clients to develop self-confidence and resilience. 21 Client preferences for activities indicated that singing was their favourite group, followed by photography, art and textiles. ...
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Objective Drawing on a growing body of research suggesting that taking part in artistic and cultural activities benefits health and well-being, the objective was to develop a participatory action research (PAR) method for assessing the impact of arts interventions on forcibly displaced people, and identify themes concerning perceived benefits of such programmes. Design A collaborative study following PAR principles of observation, focus groups and in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting London-based charity working with asylum seekers and refugees. Participants An opportunity sample (n=31; 6 males) participated in focus groups comprising refugees/asylum seekers (n=12; 2 males), volunteers (n=4; 1 males) and charity staff (n=15; 3 males). A subset of these (n=17; 3 males) participated in interviews comprising refugees/asylum seekers (n=7; 1 males), volunteers (n=7; 1 males) and charity staff (n=3; 1 males). Results Focus group findings showed that participants articulated the impact of creative activities around three main themes: skills, social engagement and personal emotions that were explored during in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis of interviews was conducted in NVivo 11 and findings showed that artistic and cultural activities impacted positively by helping participants find a voice, create support networks and learn practical skills useful in the labour market. Conclusions The study expanded on arts and well-being research by exploring effects of cultural and creative activities on the psychosocial well-being of refugees and asylum seekers. By focusing on the relationship between arts, well-being and forced displacement, the study was instrumental in actively trying to change the narrative surrounding refugees and asylum seekers, often depicted in negative terms in the public sphere.
... A second important link points to the politically critical area of welfare. There is an impressive amount of evidence that cultural participation may have significant effects on life expectation [118], but more recent research seems to suggest that the impact is equally significant in terms of self-reported psychological well-being [119][120][121]. In particular, it turns out that cultural participation is the second predictor of psychological well-being after (presence/absence of) major diseases, and in this regard, its impact is comparable to that of income, and significantly stronger than that of variables such as place of residence, age, gender, or occupation. ...
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We develop a new conceptual framework to analyze the evolution of the relationship between cultural production and different forms of economic and social value creation in terms of three alternative socio-technical regimes that have emerged over time. We show how, with the emergence of the Culture 3.0 regime characterized by novel forms of active cultural participation, where the distinction between producers and users of cultural and creative contents is increasingly blurred, new channels of social and economic value creation through cultural participation acquire increasing importance. We characterize them through an eight-tier classification, and argue on this basis why cultural policy is going to acquire a central role in the policy design approaches of the future. Whether Europe will play the role of a strategic leader in this scenario in the context of future cohesion policies is an open question.
... At the 14-year follow-up period mortality risk was again assessed, but in relation to specific forms of cultural engagement. Attending films, concerts, museums, and art exhibits were all associated with reduced mortality rates (Konlaan, Bygren, & Johansson, 2000). The investigators found it "noteworthy that the effects were most obvious in non-verbal stimulation through pictures, objects and music" (p. ...
... Based on this information, we created a dummy variable of sporting event attendance (1 = those who attended one or more sporting events during the past year; 0 = those who did not attend any sporting event), which served as the independent variable for this study. Measuring sporting event attendance as a dummy variable is consistent with previous research that used dichotomous variables of various leisure activities to examine the relationship between leisure participation and health outcomes [24,25]. ...
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Background This study examined the extent to which sporting event attendance is associated with self-rated health. Drawing from an economic model of health production and psychological research on the health benefits of psychosocial resources, sporting event attendance was hypothesized to have a positive relationship with self-rated health. Methods A two-level multilevel ordered logistic regression was used to analyze multiyear cross-sectional data collected from national surveys in Japan. Results The results demonstrate that, controlling for the effects of personal and environmental characteristics, sporting event attendance positively correlates with self-rated health over a 12-year period. Specifically, when compared to individuals who did not attend any sporting event during the past year, those who attended a sporting event were 33% more likely to indicate a higher level of self-rated health. Conclusions These findings provide evidence for a positive association between sport spectatorship and the perception of general health and contribute to the literature examining the relationship between sport spectatorship and health outcomes.
