Perchlorate is a persistent pollutant, generated via natural and anthropogenic processes, that possesses a high potential for endocrine disruption in humans and biota. It inhibits iodine fixation, a major reason for eliminating this pollutant from ecosystems. Remediation of perchlorate can be achieved with various physicochemical treatments, especially at low concentrations. However, microbiological approaches using microorganisms, such as those from the genera Dechloromonas, Serratia, Propionivibrio, Wolinella, and Azospirillum, are promising when perchlorate pollution is extensive. Perchlorate-reducing bacteria, isolated from harsh environments, for example saline soils, mine sediments, thermal waters, wastewater treatment plants, underground gas storage facilities, and remote areas, including the Antarctica, can provide removal yields from 20 to 100%. Perchlorate reduction, carried out by a series of enzymes, such as perchlorate reductase and superoxide chlorite, depends on pH, temperature, salt concentration, metabolic inhibitors, nutritional conditions, time of contact, and cellular concentration. Microbial degradation is cost-effective, simple to implement, and environmentally friendly, rendering it a viable method for alleviating perchlorate pollution in the environment.