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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Liquid Smoke Flavorings Obtained from Different Types of Wood. Effect of Storage in Polyethylene Flasks on Their Concentrations

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Abstract

Smoke flavorings are widely used as an alternative to the traditional smoking techniques. Smoke generation conditions can determine the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the smoke and, consequently, in these preparations. In this paper, the influence of the wood source on the formation of PAHs is studied. For this purpose, five liquid smoke flavorings, obtained from different types of wood, were used. Sample aliquots, including deuterated internal standards, were subjected to an alkaline treatment, extracted by liquid-liquid partition and cleaned up by means of silica tubes, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results reveal that the flavoring obtained from poplar wood presents the highest number and concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs, even though the levels of these latter are very low. It has also been observed that the storage of smoke flavorings in polyethylene flasks reduces the concentration of some PAHs.

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... The reduction in PAH content occurred when liquid smoke flavorings (LSF) were stored in polyethylene (PE) or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging. [22][23][24] Moreover, a considerable reduction in PAH levels was observed in water and edible fats stored in plastic bottles. [25][26][27] Additionally, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found to diffuse from oil and water to PE packaging [28] which may be vital to use as a method for reducing contamination of foodstuffs (particularly oils and water) in manufacturing process. ...
... PAHs show a similar potential as well. [22][23][24]26,27,35,36] Simko [22] observed that concentrations of PAHs added to liquid curing smoke flavour were reduced by two orders of magnitude, i.e., from 45.6 mg kg ¡1 to 0.73 mg kg ¡1 , after the flavour storage in LDPE packaging for 14 days. Guill en [23,24] , analysing the contamination of concentrated curing smoke, found that storing the smoke in PET bottles results in reduction of PAH level in the end products. ...
... [22][23][24]26,27,35,36] Simko [22] observed that concentrations of PAHs added to liquid curing smoke flavour were reduced by two orders of magnitude, i.e., from 45.6 mg kg ¡1 to 0.73 mg kg ¡1 , after the flavour storage in LDPE packaging for 14 days. Guill en [23,24] , analysing the contamination of concentrated curing smoke, found that storing the smoke in PET bottles results in reduction of PAH level in the end products. Simko [26] , observing the behaviour of BaP in rapeseed oil stored in PET bottles, found that it is adsorbed in a linear manner. ...
Article
The analysis of material used in this study demonstrated that the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked sprats varies from the level below the lowest detection limit in muscles up to 9.99 µg kg(-1) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in fish skin. Such a high level of PAHs in skin was reported only in one of six batches of sprats, while mean BaP level was at 1.69 µg kg(-1). Regardless such a high BaP level in skin, its concentration in muscles did not exceed the maximum acceptable level. The study objective was to assess to what extent packaging materials adsorb PAH compounds from food. Changes in the PAH levels were monitored in fish during their storage in packages made of various materials. The storage time was from 0 to 168 hours. The obtained results varied considerably, therefore their scatter did not allow to confirm unequivocally the preliminary hypothesis about the reduction of PAHs due to their migration to packaging material. However, analysis of the packaging used in this study demonstrated a significant increase in the level of total 16 PAHs. When high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packaging was analysed, a six-fold increase in the total 16 PAHs was observed comparing to the blank sample.
... mudah dikontrol (Guillen et al. 2000;Hattula et al. 2001;Simko 2002). ...
... Asap cair tempurung kelapa merupakan hasil kondensasi asap tempurung kelapa melalui proses pirolisis pada suhu sekitar 400 0 C. Asap cair mengandung berbagai komponen kimia seperti fenol, aldehid, keton, asam organik, alkohol dan ester (Guillen et al. 1995;Guillen et al. 2000;Guillen et al. 2001). Berbagai komponen kimia tersebut dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dan antimikroba serta memberikan efek warna dan citarasa khas asap pada produk pangan (Karseno et al. 2002). ...
... Beberapa diantara komponen tersebut bersifat karsinogenik (Stolyhwo dan Sikorski 2005). Benzo[a]pyrene merupakan salah satu senyawa PAH yang diketahui bersifat karsinogenik dan biasa ditemukan pada produk pengasapan (Guillen et al. 1995;Guillen et al. 2000;Kazerouni et al. 2001;Stolyhwo dan Sikorski 2005). ...
Article
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The objective of this research was to study the food safety of coconut shell liquid smoke for food products by acute toxicity test and identification of volatile compounds by means of Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Acute toxicity test of these product were assessed by determination of LD50 dose (the single dose which causes the death of half the test animals) based on OECD 402 (2001) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. Three mice were used for each step. The dose used were 5 fixed levels, i.e. 0, 50, 500, 5000, and 15000 mg/kg body weight. Results indicated that LD50 dose of this liquid smoke were more than 15.000 mg/kg body weight of mice. Based on regulation by the Indonesian Government (Regulation 74/RI/2001), liquid smoke with LD50 value more than 15.000 mg/kg body weight of mice, is not toxic and safe for food products. Identification of volatile compounds of liquid smoke was started by extracted these product using dichloromethane as a solvent. Result of GC-MS showed that liquid smoke comprised 40 components. From GC-MS spectra were identified 7 peaks of a higher proportions. They were identified as 2-Methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 3,4-Dimethoxyphenol, Phenol, 2- methoxy-4-methylphenol, 4-Ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 3-Methylphenol, and 5-Methyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene. Neither benzo[a]pyrene nor other polycyclic aromatic compounds with carcinogenic properties were found in the liquid smoke.
... Penggunaan asap cair mempunyai banyak keuntungan dibandingkan metode pengasapan tradisional, yaitu lebih mudah diaplikasikan, proses lebih cepat, niemberikan karakteristik yang khas pada produk akhir berupa aroma, warna, dan rasa, serta penggunaannya tidak mencemari lingkungan (Pszczola 1995). Selain itu, beberapa senyawa toksik, terutama Polycyclic Aroniafic Hydrocarbons (PAH) yang dihasilkan dari proses pembakaran lebih mudah dikontrol (Guillen et al. 2000;Hattula el a/. 2001;Simko 2002). ...
... Asap cair ternpurung kelapa rnerupakan hasil kondensasi asap tempurung kelapa rnelalui proses pirolisis pada suhu sekitar 4 0 0 '~. Asap cair rnengandung berbagai kornponen kirnia seperti fenol, aldehid, keton, asam organik, alkohol dan ester (Guillen et al. 1995;Guillen et a/. 2000;Guillen et al. 2001). Berbagai kornponen kirnia tersebut dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dan antimikroba serta rnelnberikan efek warna dan citarasa khas asap pada produk pangan (Karseno et a/. 2002). Narnun, salah satu kornponen kirnia lain yang dapat terbentuk pada pelnbuatan asap cair ternpurung kelapa adalah Polycyclic .-lt.omatic ...
... Narnun, salah satu kornponen kirnia lain yang dapat terbentuk pada pelnbuatan asap cair ternpurung kelapa adalah Polycyclic .-lt.omatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) dan turunannya. Beberapa di antara kornponen tersebut bersifat karsinogenik Guillen et al. (2000) penggunaan asap cair rnernungkinkan untuk rneng-hasilkan produk asap yang tidak mengandung benzo-[alpyrene dan senyawa karsinogenik lainnya. Selain itu, asap cair yang digunakan dalarn penelitian ini nierupakan hasil kondensasi asap yang berasal dari pernbuatan arang ternpurung kelapa pada suhu di bawah 400 'c. ...
... Some of these components are carcinogenic [8]. Benzo [a] pyrene is one of the PAH compounds that are known to be carcinogenic and commonly found in smoking products [13] [9] [8]. Based on the results of research conducted, differences in the water content level of cocoa pod skin raw material and pyrolysis temperature obtained LC50 values of liquid cocoa pod smoke contained in Table 1. ...
... Table 1 shows that the liquid smoke of cocoa pods has a low content of benzo [a] pyrene which is indicated by the high LC50 value produced. The content of benzo [a] pyrene in liquid smoke is generally very low, even according to [13] the use of liquid smoke makes it possible to produce smoke products that do not contain benzo [a] pyrene and other carcinogenic compounds. Also, liquid smoke used in this study is the result of condensation of smoke originating from the skin of cocoa pods at the highest pyrolysis temperature of 400oC. ...
... Also, liquid smoke used in this study is the result of condensation of smoke originating from the skin of cocoa pods at the highest pyrolysis temperature of 400oC. Factors that cause the formation of PAH compounds are the fuming temperature and benzo [a] pyrene are not formed if the pyrolysis temperature is below 425 oC [13] [8]. The results of the liquid smoke toxicity test of cocoa pods at different levels of water content and pyrolysis temperature are shown in figure 1 ,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 below. ...
Article
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Cocoa is one of the leading plantation sector commodities in West Sumatra. Cocoa skin waste is still of little use. One of the uses of cocoa pods can be used as raw material for making liquid smoke. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity properties of liquid smoke of cocoa pod skin with the BLST method at different pyrolysis temperatures. Testing the toxicity of liquid smoke of cocoa skin using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. The results LC 50 number of cocoa shell liquid smoke at pyrolysis temperature (200°C at 10% water content) was 11,858.58 ppm, pyrolysis temperature (200°C at 15% water content) at 13,094.23 ppm, pyrolysis temperature (200°C at 20 water content %) of 13,373.94 ppm, pyrolysis temperature (200°C at 25% water content) of 15,703.52 ppm. The next a pyrolysis temperature of 300°C 10% water content of 11,604,26 ppm, pyrolysis temperature of 300°C 15% water content of 11,673,05 ppm, pyrolysis temperature of 300°C 20% water content of 13,373,94 ppm, pyrolysis temperature of 25% water content of 13,373.94 ppm. Furthermore, at a pyrolysis temperature of 400°C at a level of 10% at 9,213.73 ppm, a pyrolysis temperature at 400°C at a level of 15% at 13,094237 ppm, a pyrolysis temperature at 400°C at a level of 20% at 13,373.94 ppm, a pyrolysis temperature at a level of 25% at 12,493.63 ppm. All the results of the process of making liquid cocoa skin smoke at different pyrolysis temperatures show the results of liquid smoke with toxic properties classified as non-toxic.