... Well-performed and controlled studies have demonstrated that a high level of cultural participation (as, for example, measured by indexes based on visiting the theatre, concerts, arts exhibitions, museums, and sports events) is associated with a decreased mortality risk (Bygren et al., 1996;Konlaan et al., 2000). Annamaria Laaksonen, research manager at the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies Australia, describes how the arts sector can also contribute to other sectors, for example health and management (Laaksonen, 2011). ...
Chapter
Both internal and external stimuli can cause stress, and suboptimal stress management is a major driver of ill health. There are several complex interventions, such as contemplative practices and cultural activities, which facilitate the process of becoming aware of and handling such stimuli. Participation in such activities can facilitate the connection with one’s emotions and values, and the integration of those in everyday coping. One contemplative practice is mindfulness, which involves bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis, non-judgementally. Among cultural interventions we find, for example, dance and music therapy and combinations thereof. It is plausible that the health effects of nature, and contemplative and cultural activities share a mechanistic background. Several theoretical principles are similar and the same kinds of condition benefit from these interventions, all with a certain effect on stress and mental fatigue. There could be synergistic effects of the various approaches.
... Well-performed and controlled studies have demonstrated that a high level of cultural participation (as, for example, measured by indexes based on visiting the theatre, concerts, arts exhibitions, museums, and sports events) is associated with a decreased mortality risk (Bygren et al., 1996;Konlaan et al., 2000). Annamaria Laaksonen, research manager at the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies Australia, describes how the arts sector can also contribute to other sectors, for example health and management (Laaksonen, 2011). ...
Book
Cultural, contemplative, and nature- related activities— promising measures for major public health challenges Mental and psychosomatic health problems currently constitute one of the greatest public health issues. Apart from individual suffering, this causes long- term absenteeism and high societal costs. Common mental disorders involve problems with mood and emotion regulation, as well as with cognitive capacity, such as executive functioning and episodic memory. There is also a significant co- morbidity with major somatic diseases, like cardiovascular diseases and dementia. Furthermore, all of these conditions seem to be related to maladaptive stress signalling (including prolonged, excessive, or deficient response of the stress system), at both central and peripheral levels. For a thorough review of stress physiology, see Chapter 1.4. Contemplative practices, like mindfulness and compassion training, and cultural activities have all been used to improve or prevent some of these health problems. Such practices seem to have in common with nature- assisted or based interventions (NA/ BI) that they facilitate exploration and cultivation of the inner, personal experiences, and outer ‘landscapes’, respectively. In this chapter, factors that may underlie some of the common mental health problems are discussed and put into a context to reveal reasons for why various complex interventions, including nature- assisted or based interventions, may share a mechanistic background. This is followed by a review of contemplative practices and cultural activities as health- promoting activities. Then similarities, differences, and possible synergies between NA/ BI, contemplative, and cultural activities will be elaborated on.
... Größere epidemiologische Studien zu Zusammenhängen zwischen musikalischer Aktivität und chronischen Erkrankungen fehlen bisher [8,9], es gibt jedoch Hinweise aus skandinavischen Studien zur allgemeinen Bedeutung von kulturellen Aktivitäten für die Gesundheit auf Bevölkerungsebene [10,11]. So konnten positive Einflüsse kultureller Aktivitäten auf die Mortalität festgestellt werden [10][11][12]. Im Vergleich zu kreativ und kulturell nicht aktiven Menschen berichteten kreativ und kulturell aktive Personen über sich selbst einen besseren Gesundheitszustand, höhere Lebenszufriedenheit, weniger Angst und Depressionen, wobei diese Unterschiede bei Frauen stärker als bei Männern ausgeprägt waren [8,13,14]. In einer Studie konnte bei älteren Personen ( > 75 Jahre) gezeigt werden, dass regelmäßige Freizeitaktivitäten, darunter insbesondere das Spielen eines Instrumentes, mit einem geringeren Risiko für Demenzerkrankungen assoziiert waren [15]. