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Social correlates and coping measures of street-children: a comparative study of street and non-street children in South-Western Nigeria

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Abstract

This paper sought to achieve two objectives: First, to identify the social correlates attributable to street-children in south-western Nigeria as well as predisposing factors to this behavior; second, it also tried to uncover the survival mechanisms of street children. The study was carried out in Ibadan and Lagos metropoles in south-western Nigeria. A pilot study was first conducted to clarify issues like location of the children on the streets, time of the day suitable for interview, and adequacy of the instruments. The main study involving a comparative 202 and 201 street-children and non-street children, respectively, was carried out using the questionnaire and case study approach in the two cities. Data analytical procedures involved both quantitative and qualitative methods. Street-children are mostly males, have low-levels of education, are predominantly Yoruba, and come from families with five or more siblings. Parents of street-children commonly had low education and were mainly found in unskilled occupations: were in contract polygynous marriages which are also often characterized by marital disruption. Street children also left home because of parental/familial reasons, chiefly among which was the inability of their parents to meet with their expectations. They survive on the streets engaging in some income-yielding activities, and are also faced with many hazards. The findings revealed that polygyny, large family, family disruption, and child labor were all central issues and predisposing factors to living on the streets by children. The poverty factor clearly came out as a very important factor.

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... This is, in part, because of the economic situation of most Nigeria citizens, who barely earn enough to feed themselves and their children. Oruwari (1996), Okojie (1987) and Aderinto (2000) linked the phenomenon of street trading and child labour to socio economic status of poor parents who subsist at the periphery of the urban economy. This research will offer solutions to the menaces of street trading and child labour. ...
... In another school of thought, child labour and street trading are linked to child rearing norms and the attributes of parents where, for the purpose of socialization, children are required to carry out assigned domestic chores and economic activities (Aderinto, 2000). Child labour and street trading have also been traced to the rise of capitalism as a system of production, where labour becomes a commodity to be bought and sold. ...
... With respect to the first research question, the individuals polled suggested that prevalence of street hawking was increasing faster than domestic servitude, which is why the CRA (c.f., 2003) called for the protection of the rights of children. The second research question was answered largely in the affirmative with 98% of all respondents attesting to a compromised socio-economic situation (c.f., Aderinto, 2000). The third research question was tested and it was confirmed that street trading is associated with a number of dangers, including kidnapping, accidents and the influence of negative or criminal peer groups (c.f., Oruwari, 1996). ...
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Poverty is a serious problem associated with rapid urbanization in developing nations and is a contributory factor in the growth and exacerbation of street trading and child labour. Street trading and child labour in Yenagoa reflect chronic urban poverty, which can compel parents to send children of school age to work to boost family income. Thus, for many hours each day, children of poor parents are engaged in economic ventures including hawking, plaiting of hair, and being apprenticed to various trades. This research sought to explain the basics of child labour, its causes, and its effect on its victims and society as a whole. A questionnaire was used in this study to collect data. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed and 250 were retrieved. The findings of this study establish that street trading and child labour are a great menace to both the individual and society. This study recommends that the Nigerian government enact laws restricting parents from engaging their children in street trading and labour in Nigeria.
... In relating household size and child labor, a number of studies have found significant and positive effect of household size on children's working hours. Children from larger households are more likely to work for longer hours to support the members of the family (Fors, 2007;Emerson and Souza, 2008;Aderinto, 2009; Aslam, Awan, and Waqas, 2011; Alfa, 2012). Fors (2007) found that majority of child laborers came from household with 7.4 members and an additional member in the household increases the children's work hours by 0.16. ...
... Likewise, results displayed that children with most hours of labor came from households that possess 7 to 9 members, followed by those with 4 to 6 members. Meanwhile, Aderinto (2009) used information on the number of siblings the child laborer has and revealed that majority of the sample came from homes where there were five or more siblings. Based from the results, these studies have concluded that the likelihood that children are involved in long hours of housework or market work increases with the number of siblings and household members, because there are more mouths to feed, more work to be done at home, and higher schooling costs to be paid. ...
... However, none of the 134 respondents answered that they came from a household size of 1 which signifies that there are no child laborers at the pantalan area of Dagupan City that lives alone and working for himself/herself only. This is consistent with other studies that find large household as common characteristic for working children (Fors, 2007;Filho, 2008;Aderinto, 2009;Alfa, 2012). Table 2 presents the number of respondents for each range of the weekly expenses of the household. ...
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Drawing on the survey conducted to 134 respondents gathered through snowball sampling, this study examines the factors that affect the working hours of child laborers (5-17years old) in the pantalan (Filipino term for fish port) of Dagupan City, Pangasinan, Philippines. The data gathered were processed through the Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS) method and were cured using the Weighted Least-Squares (WLS) due to the presence of heteroskedasticity. Results show that the average hours worked by a child laborer in a week is 28 hours. Also, 83 out of 134 respondents are male. Among the explanatory variables, household expenses, household size, gender, schooling, and child's wage appeared to be statistically significant and affect the variation in the length of time a child works per week with beta coefficients of 0.002, 1.33,-3.1,-0.54, and-0.074 respectively. On the contrary, parental income and child's age are shown to be statistically insignificant.
... It also implies that not all work performed by children can be termed child labour. In some studies, children labourer are regarded as "street children" or "children of the street" who run away from parental or guardian abuse, leaving them to eke out a living on their own (Aderinto, 2000). This name 'street children' paralyzed them from thinking ahead thus rendering them economically useless and hopeless. ...
... Most times they go through physical and health consequences such as respiratory problems, injuries accidents, physical and sexual abuse such as rape and molestation, malnourishment, extortion of income, police harassment, and participation in harmful or delinquent activities (Okeahialam, 1984). In other studies, child laborers face robbery, inadequate sleep due to fatigue and long hours on the job, and confinement in juvenile homes (Aderinto, 2000;Charles and Charles, 2004. Most times they suffer from mental related sickness such as; stigmatization from the press and public, feelings of disheartenment, stress and irritability, personality disorders and anti-social behavior, and alienation and isolation from their family. ...
... In some studies, children labourers are regarded as "street children" or "children of the street" who run away from parental or guardian abuse, leaving them to eke out a living on their own (Aderinto, 2000). This name 'street children' paralyzed them from thinking ahead thus rendering them economically useless and hopeless. ...
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This study, "Child Labour in Nigeria, and its economic implication", is aimed at investigating the existence of child labour, its causes, constraints and economic implications and how to eradicate it with particular interest in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria. Calabar Municipality is a tourist center and has witnessed massive population growth since 1999. This increase in population has forced many families to be engaged in inhuman activities to avoid destitution, scavenge for existence that could best be described as child labour. A stratified random sampling method was carried out in 500 respondents who are found to be involved in child labour through interviews, issuance of questionnaires and focused group discussions. The data obtained from the field were analyzed using Simple Percentages (%) and Chi-square (X 2) to test the level of significant difference. The analyses revealed that 52% child labour is currently practiced in Calabar Municipality. The study also showed that there is a significant relationship between child labour and the following variables; poverty, unemployment and school dropout at 0.05 level of significant. This indicates a negative effect on economic growth in Nigeria as the future of the country is at risk. I therefore recommend that government should come up with legislations that will tackle the problem of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria, effective implementation of policy that would outlaw all forms of child labour, establish a compulsory, quantitative and qualitative free or minimal cost education for all Nigerians and finally, the National, State and Local Government Orientation Agencies should be mobilized to carryout extensive inspections in schools to reduce the number of school drop-out.