... The results of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in intermediate moisture smoked snail meat samples are presented in Table 3. Naphthalene (Nap), Acenaphthylene (Acp), Acenaphthene (Acn), 1,2-Benzanthracene, ( 24 The 24 These results were in agreement with works of Kayali et al., 25 RAS, 26 Olabemiwo et al., 27 Adeyeye et al., 23 Adeyeye et al., 19 Adeyeye et al., 4,18 Adeyeye et al. 28 PAHs are usually formed during smoking and grilling at high temperature usually above 100 C and decomposition of wood during burning. [29][30][31][32][33][34] The high temperature of smoking, decomposition of wood during burning and type of wood used for smoking, longer period of smoking and direct exposure of meat to heat source during traditional smoking process result into pyrolysis of fat are responsible for formation of PAHs in smoked meat. [29][30][31][32][33][34] Other researchers like Akpan et al. 35 have reported strong relationships between meat and fish fats and PAH compounds as PAH compounds are products of pyrolysis of fats. ...
... [29][30][31][32][33][34] The high temperature of smoking, decomposition of wood during burning and type of wood used for smoking, longer period of smoking and direct exposure of meat to heat source during traditional smoking process result into pyrolysis of fat are responsible for formation of PAHs in smoked meat. [29][30][31][32][33][34] Other researchers like Akpan et al. 35 have reported strong relationships between meat and fish fats and PAH compounds as PAH compounds are products of pyrolysis of fats. ...
Article
The study assessed microbial safety and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations (PAHs) of intermediate moisture smoked African giant snail (Achatina achatina) meat. Snail samples were smoked after treatments with 25% glycerol, 0.5% potassium sorbate and 3% NaCl. One hundred (100) smoked snail samples were used for the analysis. Four (4) samples were used for preliminary analysis with one sample for each infusion method. The 96 remaining samples were divided into four (4) groups of 24 samples per group based on the four infusion methods and each group was divided into six (6) batches of four (4) samples. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the smoked snail samples to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni (CJ), Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), Salmonella spp. (SP), Escherichia coli (EC), and Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) using standard methods and PAH concentrations were determined by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometric method. The results showed that there was presence LM, EC, and YE from the smoked snail samples. The sixteen different PAHs: Naphthalene (Nap), Acenaphthylene (Acp), Acenaphthene (Acn), 1,2-Benzanthracene, (1,2 BAnt), fluorene (Flu), Pyrene (Pyr), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Flr), benz [a] anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene (Chr), benzo [b] fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo [k] fluoranthene (B[k]F), benzo [a] pyrene (B[a]P), Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) and benzo [ghi] perylene (B[ghi]P) were detected. The PAHs concentrations in the samples were very high and above maximum permissible level of 2.0 µg/kg for BaP. The concentrations of PAH4; 4PAHs (B[a]P + Chr + B[b]F + B[a]A) in all the samples despite curing were high and greater than the maximum acceptable level of 12 µg/kg stipulated by European Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011 of 19 August 2011 for B[a]P in grilled or smoked meat products.
... Most published reports about LS are unequivocal about the fact its antimicrobial properties, insecticidal properties, colour, and lavour of LS are determined by the temperature, moisture content of the wood and the kind of wood used to produce the smoke [16,18]. According to [19], the temperature used and conditions of processing contribute a greater variation between the condensates yielded than the differences between common wood types used. Other factors such as feed rate of particle size, vapour residence time, temperature, and oxygen in iltration can have substantial effects on the yield and composition of the LS. ...
... Some of these PAHs, are naturally occurring, while others are produced as a result of incomplete combustion of the raw material. According to [19], the amount of PAHs formed is also dependent on the source of raw material. ...
... Most published reports about LS are unequivocal about the fact its antimicrobial properties, insecticidal properties, colour, and lavour of LS are determined by the temperature, moisture content of the wood and the kind of wood used to produce the smoke [16,18]. According to [19], the temperature used and conditions of processing contribute a greater variation between the condensates yielded than the differences between common wood types used. Other factors such as feed rate of particle size, vapour residence time, temperature, and oxygen in iltration can have substantial effects on the yield and composition of the LS. ...
... Some of these PAHs, are naturally occurring, while others are produced as a result of incomplete combustion of the raw material. According to [19], the amount of PAHs formed is also dependent on the source of raw material. ...
Article
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Postharvest Food loss Food security Preservation Liquid smoke The primary aim of every post-harvest technology is to prolong shelf life and maintain produce quality. Recent efforts to extend the shelf life of agricultural produces have culminated in the use of various methods, among which some have dangerous side effects to human health and the environment, others are just too expensive due to the high cost of production thereby making their usage unsustainable and uneconomical. Among the safe and sustainable alternatives under development, Liquid Smoke (LS) appears to have very remarkable potentials. However, the Postharvest Loss and Waste (PHLW) reduction potential of LS have been highly underrepresented in both scientific and non-scientific literature. This work, therefore, analyses and brings to light the potentials of LS for reducing postharvest losses and prolonging the shelf life of agricultural produce. The usage against insect infestation , microorganism attack, and physiological disorder of products are discussed. A careful compilation of recent literature reporting various waste materials for producing LS is also reported in this work. The active components (carbonyls, organic acids, and Phenols) responsible for its potency in reducing food loss are also discussed. Finally, a simple conceptual framework is used to illustrate the strategic and systematic role played by LS in reducing PHLW, conserving the environment, and contributing to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
... The second step was to perform chemical analyses of fish smoked with these three wood species to characterize their toxicity and flavor quality with respect to PAHs and amounts of phenols. Several studies have already shown that lignin contents and, to a lesser degree, cellulose and extractable compounds of a plant species influence the chemical characteristics of the smoked product (Guillén et al. 2000;McDonald et al. 2000;Rivier et al. 2010;Schauer et al. 1999;Simoneit 2002). However, the molecular mechanisms at play during smoking have not yet been reported in detail (Barylko-Pikielna 1977;Larsson 1982;Lisouza et al. 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fish smoking with local wood species is a traditional practice in French Guiana. We evaluated the carcinogenic risk and the smoky taste in acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa) smoked by a small Guianese company specializing in fish smoking using local wood species. The goal of this study is to promote regional economic development by encouraging the establishment of small companies offering fish smoked with local wood species in agreement with the European health norms in terms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in smoked fish. The fish smoked with three species of wood traditionally used in French Guiana, Parinari campestris, Caesaria grandiflora, and Laetia procera, conformed to European standards for PAH content. Their phenol contents (correlated with the smoky taste) were close to smoked salmon, the reference in Europe. Given the low rate of extractable compounds in these woods, other flavors had little chance of predominating on the smoky taste. These three tropical wood species might be used for the production of cold smoked fish in compliance with European standards for PAH residues. The flavor and consumer's acceptance of the smoked fish should now be investigated to characterize the added typicity of local woods in comparison to the commonly used European woods.
... Destilasi merupakan proses pemisahan berdasarkan perbedaan titik didih dari komponen-komponen yang akan dipisahkan, pemekatan larutan dan juga pemurnian komponen cair. Proses pemurnian asap cair dengan destilasi dilakukan pada suhu 150 °C, dengan asumsi bahwa senyawa-senyawa PAH seperti benzopirene dengan titik didih yang tinggi serta tar akan tertinggal sebagai residu sehingga senyawa-senyawa lain seperti fenol, karbonil dan asam dengan titik didih yang rendah akan terpisah menjadi destilat (Guillen et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Limbah kulit durian dapat diolah menghasilkan asap cair dan karbon aktif dengan metode pirolisis. Untuk menghasilkan asap cair yang dapat digunakan sebagai pengawet makanan, asap cair perlu di proses dengan metode pemurnian seperti destilasi, pemurnian dengan zeolit aktif dan arang aktif. Hasil karakterisasi asap cair dari kulit durian hasil pirolisis, destilasi, pemurnian dengan zeolit aktif dan pemurnian dengan arang aktif diperoleh nilai pH berturut-turut 4,09; 3,24; 3,46; dan 2,09. Kadar asam asetat berturut-turut 6,07; 7,59; 9,11; dan 10,63 (mg/L). Berdasarkan karakteristik komponen senyawa menggunakan GC-MS asap cair hasil pirolisis terdeteksi 17 senyawa, asap cair hasil destilasi 12 senyawa, asap cair pemurnian zeolit aktif 10 senyawa dan asap cair pemurnian arang aktif 6 senyawa dengan mayoritas komponen senyawa terdiri dari asam asetat, fenol dan karbonil serta tidak mengandung senyawa karsinogenik, sehingga asap cair dari kulit durian dapat digunakan sebagai pengawet makanan.
... Flavoring obtained from poplar wood presents the highest number and concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAH compared to that produced with oak, cherry tree, beech, poplar or vine shoot woods. Storing smoke flavorings in polyethylene flasks reduces the concentration of some PAH (Guill en, Sopelana, & Partearroyo, 2000c). The EC has accordingly set 10 mg/kg as the maximum permissible BaP content in smoke flavorings (EC No 2065/2003) and has recently established the EU list of authorized smoke flavoring primary products for use as such in or on foods and/or for the production of derived smoke flavorings (EU No 1321/ 2013). ...