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Zusammenhänge zwischen musikalischer Aktivität und dem Auftreten von Erkrankungen sind bisher nur in wenigen Studien untersucht, obgleich es viele Hinweise gibt, dass musikalische Aktivität einen Einfluss auf physiologische, pathophysiologische, psychische und kognitive Prozesse hat. Eine Ursache für die geringe Anzahl größerer Studien könnte das Fehlen eines geeigneten Erhebungsinstrumentes sein. Ziel Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, einen Überblick über Erhebungsinstrumente zur Erfassung von Musikalität und musikalischer Aktivität zu geben. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt dabei in der Vorstellung eines neu entwickelten Fragebogens (MusA), der die musikalische Aktivität (aktives Musizieren und Musikrezeption) erfasst und derzeit bereits in der NAKO Gesundheitsstudie eingesetzt wird. Methode Mittels Literaturrecherche wurden Fragebögen identifiziert, die Musikalität und/ oder musikalische Aktivität erfassen. Von einer Expertenrunde wurde ein neuer deutschsprachiger Fragebogen entwickelt und in einer kleinen Studie hinsichtlich seiner Reliabilität getestet (n=121, Männer und Frauen im Alter von 18 bis 70 Jahren). Ergebnisse Bei der Literaturrecherche wurden 3 Fragebögen (Gold-MSI, MUSE, MEQ) identifiziert, die sich mit Aspekten der Musikalität und musikalischen Aktivität mit jeweils unterschiedlicher Schwerpunktsetzung befassen. Alle 3 Instrumente sind als umfangreiche psychometrische Skalen zu bewerten, die sich insbesondere der Musikalität widmen. Bisher steht nur der Gold-MSI in einer deutschen Übersetzung zur Verfügung. Keiner der 3 bestehenden Fragebögen erfasst die musikalische Aktivität differenziert. Der neu entwickelte, kurze MusA-Fragebogen, bestehend aus 9 Fragen mit einer maximalen Ausfülldauer von 3 bis 5 Min, schließt diese Lücke. Zusammenfassung Es stehen nur wenige Fragebögen zur Erfassung von Musikalität und musikalischer Aktivität mit unterschiedlicher Schwerpunktsetzung zur Verfügung. Der neu entwickelte deutschsprachige MusA dient der differenzierten Erfassung von musikalischer Aktivität und soll eingesetzt werden, um in größeren populationsbasierten aber auch klinischen Studien wie z. B. der NAKO Gesundheitsstudie aktives Musizieren und Musikhören als eigenständige Faktoren im Zusammenhang mit Prävention und Therapie chronischer Erkrankungen untersuchen zu können.
... Herunder var musikaktiviteter så som at spille et instrument, deltage i korsang og at gå til koncert ( Bygren et al. 1996). I en follow-up af undersøgelsen fra 1996 demonstrerede resultaterne, at det isaer var biografbesøg og deltagelse i koncerter, der viste en signifikant lavere dødsrisiko (Konlaan et al. 2000). ...
... In respect to the first dimension, the relationship between culture and the individual physical dimension (health status), evidence shows that among the various potential urban determinants taken into consideration, cultural consumption proved unexpectedly to be the second most important determinant of psychological well-being after the absence or presence of disease, followed by job type, age, income, civil status, education, place of abode and other important factors (3). Furthermore, a 14-year longitudinal study (4) in a clinical setting investigated the effect of attending different types of cultural events or visiting cultural institutions as a determinant of survival. The research discovered a lower mortality risk for individuals who most often went to concerts, cinema, art exhibitions or museums, as compared with those rarely went to them. ...
... Given the flourishing impacts of art museum visitation (see Cotter & Pawelski, 2022 for review) and increasing benefits of consistent visitation (e.g., Konlaan, 2000), hedonically positive experiences within an art museum may encourage repeated visitation and enhance the facilitation of other flourishing outcomes. ...
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People visit art museums for many reasons—to see something beautiful or famous, to learn more about art, or to experience a sense of awe. Recently, there has been increased interest in how art museum engagement can promote flourishing. Little is known, however, how the professionals shaping these art museum experiences (e.g., curators, educators, front of house staff) view art museums as institutions that can promote flourishing outcomes. In the present research, we examined the perceptions of 208 art museum professionals regarding the aims of art museums and ability of art museums to impact both well-being (e.g., empathy, self-acceptance) and ill-being (e.g., anxiety, loneliness) factors. The findings suggest that art museum professionals feel that the well-being of visitors should be emphasized as a goal more strongly than it currently is, and that there are some well-being and ill-being components (e.g., empathy, helping, closed-mindedness) that should receive greater attention than others.