... Ethnographic research has documented difficulties engaging girls, who are more likely to be absorbed into prostitution or other parts of the informal economy [3,[9][10][11][12][13]. Prior to leaving home, SCY in SSA disproportionately experience poverty, family disruption, orphanhood, neglect and abuse, all of which increase their likelihood of leaving home and may increase their risk for HIV infection [3,5,6,8,14,15]. Of these experiences, orphanhood is particularly associated with increased risk of HIV infection in adolescents both in SSA and elsewhere [16][17][18][19][20]. ...
... Once on the street SCY often join groups of street youth, who provide protection from harassment, and economic, emotional and social support for survival on the street [14,15,[22][23][24]. Through their involvement in these groups, SCY are socialized into street-based survival activities, such as garbage picking, begging, petty theft and survival sex [1,5,14,15,22,[25][26][27]. ...
... Once on the street SCY often join groups of street youth, who provide protection from harassment, and economic, emotional and social support for survival on the street [14,15,[22][23][24]. Through their involvement in these groups, SCY are socialized into street-based survival activities, such as garbage picking, begging, petty theft and survival sex [1,5,14,15,22,[25][26][27]. As many of these activities are stigmatizing or illegal, they lead to harassment or violence by the police and the public [25,28,29]. ...
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Introduction Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13–21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. Results The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3–7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2–67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1–19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6–29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1–13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted prevention among street youth in East Africa.
... As a matter of fact, some studies of street children conducted in Latin America (Rizzini and Lust, 1995), but also in Africa (Aderinto, 2000), reveal that the phenomenon of children of the streets is quite marginal, representing only 1/10 th of the total number of street children, whereas Densley and Joss (2000) state that they make up 20% of the total. However, even if only one tenth of street children live on the street permanently, as a minority they continue to constitute a considerable social challenge throughout the world. ...
... The economic argument concerning children on the streets has thus been applied to the whole population of street children, establishing itself as the main explanation of the phenomenon (e.g. Olley, 2006;Aderinto, 2000;Alexandrescu, 1996;Rizzini and Lusk, 1995;Peacock, 1994). Children of the streets are then equated with children on the streets, and the other categories are not taken into account properly. ...
... Children migrate onto the streets on their own initiative as a result of their unsatisfactory living conditions at home (Felsman, 1989;Lucchini, 1996). For instance, a study conducted in Nigeria insists on the fact that children deliberately leave their homes to earn a living when their parents are unable to feed them in a decent manner (Aderinto, 2000). Hunger then becomes a reason for leaving home. ...
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Children form one of the main populations to be victims of poverty worldwide. Children of the street are now regarded as a particularly vulnerable population. This article tackles two questions: firstly, the question of which factors can be decisive in the phenomenon of children of the street. It opens a debate on the respective roles of poverty and of other factors, such as domestic violence and parental neglect. Secondly, it considers the question of how they live in the street. Children develop survival strategies that are obviously based on their activities, but also involve an organization that calls for analysis in terms of strategic positioning on the territory they occupy.
... Resumen: La literatura científica analiza los ámbitos en los que incide la Educación Artística y destaca la importancia en el desarrollo académico, psicológico, social y cultural de las personas (Hargreaves;Marshall;North, 2005;Hargreaves;North, 2001); los valores sociales que a través de ella se ponen de manifiesto (Gardner, 1994;2000); el establecimiento relacional entre los aspectos culturales y los medios para la enseñanza y la evaluación de las diversas expresiones artísticas (Gardner, 1995); y su función relevante en la educación, desde los primeros años de vida (Lowenfeld;Lambert, 2008)extendiéndose la importancia de su enseñanza espontánea infantil a partir de las propuestas novedosas de principios del siglo XX, como las de Luquet y Freinet. Los enfoques de autores como Gardner, Fieldman, Eisner y Read a finales del mismo siglo, en torno a las teorías sobre la Educación Artística escolar, produjeron una renovación espectacular (Marín, 2003), derivando en que actualmente sea considerada como una disciplina que fortalece la cultura y la estética procedente del proyecto " Educación Artística como Disciplina " del Institute for Educators for the Visual Art, de J. Paul Getty Trust en 1983 (Rodríguez, 1996). ...
... El perfil de edad de los niños y jóvenes sin hogar viene determinado por las demandas de la vida en las calles, por lo que depende del nivel de desarrollo del niño (Ennet et al., 1999;Mickelson, 2000a). Por lo tanto, la mayoría de los niños de la calle a nivel mundial están comprendidos en el grupo de edad 10-14 años (Aderinto, 2000); (12-21 años para los jóvenes sin hogar); aunque se han documentado casos de niños que acuden a las calles con tan solo cinco años en los países en desarrollo (Aderinto, 2000). @BULLET En el caso de los niños de la calle de Ceuta, si bien casi la mitad de la muestra está compuesta por adolescentes de dieciséis y diecisiete años, la medida de edad es de 14,8 años. ...
... El perfil de edad de los niños y jóvenes sin hogar viene determinado por las demandas de la vida en las calles, por lo que depende del nivel de desarrollo del niño (Ennet et al., 1999;Mickelson, 2000a). Por lo tanto, la mayoría de los niños de la calle a nivel mundial están comprendidos en el grupo de edad 10-14 años (Aderinto, 2000); (12-21 años para los jóvenes sin hogar); aunque se han documentado casos de niños que acuden a las calles con tan solo cinco años en los países en desarrollo (Aderinto, 2000). @BULLET En el caso de los niños de la calle de Ceuta, si bien casi la mitad de la muestra está compuesta por adolescentes de dieciséis y diecisiete años, la medida de edad es de 14,8 años. ...
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Revista Científica/ Scientific Journal - DEDiCA. REVISTA DE EDUCAÇÃO E HUMANIDADES (JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND THE HUMANITIES) Ver, igualmente, os repositórios: - https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/revista?codigo=15495 - http://digibug.ugr.es/handle/10481/34848 Utilizem-se, preferencialmente, os identificadores de artigos do repositório DIGIBUG
... children are subjected to harsh weather conditions, poor feeding habits (Zakir, Abubabkar, Lawal et al., 2014) and all forms of abuse (Gupta, 2000;Aderinto, 2000;Sethi, 2004;Salis, 1995). ...
... Poor educational attainment, parental involvement in unskilled jobs, high parity and lack of genuine effort to address poverty and its associated factors further reinforce street life in children. Poverty (Aderinto, 2000;Aptekar, 1989;Hatlǿy & Huser, 2005) has also been reported to be the major decisive factor for street children. ...
... Child abuse is a common practice in Africa even among those who are living with their parents. Studies such as those conducted by Adetoro (2010), Babangida (1993), Zakir et al. (2014), Gupta (2000), Aderinto (2000) and Sethi (2004) all cited abuse as one of the problems faced by street children. Some of the abuses were cited to be perpetrated by the law enforcement agencies in the form of illegal arrests and detentions. ...
... The remaining ten per cent are either working children with few family ties who view the streets as their homes or abandoned and neglected children with no family ties. They survive on the streets engaging in some income-yielding activities, and are also faced with many hazards (Aderinto 2000). Child beggary is prevailing in the cities. ...
... It helps in reduction of the mental and physical disturbances, hence promoting the ability to plan for future and set goals which will be of value for the child. Similarly a comparative study of street and non-street children in South-Western Nigeria to see the Social correlates and coping measures of streetchildren conducted by Aderinto (2000) revealed that street-children are mostly males having low-level of education, and come from families with five or more siblings. Parents of street-children commonly had low education and were mainly found in unskilled occupations, leading to contract polygynous marriages which are also often characterized by marital disruption. ...