Article
Meat products may be contaminated by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during smoking. This review is focused in the 10 variables of the smoking process that have been studied by researchers, according to the Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC/RCP 68/2009: the type of fuel, the smoking methods (direct or indirect), the smoke generation process (temperature of pyrolysis and to airflow), the distance and position between the food and the heat source, the products fat content and its evolution, the smoking time, the temperature during smoking, the cleanliness and maintenance of equipment, the design of the smoking chamber and the equipment. A new variable reported by researchers, the casing type, is also included. The main aspects concerning PAH contamination of meat products, such as the smoking process history, types of smoking, aim and composition of smoke, PAH formation and transport mechanisms, analytical methods for PAH determination, presence of PAH in meat products worldwide and regulations, are also reported and briefly discussed.
... The traditional techniques of smoking applied to various types of food in which there is direct contact between the product and the smoke, can lead to the formation of toxic PAHs. Several factors, such as temperature, the type of combustible material, oxygen concentration and the type of smoke generator used, can affect the smoking process and therefore the quantity of PAHs (Guill en et al. 2000;Liu et al. 2008;Duedahl-Olesen et al. 2010). ...
Conference Paper
L’affumicatura è una delle più antiche tecniche di conservazione degli alimenti che ha inoltre un favorevole effetto sulle proprietà sensoriali, in particolare il gusto, il colore, la consistenza. Tra i prodotti alimentari affumicati, i formaggi occupano un posto di rilievo e anche per la mozzarella di bufala è richiesta la versione affumicata. Il D.P.C.M. 10/05/1993 stabilisce che la mozzarella di bufala campana affumicata debba essere prodotta secondo metodi naturali e tecnologie tradizionali. La tecnologia tradizionale consiste in una incompleta combustione di paglia o trucioli di legno posti in affumicatoi, oppure per immersione del prodotto nel cosiddetto fumo liquido, una soluzione estratto da fumo. Un effetto indesiderato dell’affumicatura, soprattutto se realizzata senza seguire correttamente le tecniche, è la contaminazione da idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA) che si formano dalla combustione incompleta di materiale organico. Gli IPA sono composti caratterizzati da due o più anelli aromatici fusi, riconosciuti come agenti cancerogeni poiché nel fegato sono metabolizzati a diidro-dioli e quindi nei loro epossi-derivati che possono legarsi al DNA provocando processi di mutagenesi. Il benzo[a]pirene (BaP) fin dal 2002 è stato indicato dalle normative comunitarie quale marcatore della presenza di IPA cancerogeni nei prodotti alimentari, stabilendone limiti massimi in alcuni prodotti. Tuttavia, dal report dall’EFSA sui dati di monitoraggio, è emerso che non è più possibile utilizzare il solo BaP come unico marcatore per il gruppo di IPA, per cui con il Regolamento UE 835/2011, oltre ai tenori massimi per il BaP, sono stati fissati tenori massimi anche per la somma di quattro IPA, benzo[a]pirene, benzo[a]antracene, benzo[b]fluorantene e crisene. La normativa sui livelli massimi di IPA nei prodotti alimentari non contempla però tra le matrici, i derivati del latte come i formaggi sebbene alcune tecniche di lavorazione quali l’affumicatura, possano determinare un accumulo di IPA . Inoltre, il rischio di contaminazione è più elevato nel caso siano utilizzate tecniche e materiali diversi da quelli consentiti. Infatti i materiali autorizzati per l'affumicatura vanno dalla paglia di grano alla corteccia secca di pioppo, dai trucioli di legno alla corteccia di ontano, i quali sono posti in contenitori all'uopo approntati oppure nei più moderni affumicatoi dotati di una specifica “camera di combustione" in cui è possibile regolare le temperature e il tempo di esposizione. Purtroppo è diffuso anche l'uso illecito di altri materiali per la combustione, in particolare cartoni di vario genere o addirittura legni verniciati. In questo lavoro sono state messe a confronto varie tecniche di affumicatura e diversi materiali (paglia, legno, cartoni), andando a determinare i profili di contaminazione da IPA, i quattro normati più altri due, nella parte esterna e quella interna oltre che nel prodotto intero delle mozzarelle di bufala.
... However, some authors do not agree with this finding because of the fact that some studies show that concentrations of PAHs in smoke are very similar for both woods, softwood and hardwood. 4,5 The World Health Organization (WHO), 6 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 7 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 8 and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 9 have reported the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative capacities of PAHs. In this sense, PAHs have been classified as carcinogenic (1) [1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and naphthalene], and not classifiable [anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene]. ...
Article
This work presents a strategy for quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked paprika samples. For this, a liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) has been optimized. In order to resolve some interferences co-eluting with the target analytes, the second order multivariate curve resolution – alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm has been employed combined with this liquid chromatographic method. Among the eight PAHs quantified (fluorene, phenantrene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluorantene and benzo(a)pyrene) by HPLC-FLD, only in the case of fluorene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluorantene was necessary to apply the second-order algorithm for their resolution. Limits of detection and quantification were between 0.015 and 0.45 mg kg-1 and between 0.15 and 1.5 mg kg-1, respectively. Good recovery results were obtained in the complete extraction procedure from the paprika (better than 80 % in all cases) consisting in an extraction from the matrix and the clean-up of the extract by means of silica cartridges. Higher concentrations of chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluorantene and benzo(a)pyrene were found at the paprika samples, respect to the maxima amounts allowed for other spices that are under European Regulation (EU) Nº 2015/1933.
... The risk from exposure to PAHs depends on the type of diet, eating habits, cooking and smoking practices, which often are linked to regional traditions ( Reinik et al., 2007). The composition and concentration of PAHs contaminating smoked meat products depends on multiple factors: type of wood, its moisture content, as well as the temperature achieved during smoke generation ( García-Falc on, & Simal-G andara, 2005;Guill en, Sopelan, & Partearroyo, 2000). As PAHs represent an important class of carcinogens, their presence and amount in food has been intensively studied. ...
... fi sh) and has also been found to be reduced by contact with packing material. 18 Possible sources of PAH contamination of vegetable oils are (a) contamination of plant material, primarily through the air, (b) drying of the plant material with smoke before extraction, and (c) contamination through the extraction solvent. Vegetable oils are a very heterogeneous group of foodstuffs, consisting of a variety of raw materials processed in different ways. ...
Chapter
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in our environment. The major route of human exposure for nonsmokers is however via food. PAHs in food originate from environmental deposits or arise from food processing. Food processing techniques contributing to increased PAH concentrations include smoking, drying, roasting and barbecuing. Sixteen PAHs are believed to result in human health risk. European Union (EU) legislation on maximum limits for benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 on selected food types applies. Various analytical techniques exist and challenges in detection of PAHs in food still apply, even after more than 60. years of research in the field.
... Other sources of PAHs in the environment include natural fires, volcanic eruptions, thermal geological reactions, industrial processes (aluminium production, iron and steel production, foundries), transportation, burning (e.g. forest, straw, agriculture, cooking), waste incineration, combustion of fossil fuel, exhausts from vehicles, tobacco smoke, domestic heating using wood, coal, and mineral oil, some specialpurpose skin creams and antidandruff shampoos that contain coal tars, tobacco etc. (Guillen, et al., 2000;Grova et al., 2002;Abbas and Barck 2005;Anyakora et al., 2005). Since the discovery of crude oil and subsequent exploration and exploitation of crude oil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria several decades ago, there have been incessant spillages with causes ranging from accident to sabotage. ...
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The concentrations of BaP in surface water and sediments of the Sombreiro River in the Niger Delta were determined using standard method. The annual mean BaP levels were found to be 0.11µg/ml in surface waters (which is above the WHO recommended guideline value of 0.7µg/L and that of the Netherlands 0.5µg/L in water) and 1.15µg/g in sediments as against 0.26µg/g in soil (Netherlands). BaP is a known carcinogen, used as index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the environment. Although, seasonal influences were found to have some effects on the level of BaP, but the presence of a crude oil flow station and several pipelines and a major manifold/pipeline carrying condensate and other petroleum products that are located along the area must have contributed to these high values. There is therefore the need to apply best technological practices to monitor leakages/spillages and an indiscriminate discharge of petroleum products and waste waters as was observed during the study.
... PAHs are carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic and pollutant to environment (Conde et al., 2005;Yoon et al., 2007;Rozent ale et al., 2015). The source and content of PAHs in smoked meat products have been extensively studied, but few studies have investigated HAAs in smoked meat (Guillen et al., 2000;Garciafalcon & Simalgandara, 2005;Purcaro et al., 2009). ...
Article
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds, which are commonly detectable in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sheep breeds on the formation of HAAs in smoking cooked lamb. The results showed that HAAs in smoked lamb meat products were generally low (2.74–5.42 ng g⁻¹), with most being Harman and Norharman. IQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Trp-p-2, PhIP and MeAaC were not detected in smoked lamb meat products in the present study. The total content of HAAs differed between meat products of different sheep breeds, but no difference in the order of magnitude was determined. Smoking altered the content of protein, fat, moisture and free amino acids in lamb meat products, which was probably mostly contributed by the reduction in meat moisture. Free tryptophan decreased in all breeds after smoking, which was probably used to synthesise HAAs. In summary, HAAs were low in smoked lamb meat products of all sheep breeds; thus, consumption of smoked lamb meat products should contribute very limited intake of HAAs.
... PAHs have been detected in food, both raw/non-processed and processed foods. The presence of PAHs in raw foods is associated with environmental pollution [14]. PAHs are found ubiquitously, such as water, air, soil, and, therefore also in food [7]. ...
Article
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Smoking techniques have been progressively improved and different procedures have been developed in different regions for treating fish. In these times, the technology is mainly used for enrichment of fish with specific taste and odour, to extend the shelf-life of these perishable products and appearance required widely on the market. A lot of chemical contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during the combustion of fuel in the smoking process. PAHs are a group of compounds that have been the subject of great concern in the recent years due to their toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potentials to humans. These fact can have a significant impact on the acceptance of these products by consumers. In this review article, the objective is to describe factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traditional smoked common carp meat.