... Psychological health influences quality of life. Supportive activity within social networks, such as meeting friends and participating in cultural activities, are positively associated with life satisfaction and longevity (Koponen et al. 2017;Helvik et al. 2011;Forssén, 2007;Koonlaan et al. 2000Koonlaan et al. , 1996. Older people in hospital care have an increased risk of dissatisfaction when social connections and participation in activities are reduced (Helvik et al. 2011). ...
Article
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We investigated if cultural activities are associated with improved quality of life experiences of older people. In 2012, older people in five care units were invited to participate more cultural activities (study group) than usual. Each person in the study group had a tailored cultural plan integrated into the care plan. Older people in traditional care units (control group) did not have such cultural plans. One hundred sixty-one persons from care units in two cities in Finland participated in 2012 and 161 persons in 2014 in a cross-sectional study. Their quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF (Field Tríal Version) enquiry. The quality of life variable contained four domains: physical, psychosocial, social and environment. The values of these domains underwent multivariate analysis of variance of the following explanatory variables: intervention group, age (</= to 80 compared to >80 years old), education background, marital status, gender and comorbidities. The domains of the participants’ self-rated experience were also assessed. The quality of life experience was similar at baseline in 2012 in both study groups. In 2014 the study group rated the quality of life (p<0.0001 respectively) and satisfaction with health (p=0.001 respectively) higher than the control group. Older people in care units need cultural activities as a necessary part of their care. The care provided in the care units does not put enough emphasis on this need. With individually tailored cultural activities set down in a cultural plan, care providers can ensure a better quality of life for older people.
... To conclude, while a growing body of evidence indicates that cultural participation, namely participation with museums and art, has the power to enhance health and wellbeing (Konlaan et al. 2000;Chatterjee and Noble 2013;Napier et al. 2014), there has been less attention to the role of science engagement. This project suggests that science does have potential to support wellbeing; we hope our work can contribute to research in this area. ...
Article
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Catalyst is a science discovery centre and independent museum based in Widnes, United Kingdom. Since 2018, it has collaborated with mental health charity Mind Halton on MindLab, a science-inspired wellbeing project for local residents in an area with low access to mental health support. As twenty-first century museums are being increasingly regarded as community resources capable of producing valuable social impact, this article considers the role of museums in harnessing this potential to enhance community health and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. It reflects on the challenges encountered during this unprecedented lockdown, as well as the emerging opportunities, through the perspectives of those delivering MindLab.
... Por lo que concierne a la investigación, numerosos trabajos científicos, especialmente los epidemiológicos, han determinado cómo la participación cultural y, en general, los estilos de vida, pueden estar relacionados con una prolongación de las expectativas de longevidad (Bygren et al. 2009;Konlaan, Bygren y Johansson 2000), el envejecimiento activo (Fancourt, Steptoe, y Cadar 2018), la prevención de enfermedades crónicas degenerativas graves como el Alzheimer (McGuigan, Legget y Horsburgh 2015) y el Parkinson (Houston 2019), entre otras. La mayoría de estos estudios han sido recogidos en el 67º Informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que ha presentado la primera scoping review; la investigación más grande jamás realizada sobre este tema (Fancourt y Finn 2019). ...
Book
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Este compendio recoge algunas de las voces que hemos sentido en las “conversaciones patrimoniales” que venimos organizando desde el año 2015 en el Grupo de Arqueología Pública y Patrimonio” (GAPP) de la Universitat de Barcelona. Los trabajos presentados versan en torno a temáticas diversas asociadas al patrimonio cultural: gestión de patrimonio, participación, mapeos colectivos, restauración, museología, conservación, reflexiones críticas desde la filosofía o el derecho. This is a collection of the voices of some of the people that talked in the “heritage conversations” that we have been organizing since 2015 in the Group of Public Archeology and Heritage ”(GAPP) of the University of Barcelona. All the papers in the book deal with several themes associated with discussions about cultural heritage: heritage management, participation, collective mapping, restoration, museology, conservation, and critical reflections from philosophy or law.