Article
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Children Children live and work on the street because their parents are poor, they are orphans, or they have run away from home, often to escape abuse. They are invariably malnourished, receive scant education and medical treatment, and are involved in child labour from an early age. The term street children refer to children for whom the street has become their real home. They are not necessarily being homeless or without families, but live in situations without protection, supervision, or direction from responsible adults. Street children face difficulties in providing themselves with good sources of food, clean drinking water, health care services, toilets and bath facilities, and adequate shelter. They also suffer from absence of parental protection and security; there is a lack of any kind of moral and emotional support. There are a number of factors that lead children to living on the street. One root cause that has been identified is poverty. Problems faced by street children are overwhelming. In addition to living and working in environments that are generally harmful to their well-being, street children face problems such as hunger, lack of adequate shelter, clothes, and other basic needs, as well as lack of (or limited) educational opportunities, health care, and other social services. Observing the present scenario of street children in Ludhiana city, the study aims to determine the working hours of street children spending in street activities. The study was based on 160 street children aged 9-12 years equally distributed over gender by administering a selfstructured Interview Schedule. The study was conducted in different locations of Ludhiana city viz, railway station, bus stand, traffic lights, nearby markets etc. Home based street children was purposively selected by using snowball sampling technique. The result of the study highlighted that that boys usually work for longer duration as compared to girls. Major proportion (46.25%) of street children work for 1-6 hours a day in street whereas 28.75 per cent children work for 6-9 hours and 25.00 per cent spent 9-12 hours a day to earn their day to day living. Majority of the children (56.25) were hit by motorbike whereas 18.75 per cent of them were hit by car and 12.50 per cent of the respondent were hit by bicycle and fell down from bus respectively. Information regarding children attending school revealed that out of the 160 street children, 54 respondents were attending school. All of the 54 respondents were reported to be attending government school.live and work on Keywords: Children at risk Child abuse, Homeless children, Street children, vulnerable group.
... This study reported predominance of females over males which would perhaps change the common perception among researchers that street boys are archetype of street children in general. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] The study reported a higher non-enrolment and dropout rates among street children. Mixed results have been reported by researchers with some reporting lower rates [5,[10][11][12][13][14]17,[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] whereas other reporting higher rates. ...
... They were engaged in wide variety of occupation which was similar to what has been reported by other workers across nations. [5,[8][9][10][11][12]16,17,22,24,[26][27][28]31,32] Abuse was reported quite often. Children shared their experiences about abuse on their own in the natural course of interview and therefore offered valuable insight into the prevailing abuse at the hands of biological parents, step parents, and others. ...
... Household and family characteristics, including household size and structure, parent education, marital practices, parenting style, the presence of abuse and/or other household dysfunction impact a child's decision to migrate to the street. A survey of 200 children in Nigeria (streetinvolved and not street-involved) found that those living on the streets had parents with lower education level, specifically a large percentage of mothers with no formal education, parents whose father's marital pattern was polygynous, and parents who were not living together (Aderinto, 2000). Children also reported leaving home because of family/parental inability to meet their expectations (including hunger, neglect, and parent not apprenticing them). ...
... In Eldoret, Kenya children reported begging, metals recycling (males), casual labor, and watching cars most often . In Nigeria, male children work as porters, bus conductors, and wash cars, while girls mainly pushed trollies with food, water, and debris/refuse or carried loads for customers (Aderinto, 2000). ...
Article
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Research of street-involved children and youth in Sub-Saharan Africa has largely focused on urban centers. This dissertation is a secondary analysis of formative evaluation data gathered in May and June 2014 by Maua Methodist Hospital to inform the planning and development of a rescue and rehabilitation project for children and youth living on the streets of semi-rural Meru County, Kenya. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to explore 1) community perceptions surrounding why children and youth migrate to the street and adoption or fostering of children and youth living on the street and 2) the health risk and protective factors of street-involved children and youth on the streets of two major towns. Community members identified multiple ecological levels of influence, including intrapersonal, interpersonal, household, peer, community and environmental factors contributing to children and youth's migration to the streets. Regarding reasons for and against adoption of street-involved youth, community members discussed immediate financial barriers and interpersonal conflicts between spouses and other household members, immediate material and emotional benefits to the adopted child as well as the household, long term positive outcomes for the family following adoption and long term negative outcomes for the community if children were left on the street. Results of the surveys with children and youth identified a high prevalence of adverse childhood events and poor psychosocial health. Orphan status, specifically maternal and double orphanhood, may be a risk factor for adverse childhood events and depression. Implications for program planners and community stakeholders and leaders are discussed.
... In Nigeria, increasing socioeconomic problems and migration in search of opportunities have negatively impacted cohesive family life resulting in separation or divorce with negative implications for children (Aderinto, 2000). Another Nigerian study showed that children from families experiencing marital conflicts were at least twice as likely to be involved in antisocial behaviour (Animasahun, 2014). ...
... (Cochran and Akers, 1989) The significant association between cannabis use and participants whose mothers were divorced or single mothers was corroborated with the fact that maltreatment from stepmothers and other associated family conflicts was the main motivation for cannabis use among female interviewees. Research in Nigeria suggests that increasing socioeconomic problems, urbanisation and migration in the country have negatively impacted cohesive family life resulting in separation or divorce with negative implications for children (Aderinto, 2000). Another Nigerian study showed that children from families experiencing marital conflicts were at least twice as likely to be involved in antisocial behaviour (Animasahun, 2014). ...
Thesis
Background: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in Nigeria and is the first illicit substance young people are likely to use. There is evidence to show that cannabis use causes health and social problems that are more severe among young people. Cannabis use is criminalised in Nigeria and the context of use relating to motivation, risk factors and situations in which it is used is poorly understood. Aim: This research aimed to explore the context and factors that are associated with cannabis initiation and continued use among young people in Nigeria with a view to making evidence based recommendations for health promotion. Methods: Two studies were conducted in Lagos state among young people aged 16-21 years utilising the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. A quantitative study entailed the use of questionnaires to evaluate risk factors for the initiation and use of cannabis among 909 secondary school students in Lagos state. Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression utilising latent class models were the analytical strategies used. A qualitative study utilising interviews and focus groups among 39 young people explored motivations, meanings and the context of cannabis use. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Findings showed that initiation was influenced by subcultural issues and individual factors influenced continued use. There was a tendency for continuation after initiation that was possibly linked to its use as a coping strategy for social inequalities, failed aspirations, family conflicts and the criminal identity. Cannabis users were more likely to be older, higher sensation seekers and were associated with family members or peers who used cannabis. Recommendation: These findings suggest that a non-judgemental participatory approach is needed to understand how the current cannabis policy affects young people. It is important to contextualise the needs of young people in programme planning.
... On the other hand, researchers further discussed "how high anxious students were unable to benefit directly from organized instruction, which ultimately affected their performance in class". Aderinto (2000) carried out a study to investigate the relationship between anxiety and student academic performance. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. ...
... The study addressed following questions to pursue the above stated broader objective. Aderinto (2000) carried out a study to investigate the relationship between anxiety and student academic performance. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. ...