... Direct contact of food materials with fire during processes like smoking, roasting and grilling have been established as sources contamination of food materials with high concentrations of PAHs [9, 12, 14]. The concentrations of PAHs in foods, particularly smoked fish, are affected by the type and composition of wood, temperature of smoke and smoking time [17, 18]. It may thus be inferred that PAHs found in cooked /prepared foods originated from pyrotic source arising from incomplete combustion of component of the foods or materials used in preparing /cooking the foods. ...
Article
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The presence and concentration of sixteen Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in Claris gariepinnus and Tilapia guineensis fish that form part of delicacy in Western Nigeria. The smoked fish were obtained from major sales depots in five selected cities within the region and analyzed. A representative potion equivalent to about 5g sample (on dry basis) was taken from pulverized sample, soxhlet-extracted with hexane: dichloromethane (3:1 v/v) at 50C for 6h and the aromatic containing portion of the eluants was subsequently analysed using gas chromatography (GC/FID). The results showed that the limits of detection (LOD) for the individual fifteen PAHs found in the samples ranged from 0.009 - 0.293μg/kg while Ben(a)pyrene [B(a)P] was not detected in all the fish samples except tillapia sample obtained from Ibadan.The sum of all PAHs found in smoked C. gariepinnus and T. guineensis ranged from 0.497-0.814μg/kg and 0.519–0.772μg/kg, respectively, while their control samples had 0.347μg/kg and 0.264μg/kg, respectively. 3-ring PAHs was predominantly high in all the smoked samples of the two fish species. The ratios of phenathrene to anthracene ranged from 1.86 to 8.4 and 1.16 to 3.14 for C. gariepinnus and T. guineensis, respectively, which suggests that the PAHs are from combustion source. Similaly the ratios of Flouranthene to Pyrene which range from 1.11 to 4.3 and 1.00 to 4.78 suggest that C. gariepinnus and T. guineensis are contaminated with PAHs from pyrolytic origin respectively. Thus, the relatively high concentration of PAHs in the sampled fish species may be attributed to the smoking process. Keywords: PAHs, Western Nigeria, Smoked fish, C. gariepinnus, T. guineensis
... μg/kg) than values of 3237.10 and 1702.85 μg/kg reported by Roseiro et al. (2011) for traditional and modified industrial processing of Portuguese traditional meat product, respectively. This disparity could be attributed to various factors, such as the type of smoking (Škaljac et al., 2014), type of wood (Guillen et al., 2000;Hitzel et al., 2013), temperature attained by the wood during combustion (Chen & Chen, 2001;Simko, 2002) and the fat content of the food (Gomes et al., 2013;Nakamura et al., 2008;Phillips, 1999; Scientific Committee on Foods of EC [SCF], 2002). In the present study, smoking was done for 17 h at 67 ± 3°C using Neem tree. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in smoked guinea fowl meat. Guinea fowls were processed, smoked and irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy. PAHs were extracted and their concentrations determined using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. Health risk of the PAHs to humans was also estimated. Sixteen PAHs were detected in the smoked meat with concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 9.221 μg/kg. B[a]P recorded the highest value of 9.221 μg/kg (0 kGy) and the least value of 0.057 μg/kg for the meat samples. Irradiation significantly reduced the PAHs concentrations and their carcinogenic derivatives. Health risk estimation suggested that the levels of PAHs in the treated smoked meats pose no dietary intake risks. Gamma irradiation has the potential to minimize the toxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in smoked guinea fowl meat, thereby increasing export and enhancing the future economical marketing of this food product.
... According to Gomes et al. (2009) and Santos et al. (2011), the content of low molecular weight compounds was more than heavyweights. As shown by Aurore et al. (2000), Guillén et al. (2000), and Stumpe-Vīksna et al. (2008), the presence of light PAHs can be related to the smoke composition itself. This is independent of the wood used in combustion and smoking procedure (direct/indirect). ...
Article
The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three generation sources of smoke (poplar, haloxylon, and white paper), smoking duration (2 and 4 h) and meat contents (55 and 80%) on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels of meat sausages. The results showed that there are a positive correlation between the lignin content of smoke generation sources and the PAHs level of smokes and smoked sausages. The total PAHs contents in both smoke and smoked sausages increased significantly as smoking duration increased from 2 to 4 h. The concentrations of total PAHs in the smoked sausage ranged from 6.35 to 20.04 μg⁄Kg. Furthermore, the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels for the smoked sausages were 0.30 to 1.14 µg⁄Kg. However, the contents of BaP and PAH4 (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) in all samples of the smoked sausages. The smoked sausage with 80% of meat content (less fat) processed by poplar and white paper for 2 h had the lowest level of PAHs.
... It would be worthy to note that light molecular weight acids such as acetic acid were important compounds of liquid smoke [3]. They were not detected in this study because dichloromethane extraction before GC-MS analysis could not recover these polar compounds [33]. ...
Article
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Liquid smoke food flavouring is an alternative to traditional food smoking. Ageing treatment of liquid smoke can remove tar to improve a consistent sensory experience but traditionally takes months by storage. This study proposed a thermal treatment approach to accelerate the ageing process. Liquid smoke samples from kānuka and hickory woodchips were prepared by fast pyrolysis. The obtained liquid smoke samples were subjected to ageing by storing them at ambient temperature for 18 months. Accelerated ageing of liquid smoke was carried out by heat treatment at 80 °C for 24 and 48 h. Tar formed during the ageing process, with a yield ranging from 2.2 to 4.1 wt.%. Both ageing treatments resulted in decreases in bioactive content and their activities in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity (DPPH). Chemical composition and principal component analyses indicated that liquid smoke chemical compositions were influenced by wood type and ageing conditions. It was found that thermal treatment at 80 °C for 24 h was sufficient to age liquid smoke.
... Therefore, concentration to dryness should be monitored carefully to minimize any evaporation of PAHs and minimize losses of lower molecular weight PAHs. Internal standards or surrogates are being advised to be added to the samples before extraction to ensure precise and accurate quantification by analytical instruments (Guillen et al. 2000a(Guillen et al. , 2000b(Guillen et al. , 2000c. ...
Article
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The monitoring of food contaminants is of interests to both food regulatory bodies and the consumers. This literature review covers polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with regard to their background, sources of exposures, and occurrence in food and environment as well as health hazards. Furthermore, analytical methods focusing on the analysis of PAHs in tea, coffee, milk, and alcoholic samples for the last 16 years are presented. Numerous experimental methods have been developed aiming to obtain better limits of detections (LODs) and percent recoveries as well as to reduce solvent consumption and laborious work. These include information such as the selected PAHs analyzed, food matrix of PAHs, methods of extraction, cleanup procedure, LOD, limits of quantitation (LOQ), and percent recovery. For the analysis of tea, coffee, milk, and alcoholic samples, a majority of the research papers focused on the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency PAHs, while PAH4, PAH8, and methylated PAHs were also of interests. Extraction methods range from the classic Soxhlet extraction and liquid–liquid extraction to newer methods such as QuEChERS, dispersive solid-phase microextraction, and magnetic solid-phase extraction. The cleanup methods involved mainly the use of column chromatography and SPE filled with either silica or Florisil adsorbents. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry or fluorescence detectors are the main analytical instruments used. A majority of the selected combined methods used are able to achieve LODs and percent recoveries in the ranges of 0.01–5 ug/kg and 70–110%, respectively, for the analysis of tea, coffee, milk, and alcoholic samples.
... The mass fractions of the terphenyls were found to be the highest for the combustion of PET bottles (190, 5400, and 7700 µg g −1 PM for the ortho-, meta-, and para-isomer, respectively), and the combustion of PS and ABS yields somewhat lower emission factors (18-56, 250-1100, 100-690 µg g −1 PM for the ortho-, meta-, and para-isomer, respectively). Terphenyls have not been reported to be present in particulates released from wood burning (with the exception of liquid wood smoke, Guillen et al., 2000) but have been positively identified in particulates from one lignite combustion sample (Fabbri et al., 2009). Here we also note that the position of the aromatic ring in the polymer structure might determine the structure of the terphenyls formed during the burning (this can also be observed for the quaterphenyls; see below). ...
Article
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The production and use of plastics is increasing rapidly as they are widely used in packaging, construction materials, furniture, foils, etc. As a consequence of their widespread use and often disposable nature, vast streams of plastic waste are continuously generated, a considerable fraction of which are combusted in households worldwide. In this paper, various types of commonly used plastics (PE, PET, PP, PU, PVC, PS, ABS) as well as treated wood samples (LDF, low-density fibreboard) and firewood were combusted separately in a test stove under controlled conditions. The particulates emitted during the combustion test were collected on filters, potential tracers for each waste type were identified by GC-MS, and their relative abundances were determined. The emission factor of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene was found to be higher for polymers containing aromatic rings in their structure. The application of terphenyls and quaterphenyls as tracer compounds has also been investigated. The trimer of styrene was found to be a potential tracer for the combustion of polystyrene and/or styrene-containing copolymers. Novel tracers were proposed for the burning of PET and furniture plates (LDF), which are among the most widely used waste types burned in households.
... Results show that there were significant differences in the levels of PAHs in covered and uncovered grill procedures, where covering the meat samples minimized the rate of 6 PAHs deposition in grilled meat (Anjum et al. 2019). Previously, elimination of PAH or at least 50% reduction of the concentrations was found for smoked products by the use of plastic packaging based on low-density polyethylene laminated film (Guill en, Sopelana, and Partearroyo 2000;Semanov a et al. 2016). Also, the choice of sausage casing was previously illustrated to result in lower final PAH concentrations during smoking for cellulose casings compared to hog casing (Gomes et al. 2013) and when compared to sheep and collagen casings (P€ ohlmann et al. 2013). ...