... Muitas vezes, a participação em atividades em grupo, como a dança de salão, é um hobbie para o idoso. Estudos de idosos residentes na comunidade relataram que o alto envolvimento em hobbies estava associado a diminuição significativa da mortalidade (Konlaan, Bygren, & Johansson, 2000;Hyyppä, Mäki, Impivaara, & Aromaa 2006;Fushiki Ohnishi, Sakauchi, Oura, & Mori, 2012), e que a falta de propósito na vida foi significativamente associada a um risco aumentado de mortalidade (Koizumi, Ito, Kaneko, & Motohashi, 2008;Sone, Nakaya, Ohmori, Shimazu, Higashiguchi, Kakizaki & Kikuchi, 2008). ...
Article
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Este estudo transversal teve o objetivo de comparar o propósito de vida entre idosos frequentadores e não frequentadores de clubes de dança. Foram avaliados 100 idosos, sendo 50 frequentadores de clubes de dança e 50 não frequentadores. Foi utilizado um instrumento com questões sociodemográficas e a Escala de Propósito de vida. Os dados foram analisados por meio dos testes Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Qui-quadrado de Pearson, “U” de Mann-Whitney e correlação de Spearman (p0,05). Os idosos frequentadores de clubes de dança apresentaram maior escore de propósito de vida do que os idosos não frequentadores (p=0,010. Não foi encontrada correlação significativa (p 0,05) entre a idade e o propósito de vida dos idosos frequentadores e não frequentadores de clubes de dança. Pode-se concluir que a frequência em clubes de dança de salão parece ser um fator interveniente no propósito de vida dos idosos.
... An underlying age effect as previously reported may be responsible for the decrease in the frequency of leisure activities [9]. In the general population, leisure activities have been linked to psychological and physical well-being as well as to increased survival [24]. Thus, in rehabilitation management and counseling the focus should not only be on living and vocational rehabilitation, but also on recreative leisure activities and unpaid productive activities. ...
Article
Longitudinal community survey. To determine subgroups in social participation of individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI). Community. Data were collected in 2012 and 2017 as part of the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury cohort. Participation was assessed using the 33-item Utrecht Scale of Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation evaluating frequency of, restrictions in and satisfaction with productive, leisure, and social activities. Linear mixed-effects model trees were used to distinguish subgroups in participation associated with sociodemographic and lesion characteristics. In all, 3079 observations were used for the analysis, of which 1549 originated from Survey 2012, 1530 from Survey 2017, and 761 from both surveys. Participants were mostly male (2012: 71.5%; 2017: 71.2%), aged on average 50 years (2012: 52.3; 2017: 56.5), with an incomplete paraplegia (2012: 37.5%; 2017: 41.8%) of traumatic origin (2012: 84.7%; 2017: 79.3%). There was limited within-person variation in participation over the 5-year period. Participation varied with age, SCI severity, education, financial strain, number of self-reported health conditions (SHCs), and disability pension level. Among modifiable parameters, the number of SHCs and disability pension level emerged as the most frequent partitioning variables, while education was most informative for participation in productive, leisure, and social activities. Long-term rehabilitation management and clinical practice should target people most prone to decreased participation in major life domains. Our study indicates that the alleviation of SHCs, engagement in further education, or adjusting disability pension level are promising areas to improve participation of persons living with SCI.
... Engagement, focus, challenges, and meaning are inherent to artistic and cultural activities. There are studies which have demonstrated benefits of mere consumption of culture for human wellbeing [37][38][39][40][41]. Subjective wellbeing has thus been reported in the connection with the consumption of jazz or classical music concerts, opera or ballet, while participation "in the arts and experiencing culture on a somewhat regular basis can have physical, mental and social effects" [37]. ...
Article
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Wellbeing has been researched in relation to social, wellness, rural, backpacker, senior, wildlife, transformational or transformative tourism or studies exist specifically focusing on wellbeing tourism. Surprisingly enough, there is a void of research focus on wellbeing in cultural tourism, although culture has been considered as having a substantial impact on wellbeing. The research uses the case study of the Museum of Broken Relationships (MBR) in Zagreb, Croatia, under the assumption that MBR experiences have a relevant influence on tourists’ subjective wellbeing. Subjective wellbeing was measured after the visitation using the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS) and a majority of the respondents experienced moderate to high wellbeing. Furthermore, the research aimed to investigate whether or not there is any difference between cultural and non-cultural tourists’ subjective wellbeing noted after the visitation to the Museum. The results showed that there was no substantial difference between cultural and non-cultural tourists’ subjective wellbeing.