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This study investigated the relationship between Self esteem, test anxiety and students’ academic performance among secondary school students in Cross River State Nigeria. To achieve the purpose the study two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out accordingly. Survey research design and stratified random sampling technique were adopted for the study. Test anxiety and Self esteem Questionnaire (TASEQ) and Academic Achievement Test in English Language, Mathematics and Social Studies were the instrument used for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was determined using split half reliability method. The reliability coefficients obtained from the analysis ranges from 0.83 to 0.94 were considered high enough for the instrument to be used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance and Pearson Product moment correlation coefficient analytical technique. The findings revealed that, test anxiety and Self esteem directly significantly influenced academic performance. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that students’ self esteem should be raised and sustained. They should also be encouraged not to be unduly anxious over achievement test.
... Street children in Nigeria, show cultural and geographic diversity. In the Southern parts of Nigeria, they are typically found as 'street urchins' or 'area boys' in motor parks (stations where passengers board or disembark from buses and taxis in their transit from one place to another), hawking wares or food items, or engaged in menial jobs to supplement family incomes or fend for themselves [4,21,34,52]. Some features of these children include disrupted family backgrounds and poorly educated parents with large families [4]. ...
... In the Southern parts of Nigeria, they are typically found as 'street urchins' or 'area boys' in motor parks (stations where passengers board or disembark from buses and taxis in their transit from one place to another), hawking wares or food items, or engaged in menial jobs to supplement family incomes or fend for themselves [4,21,34,52]. Some features of these children include disrupted family backgrounds and poorly educated parents with large families [4]. In addition, for those street children in school, academic performance is usually poor and they are often unable to complete school due to a number of factors including school truancy, alcohol and drug abuse, having to earn some income for themselves or their family and suspension from school due to one misconduct or the other [41]. ...
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Background ‘Almajiris’ are children and adolescents sent far away from their homes to study in Islamic schools under the care of Muslim scholars. Over the years, there has been a decline in the capacity of the scholars to cater to these pupils. Consequently, Almajiris spend significant periods of time on the streets begging and carrying out menial jobs to earn a living thereby increasing their risk for physical and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Almajiris and public primary school pupils in Zaria. Methods A comparative cross-sectional design was utilized to compare 213 Almajiris and 200 public primary school children and adolescents aged between 5 and 19 years. All participants were administered a Socio-demographic questionnaire and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-aged Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Data were analyzed using Chi square tests and logistic regression. Results The current prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Almajiris and public school pupils was 57.7 and 37.0% respectively. After adjusting for age and family characteristics, Almajiris were significantly more likely to have any psychiatric diagnosis, depression, enuresis, substance use, and post traumatic stress disorder but less likely to have separation anxiety disorder than the public school pupils. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among Almajiris and public primary school pupils in Northwest Nigeria than found in other prevalence studies with a significantly higher rate among the Almajiris. Joint efforts need to be made by the Government and Civil Society organizations including religious groups towards reforming the Almajiri education system and the provision of programmes aimed at reducing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in both Almajiris and the school pupils.
... That is, when there is low productivity, output will drop, cost of living will be high, the economy environment will be unstable and unemployment level will be high. In some studies, children labourers are regarded as "street children" or "children of the street" who run away from parental or guardian abuse, leaving them to eke out a living on their own (Aderinto, 2000). This name 'street children' paralyzed them from thinking ahead thus rendering them economically useless and hopeless. ...
... Most times they go through physical and health consequences such as respiratory problems, injuries accidents, physical and sexual abuse such as rape and molestation, malnourishment, extortion of income, police harassment, and participation in harmful or delinquent activities Okeahialam 1984. Child laborers face robbery, inadequate sleep due to fatigue and long hours on the job, and confinement in juvenile homes (Aderinto, 2000;Charles and Charles, 2004). Most times they suffer from mental related sickness such as; stigmatization from the press and public, feelings of disheartenment, stress and irritability, personality disorders and anti-social behavior, and alienation and isolation from their family. ...
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This paper examines the relationship between national income and child labour in Ekiti municipality. Ekiti State is one of the six new states created on 1st October 1996 by the then Provisional Ruling Council. We are particularly interested in evaluating the economic role of children at different stages of development. Our objective is to estimate the effect of economic growth and development, as measured by per capita gross domestic product, on the incidence of child labour in Ekiti metropolis. A stratified random sampling method was carried out in 535 respondents who are found to be involved in child labour through interviews, issuance of questionnaires and focused group discussions. The data obtained from the field were analyzed using Regression analyses and Chi-square (X2) which was run on SPSS to test the level of significant difference. The analyses revealed that 46% child labour is currently practiced in Ekiti Municipality. We recognize the positive correlation between poverty, unemployment, school dropout and child labour. This indicates a negative effect on economic growth in Nigeria as the future of the country is at risk. Child labour may increase or decrease with income. We therefore recommend that government should undertake a mix of activities to raise awareness and combat child labour to tackle the problem of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria. JEL Classification: O1; O2; E24.
... In Nigeria, studies have further showed that close to 26 percent of children between the ages of 10 and 14 years are involved in the trade (ILO, 1990;Bass, 2004;World Bank, 2006). Empirical studies further revealed that most of these children are engaged in retail and domestic duties unlike their counterparts in other continents that are employed in industries and agriculture (Hassan and Debnath, 2000;Aderinto, 2000;Francavilla and Lyon 2002;and Robson, 2004). In response to this challenge, several organizations have taken steps to curb the menace of child labour through awareness programmes, action calls, and prosecution of offenders, to mention a few (Aderinto, 2000, Francavilla andLyon 2002;and Robson, 2004). ...
... Several studies undertaken in the area of child labour (Aderinto, 2000, Francavilla and Lyon 2002, and Robson, 2004 have often focused on the victims (children) alone without a thorough and genuine consideration of other players, usually the employers and traffickers or intermediaries. It becomes important to understand the attitude of the people towards domestic child labour. ...
Article
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The issue of child labour has been a matter of concern across the globe. Several children in some parts of the world have become victims of various abuses such as rape, trafficking, oppression and even death. In response to this, several concerned bodies and groups both at governmental and non-governmental levels have risen to this challenge. In spite of these efforts, one of the areas that pose a challenge is domestic child labour for which eradication and documentation have become problematic. Equally, studies have not paid attention on the employers of these domestic helpers. This study therefore seeks to understand the attitude of employers to domestic helpers, using some civil servants in the six states that constitute southwest Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty-nine (229) copies of questionnaire were purposively distributed among the respondents who engage the services of domestic helpers in the six states. For qualitative data, a total of 30 in-depth interviews were conducted to complement the quantitative data collected. Findings revealed that the employers of domestic helpers were indifferent to efforts made to reduce child labour. Attempts made at curbing domestic child labour may be difficult at the moment. The study suggests how domestic child labour could be reduced, and in the meantime, ameliorate the challenges faced by the domestic helpers.
... The recruiters engage them in street hawking, vending, domestic services, car washing, begging and prostituting. According to Aderinto (2000) and Verma (1999), such children are referred to as "Street children" who left their parents to make living for themselves while Tongunde and Carter (2006) regard some of the street workers as children from legitimate homes who engage in such ventures to aid their immediate families. ...
... Girls appear to be especially vulnerable due to certain traditional practices, stereotyping, and cultural and religious beliefs, which put them at risk for abuse and neglect, particularly in African societies (Alabi, Bahah, & Alabi, 2013). The particular problems facing girls in Nigeria include family abuse and domestic violence, sexual abuse, rejection, neglect, genital mutilation, forced and early marriage, victimization on suspicion of witchcraft, girl-child homicide, forced prostitution, and child labor (Aderinto, 2000(Aderinto, , 2010Alabi & Alabi, 2012;Alabi et al., 2013;Fisho-Orideji, 2001;Ibrahim, 2004;Togunde & Carter, 2008). ...