Article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals, which can occur in barbecued or grilled foods, and particularly in meats. They originate from incomplete combustion of the heat source, pyrolysis of organic compounds, or fat-induced flame formation. This review therefore summarizes relevant parameters for mitigation of especially carcinogenic PAHs in barbecued meat. Consumption of PAHs increases the risk of cancer, and thus the relevance for the mitigation of PAHs formation is very high for barbecued meat products. Parameters such as heat source, barbecue geometry, and meat type as well as marinating, adding spices, and other antioxidants reduce the final benzo[a]pyrene and PAHs concentrations and minimize the exposure. Overall, mitigation of carcinogenic PAHs from barbecuing includes removal of visual charring, reducing fat pyrolysis by minimizing dripping from the meat onto the heat source, the use of acidic marinades or choosing leaner cuts of meat. Estimation of human exposure to barbecued meat, includes several challenges such as substantial differences in barbecuing frequencies and practices, heat sources and meat types used for grilling.
... Food cooking/processing methods like grilling, barbecuing, smoking, frying, roasting, drying, baking, and charbroiling also contribute a significant amount of PAHs into foods. This is highly dependent on the choice of smoking material, phenolic/aromatic content, cooking procedures, heater type, moisture content, oxygen availability, and combustion temperature (Guillén et al., 2000;Gomes et al., 2013). PAHs have also been detected in milk at varying levels (0.75-2.1 mg/L) (Girelli et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like naphthalene and substituted naphthalenes (methylnaphthalene, naphthoic acids, 1-naphthyl N -methylcarbamate, etc.) are used in various industries and exhibit genotoxic, mutagenic, and/or carcinogenic effects on living organisms. These synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) or xenobiotics are considered as priority pollutants that pose a critical environmental and public health concern worldwide. The extent of anthropogenic activities like emissions from coal gasification, petroleum refining, motor vehicle exhaust, and agricultural applications determine the concentration, fate, and transport of these ubiquitous and recalcitrant compounds. Besides physicochemical methods for cleanup/removal, a green and eco-friendly technology like bioremediation, using microbes with the ability to degrade SOCs completely or convert to non-toxic by-products, has been a safe, cost-effective, and promising alternative. Various bacterial species from soil flora belonging to Proteobacteria ( Pseudomonas , Pseudoxanthomonas , Comamonas , Burkholderia , and Novosphingobium ), Firmicutes ( Bacillus and Paenibacillus ), and Actinobacteria ( Rhodococcus and Arthrobacter ) displayed the ability to degrade various SOCs. Metabolic studies, genomic and metagenomics analyses have aided our understanding of the catabolic complexity and diversity present in these simple life forms which can be further applied for efficient biodegradation. The prolonged persistence of PAHs has led to the evolution of new degradative phenotypes through horizontal gene transfer using genetic elements like plasmids, transposons, phages, genomic islands, and integrative conjugative elements. Systems biology and genetic engineering of either specific isolates or mock community (consortia) might achieve complete, rapid, and efficient bioremediation of these PAHs through synergistic actions. In this review, we highlight various metabolic routes and diversity, genetic makeup and diversity, and cellular responses/adaptations by naphthalene and substituted naphthalene-degrading bacteria. This will provide insights into the ecological aspects of field application and strain optimization for efficient bioremediation.
... Pengasapan tradisional dapat memberikan potensi resiko bahaya bagi kesehatan manusia terkait adanya kandungan Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) yang dihasilkan melalui pengasapan langsung pada proses pirolisis kayu (Putri dan Diana, 2015). Senyawa Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) jenis benzo(a)pyrene merupakan senyawa karsinogenik penyebab kanker yang terdapat dalam produk asap (Guillen, 2000). Namun kenyataannya hasil produk tetap digemari oleh masyarakat (Swastawati et al., 2013). ...
Article
AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi kimia dan kandungan Polycyclic Aromatic Hidrocarbon (PAH) pada ikan teri asap “kaholeo” yang diproduksi dari Kota Baubau, Sulawesi Tenggara. Sampel diambil dari tiga produsen di Kelurahan Waruruma, Kota Baubau. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif untuk memberikan gambaran umum tentang data yang telah diperoleh dengan ulangan sebanyak 3 kali (n=3). Parameter yang diamati yaitu uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur, dan rasa), uji kimia (kadar air, kadar protein, kadar lemak, dan kadar abu) serta uji PAH. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas ikan teri asap terbaik terdapat pada produsen III dengan nilai warna 3,96, aroma 3,79, tekstur 3,32, dan rasa 3,69. Hasil uji kimia menunjukkan bahwa nilai kadar air tertinggi terdapat pada produsen III sebesar 7,72%. Nilai kadar protein tertinggi terdapat pada produsen I sebesar 29,06%. Nilai kadar lemak tertinggi terdapat pada produsen III sebesar 4,12% dan nilai kadar abu tertinggi terdapat pada produsen I sebesar 0,12%. Hasil uji kandungan PAH menunjukkan bahwa produsen I memiliki kandungan PAH tertinggi yaitu naphthalene 8,19 ppm, acenaphthene 8,55 ppm, phenanthrene 21,96 ppm, pyrene 22,59 ppm, benzo(a)anthracene 4,21 ppm, dan benzo(a)pyrene 12,98 ppm. Kata kunci: Stolephorus sp., kaholeo, pengasapan, komposisi gizi AbstractThis study aims to determine the chemical composition and content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in "Kaholeo" smoked anchovy produced from the City of Baubau, Southeast Sulawesi. Samples were taken from three producers in Waruruma village, Baubau city. This study use a descriptive method to provide a general description of the data that has been obtained by three times replication (n=3). The parameters observed were organoleptic test (color, odor, texture, and taste), chemical test (moisture content, protein content, fat content, and ash content) and PAH test. The results of this study indicate that the best quality of smoked anchovy is found in producer III with a color value of 3,96, odor of 3,79, texture of 3,32, and flavor of 3,69. The chemical test results showed that the highest moisture content was producer III at 7,72%. The highest protein content value was producer I at 29,06%. The highest value of fat content was producer III at 4,12% and the highest ash content was producer I at 0,12%. The results of the PAH content showed that producer I had the highest PAH content, namely naphthalene 8,19 ppm, acenaphthene 8,5% ppm, phenanthrene 21,96 ppm, pyrene 22,59 ppm, benzo(a)anthracene 4,21 ppm, and benzo(a)pyrene 12,98 ppm. Key words: Stolephorus sp., kaholeo, fumigation, nutritional composition
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui mutu hedonik dan kimia ikan teri (stolephorus commersonii) asap cair dengan lama perendaman yang berbeda. Perlakuan pada penelitian ini adalah lama perendaman ikan teri asap cair dengan konsentrasi 1,5 % dan lama perendaman yaitu 5 menit, 10 menit, dan 15 menit. Penelitian ini dirancang menggunakan metode Multirater Rasch Model untuk mendapatkan data hasil organoleptik mutu hedonik dan dianalisis dengan Minifac, data – data hasil kimia diperoleh melalui Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dan dianalisis dengan Compare Means One-Way ANOVA. Hasil analisis Anova dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjut Duncan. Hasil penelitian mutu organoleptik menunjukkan bahwa Ikan teri asap cair dengan lama perendaman berbeda yang terbaik yaitu 15 menit memiliki kenampakan yaitu utuh, bersih, rapi, seragam, cemerlang, sangat menarik; aroma asap cair yaitu segar, spesifik jenis tanpa aroma tambahan; tekstur yaitu padat, kompak, antar jaringan sangat erat; rasa yaitu segar spesifik jenis tanpa rasa tambahan. Sedangkan pada hasil analisis mutu kimia memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kadar air dan kadar fenol dengan nilai 7,86 %, 0,0279 %.
Conference Paper
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Liquid smoke of Anacardium occidentale and Cocos nucifera shell has the ability as antibacterial. The study aimed to evaluate the inhibition of liquid smoke of A. occidentale and C. nucifera shell against Escherichia coli growth In Vitro. Parameters measured were phenolic, saponin, and tannin content, and pH value of liquid smoke,. The antibacterial activity test was carried out by well diffusion methods with 4 replications. Data were analyzed usinga completely randomized design. The results showed that the content of total phenol, saponins, and tannins was significantlyhigher (1.24%, 2.95%, and 0.48%) in C. nucifera liquid smoke (CONULIS) than in A. occidentale nutshell liquid smoke (ANOLIS) (0.71%, 1.36%, 0.17 %). The degree of acidity (pH) at ANOLIS is higher than pH of CONULIS. Antibacterial activity with a concentration of 10-100% showed that the inhibition (clear zone) of CONULIS was higher (10.43-22.88 mm) than ANOLIS (7.83-17.12) against E. coli. It can be concluded that C. nucifera shell liquid smoke (CONULIS) was better than A. occidentale liquid smoke (ANOLIS) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli In Vitro.
Purpose – The quality of groundwater in the vicinity of petroleum products retailing stations in Ile-Ife, Nigeria was investigated with a view to providing valuable information on the organic and other physico-chemical parameters associated with the contamination of the groundwaters by petroleum products. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Three sets of samples were collected per season from artesian wells within petroleum products retailing stations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals and other physico-chemical parameters analysis. Extraction, cleaned-up and concentration of the PAHs were done using certified analytical methods. Levels of the PAHs and metals were determined using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and bulk scientific atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively, while other pollution indicators were measured using standard analytical procedures. Findings – The groundwaters contained elevated levels of PAHs, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, V, Ni, Fe and total dissolved solids than their maximum allowable limits for drinking water. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results confirmed that both seasonal variation and location had much influence on the levels of most of the analyzed parameters. Some of the parameters showed strong positive correlation with each other, while Cr/Pb and Na/Pb displayed strong negative correlation with each other, indicating similar source(s) and/or chemical affinity and vice versa, respectively. Cross-plot analysis results using metals and PAHs concentrations as variables showed significant positive correlations (R2=0.99) and (R2=0.60), respectively, suggesting similar source(s) of contamination of the two sets of samples. Originality/value – The level of the groundwater contamination was an indication of indiscriminate discharge of petroleum products and/or underground tank leakage within the study areas.