... https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6283-8982 Elisa Panzera https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2229-6634 ENDNOTES 1 Participation in cultural activities is, however, a fundamental and essential aspect of vibrancy and vitality of local cultural lives and it has also been recognized as linked with emotional and physical health as well as psycho-physic well-being (Crociata, Agovino, & Sacco, 2014;Evans, 2009;European Union, 2012;Grossi, Sacco, Tavano Blessi, & Cerutti, 2011;Konlaan, Bygren, & Johansson, 2000; UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2012) and virtuous behaviours (e.g., Quaglione, Cassetta, Crociata, & Sarra, 2017). In addition, cultural participation is a form of human capital accumulation, social regeneration, networking, and cohesion (Everingham, 2003). ...
Article
Cultural heritage has been recognized as fundamental for local development. In particular, some recent works have highlighted the role of sophisticated transmission channels of this relationship, i.e. local creativity and cosmopolitan identity. Following a territorial perspective, the present work aims at combining the two approaches, in the belief that there could be a synergic interplay between creativity and cosmopolitan identity, reinforcing their individual effects. Accordingly, an original conceptual and operational taxonomy characterizing cultural cities is put forward. The contribution of the different patterns identified to urban and regional growth is assessed, as well as their capacity to valorize cultural participation.
... Muitas vezes, a participação em atividades em grupo, como a dança de salão, é um hobbie para o idoso. Estudos de idosos residentes na comunidade relataram que o alto envolvimento em hobbies estava associado a diminuição significativa da mortalidade (Konlaan, Bygren, & Johansson, 2000;Hyyppä, Mäki, Impivaara, & Aromaa 2006;Fushiki Ohnishi, Sakauchi, Oura, & Mori, 2012), e que a falta de propósito na vida foi significativamente associada a um risco aumentado de mortalidade (Koizumi, Ito, Kaneko, & Motohashi, 2008;Sone, Nakaya, Ohmori, Shimazu, Higashiguchi, Kakizaki & Kikuchi, 2008). ...
Article
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This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the purpose of life between older-adult members and non-members of a dancing club. A total of 100 older adults were evaluated, which included 50 dance club members and 50 non-members. An instrument with sociodemographic questions and the Life Purpose Scale was used. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson Chi-square, Mann-Whitney "U" and Spearman correlation tests (p
Article
In recent years, museums have actively embraced their role in health and well-being. Although the interest in examining museums’ health impacts is growing, the field lacks robust evidence of measurable well-being benefits that would allow art museums to expand their social role and realize their health-enhancing potential for the communities they serve. The purpose of our study was to explore the influence of a brief art museum visit on people’s psychological and physiological indicators of stress, including self-reported stress, self-reported arousal, and saliva cortisol. A single group pre- and post-test approach was used, and data were collected through self-administered questionnaires and saliva samples (n = 31). Results demonstrated that average levels of self-reported stress and arousal were significantly reduced by a museum visit; levels of saliva cortisol were unchanged. The research suggests that art museums have an opportunity to strengthen their social role by becoming health and well-being resources for their communities.
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The aim of the study is to determine the association between Behavioral Lifestyles (regular physical activity, healthy diet, sleeping, and weight control) and longevity in the elderly. A search strategy was conducted in the PsycInfo, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus databases. The primary outcome was mortality/survival. Four variables (mean of participant's age at the baseline of the study, follow-up years of the study, gender, and year of publication) were analyzed to evaluate the role of potential moderators. Ninety-three articles, totaling more than 2,800,000 people, were included in the meta-analysis. We found that the lifestyles analyzed predict greater survival. Specifically, doing regular physical activity, engaging in leisure activities, sleeping 7-8 h a day, and staying outside the BMI ranges considered as underweight or obesity are habits that each separately has a greater probability associated with survival after a period of several years.
Book
There is accruing evidence which indicates that actively making music can contribute to the enhancement of a range of non-musical skills and lead to other beneficial outcomes.