Article
Child sexual abuse is associated with factors that enhance the vulnerability of the child, raising physical and mental health complications in adulthood. Three hundred and fifty students participated in this cross-sectional study. Important determinants of sexual abuse were parents not living together, not living with parents, family type, and current parents’ marital status (p < 0.05). Respondents living with both parents were two times less likely to experience sexual abuse (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.3, 0.9) than respondents living with their guardians. Respondents whose parents were living together were about two times less likely to experience sexual abuse (OR = 0.6, CI: 0.3–0.9) than respondents whose parents were not living together. Respondents whose parents were either divorced or separated were about six times more likely to experience sexual abuse (OR = 5.6, CI: 1.1–27.2) than respondents with widowed parents. The study showed that parental togetherness protected against child vulnerability and risk of being sexually abused.
... Some families are even not able to satisfy the very basic needs of their children. Poverty and conflicts among the remaining family further increase the risk of children being exposed to neglect and maltreatment (Aderinto, 2000;Human Rights Watch, 2006). Male children are particularly affected by the inheritance-related conflicts and hence %&'()*+!,-!.*/*+'0!1/)+234%)12/! 55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555! ! ...
... This has caused many children to flee their homes to fend for themselves on the street (Alawiye-Adams and Afolabi, 2013). A study conducted in Nigeria revealed that some children deliberately abandon their homes to earn a living because their parents are unable to cater for their basic needs (Aderinto, 2000). Leaving the home becomes a rational decision that children take to ensure their well-being. ...
Book
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How are equity strategies and legislation experienced in local contexts? What specific processes and discourses are relevant for more inclusive educational experiences especially in developing country contexts of the global south? These are complex and problematic questions that linger in contemporary international debates and require wide investigation and critical examination. This book is apt because it offers much in this regard. Bringing together insights from a diverse line-up of contributors, it presents wide-ranging exploration of these questions. Through a rich range of contexts, conditions, subjects, theoretical lenses and empirical evidence, the book contributes significantly to the important debates around social and educational inclusion as well as key arguments against sustained exclusions and social reproduction. (From the Introduction) This book, a collection of 15 quality essays and an insightful introduction, was founded in the International Education and Development programme of the University of Sussex and SEVHAGE Literary and Development Initiative. Contributors include Jennifer Jomafuvwe Agbaire, Su’ur Su’eddie Vershima Agema, Juhi Kumari, Haruka Sano, Endurance Abavo Smart, Tatsuji Shinohara, Swayamsiddha Sahoo, Prashant Singh, Emilia Soto Echeverri, Jennifer Chinenye Emelife, Catherine Hiza, Dorji Lhamo, Tia Han, India Connolly, Kikelomo Ladipo and Onyinye Nkwocha.
... Out of the children interviewed by Salako, 25% said they work to earn money needed by their parents, 67.3% earn money needed for school fees, while 2.8% said it was to begin a trade. Okojie (1987), Oruwari (1996) and Aderinto (2000) link the phenomenon of child labour to socio-economic background and conclude that poverty is the major cause of child labour and low socio-economic background. This study was conducted without the causal link of parents' socio-economic background to child labour. ...
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Biology is an important school subject to students who aspire to be scientists. Trends of students’ performance in external examinations indicated that less than 50% of candidates usually pass the subject at a minimum of credit level. Empirical studies on the causes have focused largely on teachers’ ineffectiveness and inadequate learning and teaching facilities. The extent to which home, school participation and students’ engagement in child labour activities contribute to underachievement in senior secondary school biology have not been well investigated especially in a structural equation modeling context. Therefore, an 18-variable structural equation model comprising variables of home (parents’ location, cultural value, educational background, employment status, occupation, income, family type and size), child labour (timing and frequency of labour, parents’ attention to students’ need and provision of learning materials), school participation (punctuality, attendance, home and class assignment) and students’ achievement in biology was developed. This was with a view to establishing causal relationship among the variables and to determine the direct and indirect effects of each of the variables on students’ achievement in biology. Ex-Post facto design was adopted for the study. Three states- Ogun, Osun and Oyo- were randomly selected from among states that have state capitals with distinct urban and rural areas. The selected capitals were stratified along location (urban/rural), while 21.0% of the secondary schools from each location were selected randomly. Twenty five senior students who engaged in academically detrimental labour activities were randomly selected from each sampled schools. Six validated instruments, namely Cultural Value (r=0.73) and Parental Involvement in Students’ Academic (r=0.71) questionnaires; Socio-Economic Status (r=0.68), School Participation (r=0.78) and Labour Participation Screening (r=0.85) scales and Biology Achievement Test (r=0.81) were developed. Data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation and Path analytical procedure of Structural equation modeling at 0.05 level of significance. Among home variables, educational background (r=0.67), cultural values r=0.28), parental location (r=0.16), occupation (r=0.08), income (r=0.05) and family size (r=-0.02) had significant relationship with students’ achievement in biology. From the child labour variables, students’ frequency (r=-0.35) and timing (r=-0.16) of participation in detrimental labour activities had significant relationship with students’ achievement in biology. Attendance (r=0.45), punctuality (r=-0.34) and class assignment (r=0.31) were school participation variables that significantly influenced achievement in biology. The model fit of Chi Square (χ2 (df=97)=113.72 which is an indication of good fit, with Goodness of fit index of 0.94, Normed fit index of 0.95 and Comparative fit index of 0.99 was established. Moreover, 77% of the causal effects in the model were direct effect, while 23% were indirect. Educational background, cultural values, parental location, and timing and frequency of participation in detrimental child labour activities inhibited students’ achievement in biology in the south – west, Nigeria. Therefore, parents should be enlightened on the negative impact of child labour on students’ academic achievement and other school activities.
... Some of them are even lured into armed robbery and thuggery. Scholars among whom are Aderinto (2000), Charles andCharles 2004 andAgu (2015); believed that child labourers face robbery, inadequate rest and sleep, stress and irritability, personality disorder and other anti-social behaviours. ...
Article
The study explores the correlations between child labour and poverty alleviation among the low-income earners in Kwara State, Nigeria. Survey design and purposive sampling method were employed to select the respondents from the 3 Senatorial districts of Kwara state. The Chi-square (X2 ) method of dataanalyses then used to analyze the data obtained. The result is a 2x2 table is taken a degree of freedom of (r-1) (k-1) = 1 at 5% level of significance, X2t = 3.84 and �X2c = 0.17. Since the X2t> X2c, it shows that a relationship exists between child labour and poverty reduction in Kwara state. The study concluded that governments, at the federal and state levels, are yet to live up to their expectations. Their inability to provide jobs for graduates have discouraged most of the children to have an interest in schooling. Therefore, the government should provide a potent economic environment that will encourage those with genuine ideas to engage in promising economic activities. This will lift a lot of low-income earners to higher pedigree. Similarly, parent/guardians in the low-income groups should be encouraged that extra efforts in assisting their children not to engage in child labour but schooling as a future investment with a higher rate of return.