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Trachurus trachurus (locally called kote in Western Nigeria) is a table fish. During processing like poaching and smoking, fish come in contact with water, smoke and high temperatures, which may interfere with the nutrient contents and are potential sources of reactive di-carbonyl compounds (RDCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was therefore conducted to determine the level of RDCs and PAHs in raw and processed Trachurus trachurus fillet; skin, head and bones (SHB). Fish samples were prepared by poaching and smoking (charcoal and wood). RDCs and levels of 5 individual PAHs including fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene and naphthalene were determined in raw, poached and smoked (charcoal and wood) Trachurus trachurus using standard methods. Results indicated that all processing methods significantly increased (p < 0.05) levels of RDCs and PAHs in the fillet and SHB. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that charcoal smoke processing produced the lowest levels of RDCs and PAHs in kote fillet and SHB.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) also known as polycyclic organic matter or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of carcinogenic chemical compounds originating from incomplete combustion of organic matter and geochemical processes. Exposure to PAHs is a major concern for human health. Breathing the air near coal-tar, asphalt production or applications, cigarette smoke, wood smoke, vehicle exhausts, fumes from chimneys, inhalation of polluted air, eating grilled or charred meats, any food with PAHs deposited on them during growing or processing, with drinking water and coal-tar-containing medications are the main sources of PAH exposure. Under the guidance of the latest literatures, the emphasis in this review will be placed on the general information about PAH compounds, contamination sources, human exposures, analytical methods and regulations.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsSample preparationPreseparation proceduresOccurrence of PAHs in foodsAcknowledgementReferences
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Liquid smoke (LS) from 'Tian Op ' has been developed for 'feathering' (softening) the odor of many Thai desserts. The benefits of liquid smoke are reduced smoking time, increased ease of utilization and standardization of the intensity of the flavor in dessert products. The Medicinal Plant Research Institute, Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand conducted a 90 d oral subchronic toxicity test of LS in 120 Wistar rats divided into five groups (12 per sex per group). Groups 1 and 2 were control groups receiving distilled water and propylene glycol at a volume of 10 mL.kg-1. day-1, respectively, where the weight was based on live body weight. Groups 3-5 were experimental groups receiving LS at doses of 0.04, 0.4 and 4.0 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively. LS at any dosage did not affect growth, food consumption and hematological values. Rats receiving LS at doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL.kg-1.day-1 had significantly higher albumin levels than the water control and the propylene glycol-treated rats, but these alterations did not indicate any abnormalities. Histopathology of organs revealed no abnormalities related to liquid smoke toxicity. Therefore, it may be concluded that liquid smoke at the given dosages did not produce toxicity in Wistar rats.
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The aim of this study is to determine the extent of packaging material effect on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stored liquid media. Changes in PAHs contents were monitored in edible oils and water during their storage for 504 h. The most significant reduction in PAHs content was reported upon the use of polyethylene packagings. In the case of LDPE packagings, the Σ16PAHs content decreased to 40.07% (water) and 45.0% (rapeseed oil) of their initial level after 504 h. Most PAHs absorption occurred within the first 24 h of liquid media storage. In terms of PAHs absorption capability, the packages tested could be ordered as follows LDPE > HDPE > PET > glass. The experiment involving the re-use of LDPE, HDPE, and PET packagings earlier contaminated with PAHs demonstrated that their effective washing with detergents commonly used at household was impossible.
Preprint
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The production and use of plastics increases rapidly as they are widely used in packaging, construction materials, furniture, foils, etc. As a consequence of their widespread use and often disposable character, vast streams of plastic wastes are continuously generated, a considerable fraction of which are combusted in households worldwide. In this paper, various types of commonly used plastics (PE, PET, PP, PU, PVC, PS, ABS), as well as treated wood samples (LDF) and firewood were combusted separately in a test stove under controlled conditions. The particulates emitted during the combustion test were collected on filters, and potential tracers for each waste type were identified by GC-MS, and their relative abundances were determined. The emission factor of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene was found to be higher for polymers containing aromatic rings in their structure. The application of terphenyls and quarterphenyls as tracer compounds has also been investigated. The trimer of styrene was found to be a potential tracer for the combustion of polystyrene and/or styrene containing copolymers. Novel tracers were proposed for the burning of PET and furniture plates (LDF), which are among the most widely used waste types burned in households.
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Smoked cheeses are especially appreciated by consumers because of the unique taste and smell. The smoke used in this process is composed of a few hundred components, both favorable influencing the smoked product quality and neutral for consumers’ health, and also the ones which are questionable because of health aspects, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Even though such substances decide about the taste and smell of smoked products, they are perceived as potentially genotoxic and cancerogenic for humans. The aim of the experiment was to assess the PAHs levels in traditionally smoked cheeses in Poland. The PAHs in cheeses samples were determined by isotope dilution method with the use of HRGC-HRMS. The cheeses contained the trace amounts of benzo[a]pyrene. The except were small sheep cheeses and the Ritta goat whey cheese smoked in hot smoke in which the level of 17.0 µg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene was observed. The low levels of benzo[a]pyrene and of sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]antracene, benzo[b]fluorantene and chrysene in the analyzed cheeses were the result of mild smoking in warm smoke. Although today, there are no regulations about smoked cheese and the maximum of PAHs concentration, the control of PAHs in the cheeses is essential due to the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of these compounds.
Article
The popularity of smoked foodstuffs such as sauces, marinades and rubs is on the rise. However, during the traditional smoking process, in addition to the desirable smoky aroma compounds, harmful polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also generated. In this work, a selective filter was developed which reduces PAH concentrations in a smoke by up to 90%, whilst maintaining a desirable smoky flavor. Preliminary studies using a cocktail of 12 PAHs stirred with a zeolite showed the potential for this zeolite to selectively remove PAHs from a simple solution. However pre-treatment of the smoke prior to application removed the PAHs more efficiently and is more widely applicable to a range of food ingredients. Whilst volatile analysis showed that there was a concomitant reduction in the concentration of the smoky compounds such as 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 2-methylphenol (m-cresol) and the isoeugenols, sensory profiling showed that the difference in perception of flavor was minimal.
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The recent literature describing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, water, soil and sediment, waste sludge, biomonitoring, toxicity, are reviewed. Aspects of sampling, sample preparations such as extraction of PAHs are discussed and analytical methods used are also reviewed. Developments on direct measurement techniques, such as ultraviolet absorption spectrometry and synchronous luminescence, are noted. This review also discusses the microbial PAH-remediation and PAH-degradation with emphasis on biological and physico-chemical factors influencing the biodegradation.
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Liquid smoke as an all-natural food indigent is traditionally produced by smouldering. This process has a low efficiency and causes air pollution. Biomass pyrolysis is an advanced thermochemical process, which can replace smouldering and hence, transition the production towards a circular process. Liquid smoke has a mature and steadily growing market, which provides an opportunity to commercialise biomass pyrolysis. This study addresses opportunities to produce liquid smoke by pyrolysis technologies. Recently developed technologies are reviewed including biomass pretreatment, fast pyrolysis, microwave pyrolysis and fractional condensation. They are considered as promising approaches for liquid smoke production. The advantage of liquid smoke production by fast pyrolysis is the higher gross profit over biofuel oil production. Challenges also exist in this transformation because of more requirements for food products manufacture such as food safety standards and sensory quality specifications.
Article
Asap cair merupakan hasil dari pembakaran proses pirolisis yang dikondensasi. Asap cair mengandung senyawa asam dan turunannya serta senyawa fenol, sehingga dapat dijadikan sebagai pengawet alami. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan % yield maksimum dan karakterisasi asap cair tempurung kelapa seperti viskositas, densitas, dan pH. Penelitian ini dibagi menjadi dua tahap yaitu tahap pirolisis tempurung kelapa pada suhu 300, 400 dan 500oC, waktu pirolisis yaitu 2, 3 dan 4 jam, serta ukuran tempurung kelapa 6 – 10 mm, 4 – 6 mm, dan 1.6 – 4 mm. Tahap ini menghasilkan cairan berwarna merah kehitaman, sehingga dilakukan tahap kedua yaitu proses destilasi untuk mendapatkan asap cair yang murni. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan persen yield maksimum asap cair sebesar 37,35% pada temperatur pirolisis 500oC, selama 4 jam dengan ukuran tempurung kelapa sebesar 1.6 – 4 mm. Analisa karakteristik asap cair pada suhu 500C memiliki pH 2, densitas sebesar 1,084 gr/ml. viskositas kinematik sebesar 1,62 mm2/s.
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi asap cair dan lama perendaman terhadap kaar air, kadar abu dan pH dari bakso ikan tongkol. Rancangan percobaan dalam enelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua aktoril dan 3 level. Faktor pertama adalah kosentrasi asap cair (K): 1,5%, 2%, 2,5% dan lama perendaman dengan variasi (L): 3, 5, dan 7 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kosentrasi asap cair tempurung kelapa berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap kadar air, kadar abu dan pH. Lama penyimpanan tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, kadar abu, pH. Lama penyimpanan tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, kadar abu, pH. Interaksi antara Kosentrasi asap cair tempurung kelapa dan lama penyimpanan tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, kadar abu, pH. Perlakuan terbaik terdapat pada kosentrasi asap cair tempurung kelapa 2,5% dan lama penyimpanan 3 hari (K3L1) menghasilkan bakso ikan dengan sifat kimia yaitu kadar air 45,70%, pH 2,32, kadar abu 0,56%.