Chapter
Cultural activities like playing an instrument, singing or participating in theatre can affect biological processes in the human body and have shown to have a positive health effect on patients. Previous studies from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway, indicate that people who are culturally active experienced better self-reported health were more satisfied with their lives and experienced less anxiety and depression. A study performed on adolescents, 13 –19 years, found an association between participation in cultural activities that involved social interactions with others and good health, good life satisfaction and good self-esteem. Another study suggested that effects of cultural activities are different from the effect from participation in social activities on body fat distribution in adolescents.
Chapter
This chapter discusses a new approach to promoting health and quality of life in local contexts by learning participants to use music as a ‘technology’ of health and self-care through the steps and actions of The Fellowship of Health Musicking Model. The main purpose of this chapter is to increase knowledge as to how musical activities can promote mental and somatic health, hence to be considered important in public health matters, and, secondly, how The Fellowship of Musicking Model may be used as a health-promoting initiative. The model builds on a novel musical health promotion procedure developed by the author in 2007 as part of a PhD project. The aims of the study were, firstly, to explore the role and significance of music in the life of men and women with long-term illnesses in or through different life phases, situations, events, issues, and contexts and, secondly, to increase knowledge on how participants, through exposure to and exchange of new musical materials and practices, may learn to use music as a ‘technology of self’ in relation to health and healing. The longitudinal study involved 9 men and 13 women, aged between 35 and 65, and was a pragmatic synthesis of elements of ethnography, grounded theory and action research (This chapter includes both published and unpublished material from the PhD thesis (Batt-Rawden 2007). Eight in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant, and open narratives were elicited from each of them, using a topic guide, two single CDs and four double compilations. Through involvement in the steps and actions of this model, self-awareness and consciousness may be enhanced through the informal learning process and, hence, be adopted as a coping strategy independent of age, gender, diagnoses, illnesses and cultural differences. Health benefits from musicking may reduce stress, anxiety, depression and the need for medication, building coping capabilities, social inclusion and renewed strength. The model may contribute to a wider understanding of musical activities as a method or strategy in public health, health promotion and rehabilitation.
Article
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Visiting art museums is a common activity that a wide variety of people choose to engage in for many reasons. Increasingly, communities, nations, and societies are turning to art museums as institutions to enhance flourishing (i.e., reducing ill-being factors, such as depression, and increasing well-being factors, such as feelings of belonging). In this paper, we review the psychological literature examining art museum visitation and museum program participation and their associations with flourishing-related outcomes. The literature suggests art museum visitation is associated with reductions in ill-being outcomes and increases in well-being outcomes. Additionally, programs targeting flourishing outcomes in clinical or at-risk populations (e.g., people living with dementia, older adults) show benefits to participants, with visits to art museums being socially prescribed across the globe to address a variety of ill-being conditions. Implications for existing knowledge and avenues for future research are discussed.
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An increasing body of evidence notes the health benefits of arts engagement and participation. However, specific health effects and optimal modes and 'doses' of arts participation remain unclear, limiting evidence-based recommendations and prescriptions. The performing arts are the most popular form of arts participation, presenting substantial scope for established interest to be leveraged into positive health outcomes. Results of a three-component umbrella review (PROSPERO ID #: CRD42020191991) of relevant systematic reviews (33), epidemiologic studies (9) and descriptive studies (87) demonstrate that performing arts participation is broadly health promoting activity. Beneficial effects of performing arts participation were reported in healthy (non-clinical) children, adolescents, adults, and older adults across 17 health domains (9 supported by moderate-high quality evidence (GRADE criteria)). Positive health effects were associated with as little as 30 (acute effects) to 60 minutes (sustained weekly participation) of performing arts participation, with drumming and both expressive (ballroom, social) and exercise-based (aerobic dance, Zumba) modes of dance linked to the broadest health benefits. Links between specific health effects and performing arts modes/doses remain unclear and specific conclusions are limited by a still young and disparate evidence base. Further research is necessary, with this umbrella review providing a critical knowledge foundation.
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The paper analyzes urban-rural difference on the individual psychological well-being of residents living in the Autonomous Province of Alto Adige, region on the border between Italy and Austria. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2010 on a statistical representative sample, based on the PGWBI, an instrument specifically used to measure individual subjective well-being. The study examines the influence of socio-demographic factors, as well as cultural determinants, on the PGWBI. Urban inhabitants were found to perceive higher level of psychological well-being compared to rural ones, while the determinants affecting individual subjective had a greater impact on the rural one.