... Diğer bir anlatımla, birden çok kez suç işlemiş olanların çoğunun aile ilişkilerinin olumsuz olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu bulgular fazla kardeşe sahip olma, kalabalık ailede yetişme veya tamamen aileden yoksun olma (yetiştirme yurdunda olma), ailesi ile yaşasa da ilişkilerinin iyi olmaması, aile bağlarının kopmuş olmasının çocuk/ergenleri suça yatkınlığı artırdığı yönündeki literatür bilgisi ile paralellik göstermektedir.[3][4][5][6][7]12 Benzer şekilde Gökten, suça karıştığı iddia edilen çocukların %44.2'sinin üç ve daha fazla kardeşe sahip olduğunu ve %58.9'unun anne-babası ile birlikte yaşadığını;15 Göker ve arkadaşları olguların %60.2'sinin 4 ve fazla kardeşe sahip olduğunu ve %5'inin yuvada yetiştiğini bildirmişlerdir.17 ...
Article
Objective: The study was conducted to determine the profiles of the children pushed into crime who treated in psychiatric hospital between the years of 2010-2014. Methods: The study, designed as a Retrospective cohort, was conducted by examining the file records of 144 adolescents/children pushed into crime. These outpatient or inpatient adolescents / children were treated as forensic case in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Inpatient Units in a regional psychiatric hospital between the years of 2010-2014. Results: 79.9% of investigated cases were men and their average age was 15.33±1.54. It was determined that 59.0% of the cases did not attend school while the treatment period because of the legal cause and 13.2% of these cases worked as a laborer before. 65.3 % them living with their family. Of 72.2% adolescents have negative relationship with their family. 11.8% of adolescents fathers’ have alcohol-substance and 4.9% of adolescent fathers’ have abuse and legal problems. 70.8% adolescents have committed crimes for the first time and 18.8% of hem has repeated crime stories. It was deter-mined that adolescents who have migration story and bad family relationships in their past involved in the crimes. Conclusion: It was determined that many of the adolescents pushed in to crime have mental disorder, their academic success and parents’ educational level are low, they have past migration story and the adolescents having a negative family relationships commit repetitive crime. © 2016, Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine. All rights reserved.
... The International Labour Organization or ILO (2002) estimates that there are 48 million children in sub-Saharan Africa who are economically active in the 10-to 14-yearold age group, representing 20% to 30% of the children, a higher percentage than anywhere else in the world (Adamassie, 2003). The economic work of children often correlates with poverty (Aderinto, 2000;Adamassie, 2003) and poverty is widespread in Africa. According to the Bureau of International Labour Affairs (1998), children in domestic service constitute the most common form of urban child labour in developing countries. ...
Article
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The employment of domestic servants is a common phenomenon in Nigeria, where vulnerable children are internally trafficked to work as domestic servants in affluent urban households. While scholars have investigated the push factors aiding the demand for child domestic servants in West Africa, attempts to understand the dynamics underlying the demand are scarce. Hence, this study investigated factors that propel demand for domestic servants in Oyo State. The data were generated using both the quantitative and qualitative methods. The results show three categories of employers: newly married women, married women with grown-up children, and isolated widows and grandparents. The demand is driven by role dualism, workload, and the need for companionship. The incipient decline in the extended family structure of social exchange system (fostering) and preference for “outsiders” rather than family members justify the demand for and use of domestic servants. The study recommended welfare programmes targeted at demanding households and an intervention strategy for the trafficked children.
... Children in sub-Saharan Africa report a variety of reasons for leaving home: lack of food and basic necessities, emotional neglect, being unwanted by stepparents, abuse from parents or caregivers, as well as a desire for independence and work opportunities (Ballet, Bhukuth, & Radja, 2013;Kaime-Atterhög & Ahlberg, 2008;Plummer et al., 2007;Sorber et al., 2014;Young, 2004). Coming from households that are poor, large in size, lack one or both parents, contain polygynous fathers, are low in support, in which there is violence or alcohol abuse, and in which parents have lower education predicts children's migration to the street (Aderinto, 2000;Ballet et al., 2013;McAlpine, Henley, Mueller, & Vetter, 2010;Sorber et al., 2014;Sorre & Oino, 2013;Strobbe, Olivetti, & Jacobson, 2013;Veale & Donà, 2003). ...
Article
Globally, study of factors contributing to the street-migration of the tens of millions of street-involved children focus almost exclusively on children’s perspectives. In this study, we assess household and maternal factors associated with street-migration of children through self-report of 1974 randomly selected women in semi-rural Kenya. Contributing new perspectives on this global phenomenon, data show a statistically significant association between increased maternal childhood adversities and street-migration of children (p < 0.001). Higher household wealth (p < 0.01) and maternal education (p < 0.05) were associated with lower odds of street-migration of children. Social support, reporting HIV+, school enrollment of biologically-related children, overall health, reported alcohol use, and functional literacy significantly mediated these pathways. Protecting children from street-migration in the next generation requires reducing childhood adversities in the present generation.
... Like all other children although they have the basic rights to develop, survive and thrive, they encounter innumerable problems and their predicaments are shocking and surprisingly most of the people in Bangladesh even do not "bat an eye at street children sleeping in the midafternoon sun" [9]. So now it is time to let their plight be known to all to let the conscience of humanity revolt [10][11][12][13]. According to Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, among a total child population (5-17 years old) of 42.39 million the total number of working children in urban areas of Bangladesh is estimated 1.5 million. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to shed light on the predicaments of the thrown away children in their ongoing social life and also their situational analysis of basic and human rights in Bangladesh. The primary aim of this study is coming to fight the response of communities, the UNICEF, the ILO and many social and human rights organizations about the thrown away children in Bangladesh and the second aimis drawing successful strategies to make exploitation free life on the basis of the existing laws to eradicate the child abuse arranging safe childhood.
... Studies conducted in Nigeria, Columbia, Ethiopia, Afghanistan and Brazil put forward that street children are between 9-12 years old (16,19). The mean age of children in this study was 12.7 years. ...
... In urban cities, they expose themselves to risky behaviors by living on the streets and becoming involved with street-based survival activities such as garbage picking, begging, petty theft, and survival sex. [3][4][5][6] Since some of these activities could be illegal or are stigmatized, SCYs may experience public harassment and/or police violence. [6][7][8] Moreover, these behaviors also initiate psychosocial issues and mental health problems, and place them at risk of accidental injury, malnutrition, and diseases, particularly sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. ...
Article
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A disproportionate number of street children use and inject drugs and engage in survival sex as coping mechanisms. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of drug use, injecting drugs, survival sex, and condom use and determinants associated with these behaviors among street children. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2016 with an aim to sample 350 street children and youths in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Information about sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drugs, sexual risk behaviors, and biological specimens for HIV testing were obtained. The logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants associated with drug use, injecting drugs, survival sex, and condom use during last sex. Variables that were significantly associated with being a current drug user (versus never) in the presence of other variables included being a rag picker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.73-5.9), history of imprisonment (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.21-4.04), alcohol consumption (AOR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.46-4.84), and solvent sniffing (AOR = 5.12; 95% CI = 2.74-9.59). Variables that were significantly predictive of injecting drugs (versus never) in the presence of other variables include being 17 years old (AOR = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.11-10.55) and being a rag picker (AOR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.25-9.75). Variables that were significantly associated with having survival sex (versus never) in the presence of other variables include being 17 years old (AOR = 3.58; 95% CI = 1.31-9.81) and having forced sex (AOR = 9.62; 95% CI = 3.21-28.8). Drug use and survival sex are major coping mechanisms among street children in Kathmandu Valley and are associated with many risk behaviors. Targeted programs should be implemented to meet their special needs.
... Agarwal (1999) estimated that India was a home to about 20 million street children (approximately 7% of the child population). There is, however, no census data available for street children since they constitute a floating population (Adeyinka, 2000). Every child during the span of development runs several risks to his/her healthy development. ...