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds with a structure consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms that have more than two fused aromatic rings. Most PAHs have carcinogenic effects on animal or humans and induce various cancers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a consequence of environmental pollutants, imperfect burning or pyrolysis of organic substances during industrial processing. Additionally, foods can be contaminated during their processing and preparation through different heat treatments. This review highlights the formation, occurrence and health impacts of PAHs in milk and milk products, and analytical technique used for their determination in dairy products.
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The smoked food samples (Smoked fish, roasted yam, sharwama, suya, roasted plantain and roasted corn) were sampled from retail outlets in Lagos State, Nigeria. The analysis was carried out with a Gas Chromatography (GC)-Flame Ionization Detector (FID) equipped with auto sampler. The results of sixteen PAHs in the studied smoked food shows that PAHs of low molecular weight such as acenaphthene and anthracene were detected in all the food samples. High molecular weight PAHs such as fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo (a) anthracene were also detected. Five and six membered ring PAHs benzo (k) fluoranthrene, benzo (a) pyrene, indenol (1, 2, 3) perylene, dibenzo (a, h) anthracene and benzo (g, h, i) perylene were not detected in all the food samples. Total PAHs concentrations determined in smoked food samples were: smoked fish 0.3303 Mg/Kg, roasted yam 0.2456 Mg/Kg, sharwama 0.4508 Mg/Kg, suya 0.4762 Mg/Kg, roasted plantain 0.1844 Mg/Kg and roasted corn 0.1719 Mg/Kg. The sum of the total fraction of PAHs in smoked food samples calculated according to their rings number and percentage. A two-ring PAHs (naphthalene) was not detected in all the samples except in roasted plantain with 20.6%. A three-ring PAHs recorded the highest percentage of the total PAHs constituting 87.2% in smoked fish, 43.8% in roasted yam, 81.9% in sharwama, 83.3% in suya, 37.5% in roasted plantain and 67.4% in roasted corn. While a four-ring PAHs constitute 12.8% in smoked fish, 56.2% in roasted yam, 18.1% in sharwama, 16.7% in suya, 41.9% in roasted plantain and 32.7% in roasted corn.
Article
In this study, the effects on the sensory quality and flavor profile of dried longan resulting from smoking it for 104 h were investigated. The results showed that, in terms of the quality of the dried longan. The smoking time influenced the fruit's water activity (0.70–0.92), soluble solids (30–60 。 Brix), pH (6.13–6.71), and tendency to change from yellow to brown hues (ΔE: 3.13–12.83). We detected 42 volatile compound variations during smoking, of which 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, hydroxy butanone, and 1-octen-3-ol perceived aroma for longan. Aroma characteristics were evaluated smoky effect by agglomerative hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis. Forasmuch phenolic derivatives (smoky flavor) form lignin degradation correlated for the time, and organic compounds via oxidation (or hydrolyzation). We found get the smoky flavor and intermediate moisture of longan in smoked 72 h, which extended sensory and preservation that is beneficial to longan producers.
Article
Carcinogenic PAH compounds which may occur in the seafood either due to the chemical pollution in the habitat of the fish or wrong heat treatment may deposit in the flesh or in other organs of the fish may negatively affect the health of consumers. As a result of smoking at extreme temperatures or barbecuing carcinogenic PAH compounds may penetrate in the skin of the fish. Carcinogenic PAH compounds arise due to the unfavorable conditions during smoking of the fish. These can be listed as pyrolysis of the wood at extreme temperatures, short distance between the flame and fish and uncontrolled temperature. These unfavorable conditions can be taken under control with using an external smoke generator, smoke filter and using hard woods like oak, horn beech during smoking. Also removing the skin of the smoked fish from the flesh is another precaution. Hence the total PAH concentration can be controlled in the smoked fish. The consumption of smoked fish in Turkey is less compared to European countries. However the consumption increases continuously as more consumers taste smoked fish. Limitations to the industrial waste and taking under control the aquatic pollution and smoking under controlled conditions will eliminate the deposit of carcinogenic PAH compounds in seafood and will enable consumption of healthy seafood.
Article
This chapter discusses that along with salting and drying, smoking is considered one of the oldest procedures for preserving meats and other foodstuffs. Curing smoke is a complex mixture. The composition is influenced by several generation parameters, such as type of wood; humidity of the wood; generation temperature; and amount of oxygen. Smoking is the treatment of meats or meat products, fish, and sometimes other foods with curing smoke. Generation of curing smoke by smoldering wood may cause problems that are reflected in the varying composition of smoke. Smoke condensation is required for several reasons, such as for the production of the smoke preparation used for flavoring foods. Total smoke condensation from smokehouses is desirable as it reduces the amount of smoke discharged into the environment. Curing smoke is generated by pyrolysis of plant materials, and consists of a mixture of constituents that are distributed in air in a gaseous, liquid, or solid state. Physical and chemical changes occur in the smoke between smoke generation and condensation on meat products or other foods. Tilgner described the phenol content of products with a wet surface smoked during the same period of time to be 20 times greater than that of dry products. This chapter discusses the formation of the smoke color is believed to originate from an uptake of colored smoke constituents, oxidation and polymerization of smoke compounds like phenols, aldehydes, and reaction of smoke compounds with meat proteins.
Aqueous liquid smoke produces a brown layer on the wall of the polythene receptacle in which it has been contained. The constituents of this brown layer have been extracted using dichloromethane and were studied by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Some changes in the liquid smoke were deduced through comparisons of data from the brown layer with the previously obtained liquid smoke data. Due to interactions between polythene molecules and compounds of the liquid smoke, some of these latter compounds migrate into the wall of the receptacle and are retained there. The extent of these migrations depends on the size of the hydrocarbon part of each compound. However, far from being harmful, this migration is useful, since compounds irrelevant from the point of view of flavour, and harmful to health are the main compounds affected by the retention on the polythene wall. Some of the adsorbed compounds have not previously been reported to be present in liquid smoke.
Article
Die Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) wurden in 70 Räucherfischproben bestimmt. Bei Anwendung von Capillargaschromatographie mit Flammenionisationsnachweis wurden gleichzeitig 13 PAH bestimmt. In 19 von 46 Proben von kommerziell geräucherten Fischen, hauptsächlich aus herkömmlichen Öfen, überstieg der Gehalt an Benz(a)pyren (BaP) 1 μg/kg. Die BaP-Gehalte in den Proben aus Rauchanlagen mit externer Raucherzeugung lagen ausnahmlos unter 1 μg/kg. Von 16 untersuchten Räucherfisch-Konserven enthielten 4 Proben mehr als 1 μg BaP/kg. Eine Probe eines hausgeräucherten Herings aus einem selbstge mauerten Räucherofen wies den höchsten Gehalt an BaP und totalen PAH dieser Untersuchung mit 11,3 und 1 100 μg/kg auf.
Article
The present paper demonstrates that the exclusive aromatic character of high temperature tar, is not only due to the disappearance, by post-cracking, of the paraffinic fraction of primary tars, but that cracking reactions contribute to form mono- and polycyclic aromatics.Aromatisation of the neutral and acid oil fractions of low temperature tar, was studied. The main pathway to aromatic compounds formation is the Diels-Alder reaction on short chain olefins, mainly butadiene and propene. The olefins are formed by post-cracking reactions of long chain paraffins in the primary tars and of cyclopentadiene, which is one of the primary cracking products of the phenols. These mechanisms were demonstrated by the cracking of pure compounds to investigate their fate in the post-cracking reactions occurring during coal carbonization. N-decane was chosen as representative of long chain aliphatics and 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene and iso-butene for the short chain olefins.Phenols, labelled in specific position by carbon 14 and tritium, were cracked. Radiochromatography was used to determine the radio-active content of each of the cracking products. Cyclopentadiene and CO are the primary cracking products of phenols. Cyclopentadiene is not stable at phenols' cracking temperatures. Direct formation of naphthalene from cyclopentadiene was observed at temperatures as low as 550°C. Fragments of the cyclopentadiényl radical undergo Diels-Alder reaction to form light aromatics.
Article
Surface sediments and mussels, Mytilus edulis, collected in the Baltic Sea in March 1995, October 1995 and August 1996 have been analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The analyses have been performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Total sediment PAH concentrations range from 3 to about 30 000 ng/g while total mussel PAH concentrations range from 90 to about 3900 ng/g. Molecular indices based on isomeric PAH ratios differentiate the pollution sources, pointing out differences between Germany and Poland. Most of the contamination originates from high temperature pyrolytic inputs with some slight overimpositions of petrogenic and diagenetic PAHs. Mussel and sediment total PAH concentrations have been found to be moderately correlated (r2=0.51 for March, 0.58 for August and 0.98 for October). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) have been calculated and have shown higher values for the mussels sampled in March. Differences of BAFs have been observed for the different compounds resulting from different uptake pathways and metabolism abilities of Mytilus edulis.
Article
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Article
Samples of a bologna type cooked sausage and a dry fermented type sausage made from mutton were analyzed for 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cleanup was performed by digestion in methanolic potassium hydroxide, two sequences of liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH 20 columns. The final separation and quantification were done by gas-liquid chromatography on a high efficiency packed glass column. The amounts detected were generally low, strongly carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene being present in a maximum concentration of 0.15 ppb.
Article
Over a period of 2.5 yr, 221 different food items of a 'market basket' of 18-yr-old males were purchased every 3 months. In total, 10 market baskets were collected. The foodstuffs were prepared by normal methods and combined into 23 commodity groups. Homogenates were prepared from each commodity group, followed by analysis for 17 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All these compounds were detected. The most frequently occurring PAHs were benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, in 59, 48 and 46% of the samples, respectively. The highest concentration of a single PAH was 36 micrograms chrysene/kg in the commodity group 'sugar and sweets'. On the basis of concentrations found in the total diet samples the possible daily intakes of the various PAHs were calculated. The mean daily intake of the total PAH fraction analysed was between 5 micrograms/day (low estimate) and 17 micrograms/day (high estimate). The intake of the carcinogenic PAH fraction was roughly half these amounts. The largest contribution to the daily PAH intake came from sugar and sweets, cereals, oils, fats and nuts.