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Aims: Recent reviews have demonstrated broad links between performing arts participation (e.g. music-making; dancing; acting) and receptive engagement (e.g. listening to music; attending a dance/theatre performance) and improved health, including reduced disease and mortality risk. However, no investigations to date have interrogated the links between community-level performing arts activity (i.e. participation + receptive engagement) and health outcomes; i.e. do the performing arts help create healthy communities? This study aims to address this question by examining links between performing arts activity and health outcomes across 500 cities in the United States. Methods: Secondary analysis of demographic, health outcome, performing arts activity (estimated by annual performing arts revenue), and preventive/unhealthy behaviour data for 500 large cities in the United States; data were extracted from the US Centers for Disease Control 500 Cities Project, Dun & Bradstreet Hoovers Database, and US Census. Links between performing arts activity and 12 health/disease outcomes were evaluated using a series of hierarchical beta regression models which progressively controlled for demographic variables and preventive/unhealthy behaviour prevalence. Results: The 500 analysed US cities comprise 33.4% of the total US population and 84,010 performing arts businesses (total annual revenue $27.84 billion). No significant associations were found between performing arts activity and nine of twelve health outcomes in fully adjusted models (p>.17). Statistically significant relationships (p<.01) between increased performing arts activity and increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were determined to be clinically equivocal. Conclusions: This study contributes to a growing body of conflicting epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of the performing arts on health/disease and mortality outcomes, evaluated using a range of disparate methodologies. A consensus, psychometrically rigorous approach is required to address this prevailing uncertainty in future epidemiologic studies examining effects of performing arts activities both within and across countries and communities.
Article
Culture is an essential factor in the wellbeing of Indigenous peoples, but colonisation has disrupted and fragmented Indigenous cultures across the world. In Australia, urban Aboriginal young people are a growing population. However, research, policies and programmes aimed at improving Aboriginal wellbeing are unclear in their understanding of what culture is and how it is included in practice, particularly from the perspective of urban Aboriginal young people. Therefore, this study used yarning and thematic analysis to explore the experiences and conceptualisations of culture from the perspective of young, urban Aboriginal people. The young people described culture in terms of relationships, connection to Country, shared beliefs and values, and with regards to identity. Such understanding will contribute to an evidence-base of appropriate, better targeted and more effective wellbeing policies and programmes.
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The purpose of this master thesis is to investigate how people who work with bibliotherapy view the method itself and if it may enhance mental health and well-being. The study also wants to investigate what possible disadvantages that the practitioners consider with the method. To investigate this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve persons who in some capacity work with bibliotherapy in Sweden. The interviews took place during March of 2020. The result of the study suggest that bibliotherapy can be an effective method of promoting mental health and well-being. Bibliotherapy is consistently described in the interviews as a kind of coping strategy and an undemanding activity that the participant performs on the basis of their own conditions. Literature is described to have a therapeutic property which can give us insights and understanding of our own life situation and a sense of coherence. The term bibliotherapy is described as broad and difficult to define. There is a common desire by the interviewees to continue working with bibliotherapy to a greater extent than today and several participants highlights the importance of more clinical studies on the method.
Chapter
Active leisure is strongly linked to happiness and well-being. Yet, actual leisure practices are stratified according to social class and status, and there is no consensus about what kind of leisure contributes to happiness. The aim of this empirical chapter is to understand whether some types of leisure are more associated with happiness than others—and why. It uses interview data (n = 49) on leisure and cultural consumption with Finnish people whose background profiles statistically predict low cultural participation (such as unemployment and/or low education). Qualitative content analysis is used to scrutinize expressions relating discussed leisure practices to happiness. Finland, one of the most egalitarian countries in the world with high rates of self-rated happiness according to recent reports, makes an interesting context for the study.
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Live arts experiences: their impact on health and wellness. A work in progress
  • Mj Spencer
Spencer MJ. Live arts experiences: their impact on health and wellness. A work in progress. New York: Hospital Audiences Inc., 1997.