Article
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A street child is any girl or boy for whom the street has become his or her habitual abode or a source of livelihood, and who worked on the street and went home to their families at night. The scenario of street children is considered to be the most important problem facing both developed and developing societies. Street children constitute a snubbed group as they are the product of economic growth, war, poverty, loss of traditional values, domestic violence, physical and mental abuse. Every street child has a reason for being on the streets, and the present study was an endeavor to analyze the reasons or causes of a child on the streets. The research work was an exertion to highlight the socio-economic problems faced by the street children in Jammu and Kashmir with special reference to Srinagar district. Street children are the most perceptible fragment of our society, deprived with vital services like education and health care, and the most difficult to protect. They become the victim of all forms of exploitation and abuse, and their daily lives are likely to be very different from the idyllic childhood. The findings of the study divulge that there are many reasons for children to decide to leave their homes: poverty, disagreement at home, disintegration in family, unable to pay school fee and to find jobs.
... (Haseeb,Age 14, Having little or no supervision and experiencing no emotional attachment due to their fragile connection with family is a vital reason for children's involvement in such activities. A common notion about street-connected children is that poverty pushes them to the street (Huston, McLoyd, and Coll 1994;Aderinto 2000;Ahmed et al. 2003;Conticini and Hulme 2007;Ahmed et al. 2011;Uddin et al. 2014). Our findings showed that apart from one or two respondents, the children were from low income families and many of these children were from single mother families, either their father died or abandoned their family. ...
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Analyzing the situation in Dhaka, Bangladesh before the national election of 2014, this paper explores the consequences of political hostility on street-connected children using qualitative methods such as focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Findings show that the children were affected by political violence, both as victims and perpetrators, which harmed them, both physically and mentally. Active participation of children was found in hostile political events. The paper ascertains that maintaining a good relationship with the adult world is crucial for the street-connected children’s day-to-day survival. However, this survival mechanism with the adult world in turn makes them vulnerable and forced them to act as miscreants to instigate violence during the hartals (strikes) and blockades of 2014. This study examines how street-connected children are exploited via their social networks during the times of political unrest.
Article
This article reports on street children's experiences of going to the street, survival on the street, experiences of involvement in criminal activities, and intervention and detention programmes. A qualitative research approach was selected for the research project. Data were collected by means of story-telling. Data were analysed and verified according to the guidelines suggested by Creswell (1998). Findings indicated that participants experienced material, social and emotional deprivation as "push" factors for going to the streets. Survival depended on begging and repeated involvement in crime. Interventions and detention were not experienced as motivation for a change in lifestyle.
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For the umpteenth time various programs have been developed in response to the problems of street children in Indonesia. The government has officially attempted to address the problems through a number of avenues. However, the overall effort appears to be cursory at best. Only a small number of street children seem to benefit from the official programs, while the number of this population continues to climb. In spite of the failures of previous programs, the government seems to be reluctant to change its position and to undertake alternative approaches in addressing the problems of street children. Intervention programs for street children in Indonesia, in the provincial and regional levels, are uniformly developed in the form of national programs. Consequently, local culture and knowledge are not adequately reflected in the framework and approaches that the provincial and regional governments bring to the implementation of programs for street children. This severely reduces the value and impact of the programs. Drawing from an extensive case study on the intervention programs for street children in Yogyakarta Province, this study explores the major problems surrounding the national intervention programs for street children in Indonesia. It focuses on how national policy and programs are implemented at the provincial and regional levels. For this purpose, this study employed a qualitative approach and used a twofold research methodology, a combination of analyzing the pertinent documentation relating to policy and programs for street children along with serial interviews conducted with key informants from government offices and non-governmental institutions (NGOs). Kata kunci: Anak jalanan, intervensi, reunifikasi
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For a girl child to become a proper and useful adult, she needs both informal and qualitative formal educations. These will enable her to develop her mind, intellects and skills to be able to contribute meaningfully to her society. The purpose of this study was to investigate the statistical analysis of educational challenges of girl- 381 child education in Southwestern Nigeria. Descriptive research design of ex-post-facto was used in the study. Six hundred (600) respondents were selected from three (3) selected states in southwestern Nigeria (i.e., Ogun state, Oyo state and Lagos state). The respondents were measured with relevant adapted standardized scale (instruments) and the data obtained was analyzed using simple percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistical analysis. Three (3) research questions were raised and answered in the study. The result showed that educational challenges among girl-child was at the high side with about 67.9% in terms of domestic violence, prostitution and psychological among others, there was significant relationship between religious belief (r= .734; p<0.05), cultural value (r= .691; p<0.05) and girl-child education. In view of these findings, the study recommended that government at all levels should take appropriate legislative, budgetary and other necessary measures towards the full realization of the right of every child to free quality education, especially, the girl-child.
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The paper aimed at studying the perceptions of street children towards the nature of their parents and their interaction pattern with p arents, siblings and friends. The study was conducted on a sample of 160 children (9-12 years) equally distributed over gender. V as conducted in various crowded places of Ludhiana city. The sample comprising of 160 home based street children (9-12 years) equally distributed over gender was purposively selected using snowball sampling technique from various crowded places such as railway station, bus depots, bus stops, traffic lights, market places, temples, etc. A Self-structured Interview Schedule was administered to study the interaction pattern of street children with their parents, siblings and friends and their perceptions about the nature of their parents. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Perceptions of street children towards the nature of parents
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Background: Child labour deprives children of their childhood potentials, mental and social development. It is very common in our communities and exposes them to so many dangers. Aim: To evaluate the practice and hazards of street hawking among children in UmunaOrlu South East Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which data was collected from one hundred and fifty child hawkers in UmunaOrlu using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires. The data was collated and analyzed using Microsoft excel package. Results were presented in frequency tables, bar charts and pie charts. Results: Most of the child hawker 89(59.3%) were within the age group of 9 to 13years with females 87 (58%) being in the majority. Most of the children attained only primary education 111 (74%), with 84 (56%) of them living with both parents. Food and other edibles were the most commonly hawked items 109(72.4%). Twenty-four (48%) hawked their wares after school hours while 25 (50%) hawked all through the day. Twenty-four have experienced sexual harassments, out of which 6 were complicated by unwanted pregnancy. Besides, 120 expressed discontent with hawking while 51 of them have been involved in one accident or another. Conclusion: The burden of child hawking with its attendant hazards in Orlu are quite enormous. Relevant legislations against this menace and strict enforcement of such laws are recommended.
Article
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Background: Child labour deprives children of their childhood potentials, mental and social development. It is very common in our communities and exposes them to so many dangers. Aim: To evaluate the practice and hazards of street hawking among children in UmunaOrlu South East Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which data was collected from one hundred and fifty child hawkers in UmunaOrlu using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires. The data was collated and analyzed using Microsoft excel package. Results were presented in frequency tables, bar charts and pie charts. Results: Most of the child hawker 89(59.3%) were within the age group of 9 to 13years with females 87 (58%) being in the majority. Most of the children attained only primary education 111 (74%), with 84 (56%) of them living with both parents. Food and other edibles were the most commonly hawked items 109(72.4%). Twenty-four (48%) hawked their wares after school hours while 25 (50%) hawked all through the day. Twenty-four have experienced sexual harassments, out of which 6 were complicated by unwanted pregnancy. Besides, 120 expressed discontent with hawking while 51 of them have been involved in one accident or another. Conclusion: The burden of child hawking with its attendant hazards in Orlu are quite enormous. Relevant legislations against this menace and strict enforcement of such laws are recommended.