A method for class separation of mutagenic polycyclic organic material in grilled and smoked foods is described. The procedure involves an initial extraction with acetone, removal of fat and proteins by precipitation at -55 degrees C, and an acid-base extraction. Further fractionation was carried out by gel filtration and silica gel chromatography. In four samples of grilled sausages, 80%-90% of the extracted mutagenicity (TA98 + S9) was contained in the basic fractions. Flame-grilled sausages showed higher mutagenicity than charcoal-grilled ones. In a smoked fish sample, the mutagenicity was low and evenly distributed between the basic and the neutral/acidic fractions. A few samples showed a weak direct-acting mutagenicity in the neutral/acidic fractions. The presence of nitrite in grilled sausages did not influence the mutagenicity markedly. Gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring was used to successfully identify a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tentatively identify several nitro-PAHs and oxygenated compounds. However, the identification of mutagens in the basic fractions was complicated by peak tailing and the presence of co-eluting material.
Article
Procedures have been developed for the isolation and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid smoke flavors and resinous condensates. The hydrocarbons are isolated by liquid-liquid partition and thin-layer chromatography, and measured by ultraviolet and spectrophotofluorometric techniques. Recoveries of benzo[a]pyrene added to 200 g of liquid smoke flavor samples at levels of 2 ppb ranged from 70 to 89%. Trace quantities of some three- and four-ring type hydrocarbons were isolated from three of the seven flavors studied. A compound identified as 4-methylbenzo[a]pyrene was found at a level of 1.7 ppb in one aqueous smoke flavor. Various concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene ranging from 25 to 3800 ppb were found in resinous condensates which settle out of the liquid smoke flavors on storage. The identity of the compound was confirmed by fluorescence and mass spectrometry.
A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed and applied to the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a variety of smoked, market basket commodities. The PAHs are extracted with 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon 113) from alcoholic KOH digests of the commodities. The extracts are purified by column chromatography through a deactivated silica gel/alumina column and by liquid-liquid partitioning between dimethyl sulfoxide and cyclohexane before separation of the PAHs by LC. Both fluorescence and UV detectors are used to monitor the LC column effluent to detect nanogram quantities of PAHs. Trace levels of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAHs were found in all samples analyzed, although generally at less than 1 ppb levels.
Article
Analysis of UK total-diet samples for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was carried out using a simplified sample clean-up and a high-performance liquid chromatography dual fluorescence detector system. The results indicate that cereals and oils/fats contribute the major part (approximately one third each) of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in these total diets. Fruit, sugars and vegetables provide much of the remainder (approximately one quarter) while meat, fish, milk and beverages make relatively minor contributions. These results are compared with others in the current literature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods. The levels in the UK diet seem to be at least as low as those found elsewhere.
Article
Smoked foods including turkey, pork, chicken, beef and fish products were screened for the presence of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eighteen commercial liquid smoke flavourings and seasonings were also analysed. Total PAH concentrations in smoked meat products ranged from 2.6 micrograms/kg in a cooked ham sample to 29.8 micrograms/kg in grilled pork chops, while those in fish products ranged from 9.3 micrograms/kg in smoked shrimp to 86.6 micrograms/kg in smoked salmon. Total concentrations of the carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) ranged from non-detectable in several meat products to 7.4 micrograms/kg in grilled pork chops, and from 0.2 micrograms/kg in trout to 16.0 micrograms/kg in salmon. In liquid smoke flavourings and seasonings, total PAH concentrations ranged from 6.3 to 43.7 micrograms/kg, with the carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 0.3 to 10.2 micrograms/kg.
Article
The liquid smoke flavour UTP-1 was spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a level of total concentration 45-6 micrograms/kg and filled into bottles made of low-density polyethylene. The concentration of PAHs was followed for 14 days. During this time the concentration of PAHs dropped roughly by two orders--from 45.6 micrograms/kg to 0.73 micrograms/kg, when an inverse dependence between PAHs concentration and time of storage was observed. As demonstrated in the experiment, the lowering of PAHs concentration in the liquid smoke flavour UTP-1 was due to the sorption of PAHs on packaging material, in which PAHs were found at the end of the experiment.
Article
In order to investigate the levels of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mainly benzo[a]pyrene because of its carcinogenicity, 55 samples of smoke flavour and smoked foods were analysed. The samples tested included 11 samples of liquid smoke flavour and 44 samples of smoked foods like bacon, loin, turkey, sausage, ox rib, etc. from different brands. A liquid chromatographic method was developed using a fluorescence detector. Benzo[a]pyrene was found in 73% of the liquid smoke flavour samples analysed. The levels varied from 0.1 to 336.6 micrograms/kg. Three liquid smoke flavour samples showed levels of benzo[a]pyrene above the maximum level recommended by FAO/WHO (10 micrograms/kg). From the total of 44 smoked food samples analysed, benzo(a)pyrene was detected in 23 samples (52%). The levels varied from 0.1 to 5.9 micrograms/kg. Anthracene and fluoranthene, non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were found in almost all the samples analysed. Benzo[ghi]perylene, 3,4-benzofluoranthene and 1,2,3,4-dibenzopyrene were not found in any of the 55 samples analysed.
Article
The content of total and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian foods was measured. The highest levels of PAHs were found in pizza baked in wood-burning ovens and barbecued beef and pork. Relatively high levels were also found in beet greens and squash, apples and bread, fried beef, pork and rabbit, cured meats and chocolate. Conversely low levels were detected in potatoes and cooked fish, beverages and eggs. The daily intake of total and carcinogenic PAHs also was calculated by multiplying the average consumption of each food by its mean concentration of PAHs. Cereal and milk products, meat, vegetables and fruits were the highest contributors to total PAH intake, since these products are the most important dietary components in Italy. The calculated total dietary PAH intake was 3 micrograms/day per person. The calculated intake of carcinogenic PAHs was 1.4 microgram/day per person. The dietary intake of PAHs was high compared with the calculated respiratory intake (370 ng/day) owing to polluted city air in Italy. These results confirm that food is the major source of human exposure to PAHs, due in particular to the high consumption of contaminated cereal products.
The levels of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined by an HPLC method with fluorescence and UV detection and by a GC/MS technique in smoked fishery products from modern smoking kilns with external smoke generation and from traditional smoking kilns. The average benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration of all 35 samples from commercial smoking kilns with external smoke generation was 0.1 microgram/kg (wet weight) and the sum of the carcinogenic compounds determined in the study, i.e. benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene did not exceed 4.5 micrograms/kg (wet weight). The BaP levels of the 27 smoked fish samples from traditional kilns ranged from 0.2 microgram/kg to 4.1 micrograms/kg, with a mean value of 1.2 micrograms BaP/kg. The average concentration of the sum of the carcinogenic compounds was 9.0 micrograms/kg. Large variations were found in the content of the non-carcinogenic PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene in all samples from both types of smoking kilns.
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) belong to a large chemical family comprising many different compounds with important biological activity in mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. PAH have been detected in both raw and processed foods. The presence of PAH in non-processed foods is associated with environmental pollution from both human and industrial activities, whereas contamination of processed foods can be caused by certain preservation and processing procedures. Both toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown a relation between such compounds and tumor development. The data indicate that PAH must undergo a biotransformation process that causes the formation of biologically active metabolites. In this process, the presence of an enzyme complex that is induced by different xenobiotics is implied, making the toxicity of such compounds hard to predict. As setting a threshold limit below which toxicity could be considered negligible is difficult, the presence of PAH in foodstuffs should be reduced to as low as possible by controlling environmental contamination and all procedures that could cause PAH contamination during food processing, preserving, and packaging.
Article
The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in five commercial liquid smoke flavorings, used in the European food industry, was studied. The samples were subjected to an alkaline treatment, extracted with cyclohexane, cleaned up by means of solid-phase extraction tubes, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three different procedures for the cleanup were tested. The results revealed the presence of 34 PAHs, some of them with methyl substituents. In all cases, the concentrations of compounds of low molecular weight were much higher than those of high molecular weight. Relationships between smoke flavoring compositions and PAH levels were also studied. Three of the samples contained high levels of both total and carcinogenic PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene was also detected in these three samples, but its concentration did not exceed the 10 microg/kg level fixed by the FAO/WHO. Finally, a relation was found, first between the concentrations of total carcinogenic PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene and also between the concentrations of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. The latter ratio reveals that pyrene concentration could be very useful in predicting the level of benzo[a]pyrene and, consequently, in estimating the carcinogenicity arising from the presence of benzo[a]pyrene and other carcinogenic PAHs.
Article
The effectiveness of the steps of a general method, which includes alkaline treatment of the samples, extraction, clean-up and analysis, for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid smoke flavourings and smoked foods have been studied, by using mixtures of pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and of smoke flavouring compounds. All these products were applied to samples of liquid smoke flavourings in order to test the effectiveness of each step of the method, as well as to investigate its effect on real samples, and thus obtain a suitable procedure for the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid smoke flavourings. The alkaline treatment has been proved to be necessary because of its capability for removing some smoke components. Both cyclohexane and dichloromethane are able to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high recovery percentages; however, cyclohexane is more adequate due to its lower ability to extract other smoke flavourings components. It is important to note that the elution sequence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during the clean-up step is quite different depending on the solvent used to dissolve the extract, which determines the ability of this process to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for their accurate identification and quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. Finally, the PAHs present in a liquid smoke flavouring and their concentrations were determined; it was observed that, despite the different extraction solvents and clean-up procedures used, the results were very similar.
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