Article
Objective: This is a semi-experimental study designed with control-experimental groups aiming to determine the efficiency of program dealing with help adolescents predisposed to crime for developing positive interpersonal relationship. The universe of the study includes 95 adolescents who were registered to the child bureau of Ödemiş County Police Center and the entire universe was decided to be included in the sample. Research was carried out with 60 adolescents who accepted the study. Methods: Adolescents were applied information form, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and Interpersonal Relationship Scale at first. Adolescents were divided into control and experiment groups (each groups has 30 adolescents) according to the scores they obtained from scales, age, gender, family type, school attendance status and the classes they attend. Interviews were made for adolescents in the experiment group according to their needed. Interviews that made with each of adolescent were completed in around three weeks, 180 hours. The adolescents whose interviews were finished were applied scales again. The adolescents in the control group were applied the same scales three weeks later. Findings: It was found that all of adolescents were subjected to disciplinary punishment due to fighting. 38.4% expressed that they share their problems with their mothers, 68.4% stated that their relations with their families were 'good' and %3.4 of them stated that they are misunderstood. When the determine the scores of the adolescents in Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and Interpersonal Relationship Scale total difficulty score was found to be 13.26±4.56, nourishing interpersonal score 30.45±7.23, and poisoning interpersonal relationships score 13.06±6.34. If we consider that the cutoff point of scale, it may be said that adolescents received scores within 'normal' range. In the adolescents in the experiment group, after intervention, statistically significant decrease was found in total difficulty score and poisoning interpersonal relationships style compared to their previous scores (p<0.05) and increase was found in social behaviors and nourishing interpersonal style scores (p>0.05). No significant change was observed in the control group as no intervention was made (p>0.05).When the relation between the socio-demographic characteristics of the adolescents and their rate of benefiting from the program was investigated, it was found those girls and adolescents who share their problem with friends were benefited more from the program. Discussion: The positive means of changing in score that obtained by experiments groups adolescent shows that program was benefit. The result corrected the opinion that was enlisted to professional helping, support, and safe environment can be help them to solve their problem in spite of living problems in childhood, attaining negative behavior.
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Background: Today developed and developing countries are facing the problem posed by street children. The continuous and unrestrained exposure to the street and its associated lifestyles makes these children vulnerable to a range of health, social, and other problems. Objective: The aim of the present work was to assess the profile of street children and their living condition from different aspects, in addition to assessment of some psychological disorders among them. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 street boys present at El-Horreya institute for Children Community Development, which is a non-governmental organization in Alexandria. An equal control group of 50 school boys were selected at random from the first and second grades of one governmental boys preparatory school of the Middle District of Alexandria. Every child was subjected to an interviewing questionnaire. The Arabic version of Revised Ontario Child Health study scale, children Depression Inventory and the Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory,were used to identify children with conduct disorder, depression, and assess self-esteem, respectively. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured for each street child and BMI was calculated. Results: The present study revealed that more than half of street children (58.0%) came from large size families, about three-quarters (72.0%) reported insufficient income, most of them had low educated parents and unskilled fathers, 80.0% reported not living with both parents before coming to the institute, and 91.2% reported bad inter-parental relationship. Family history of drug abuse, alcohol intake, smoking, and imprison were significantly higher among street children compared to school children (p
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In virtually every corner of the globe one can find children who have been abandoned or, for various reasons, have made the street their home. Street children are by no means all alike, and counting them worldwide remains exceedingly difficult. In some societies they are highly visible and numerous. But in others they are largely hidden from public view and remain largely anonymous. The central topic of this discussion is the question: “Why are they there?” The varieties of young people commonly found on the streets of the world are described, statistical estimates of their numbers provided, and an inside look at the real children behind these numbers is offered. Focus is on the diverse factors and processes worldwide that forced these children to make the street their abode and the survival strategies they have adapted. The unique social networks these children have devised in various societies to help them survive are analyzed. Being abandoned, or lacking the protection of family and adults, street children everywhere are subjected to numerous and unrelenting victimizations from authorities, exploitative employers, sundry adults, and fellow street children often making their lives short and miserable. Instances of these victimizations are described in depth. Few societies have systematic and organized programs to reduce their numbers or help them, especially in those countries where the need is greatest. Barriers to meaningfully eradicating the problem worldwide are addressed. Programs in some countries that show some promise in alleviating the misery of homeless children are described.
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Importance A systematic compilation of children and youth’s reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth. Objective To systematically analyze the self-reported reasons why children and youth around the world become street-involved and to analyze the available data by level of human development, geographic region, and sex. Data Sources Electronic searches of Scopus, PsychINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, PubMed, ERIC, and the Social Sciences Citation Index were conducted from January 1, 1990, to the third week of July 2013. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for studies that reported quantitative reasons for street involvement. The following broad search strategy was used to search the databases: “street children” OR “street youth” OR “homeless youth” OR “homeless children” OR “runaway children” OR “runaway youth” or “homeless persons.” Study Selection Studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) participants were 24 years of age or younger, (2) participants met our definition of street-connected children and youth, and (3) the quantitative reasons for street involvement were reported. We reviewed 318 full texts and identified 49 eligible studies. Data Extraction and Synthesis Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. We fit logistic mixed-effects models to estimate the pooled prevalence of each reason and to estimate subgroup pooled prevalence by development level or geographic region. The meta-analysis was conducted from February to August 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures We created the following categories based on the reported reasons in the literature: poverty, abuse, family conflict, delinquency, psychosocial health, and other. Results In total, there were 13 559 participants from 24 countries, of which 21 represented developing countries. The most commonly reported reason for street involvement was poverty, with a pooled-prevalence estimate of 39% (95% CI, 29%-51%). Forty-seven studies included in this review reported family conflict as the reason for street involvement, with a pooled prevalence of 32% (95% CI, 26%-39%). Abuse was equally reported in developing and developed countries as the reason for street involvement, with a pooled prevalence of 26% (95% CI, 18%-35%). Delinquency was the least frequently cited reason overall, with a pooled prevalence of 10% (95% CI, 5%-20%). Conclusions and Relevance The street-connected children and youth who provided reasons for their street involvement infrequently identified delinquent behaviors for their circumstances and highlighted the role of poverty as a driving factor. They require support and protection, and governments globally are called on to reduce the socioeconomic inequities that cause children and youth to turn to the streets in the first place, in all regions of the world.
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The girl-child is a young female child, they however often used to be in great danger in the places where they should be thoughtfully safe. It is indeed glaring that rape and sexual violence reported cases are shocking and disturbing with the female gender affecting in the humiliation and harassment in Nigerian society today. It appears that everyday girls and women are sexually being violated and raped. This paper examines the situation of the girl child and the several cultural and socioeconomic factors that could contributes to the raising the vulnerability of the girl child to violence, rape and how the future could be secured for the girl child through good governance. Following this, the paper therefore observes the consequences of these vulnerability-enhancing risk factors among girls children. The study relied on secondary data which involve the use of content analysis of the data, a field research to observed court cases on rapes and sexual violence and interview with some relevant people on the subject matter. The study found that good governance which entails rule of law, child protections services and sex-education would help to secure the future of the girl-child.
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As emphasized in previous chapters, education is considered by children as one of the most important dimension of their well-being. The intrinsic and instrumental value of education and its role in children’s evolving capabilities means it is often at centre of policy approaches for children (for example, as in the Millennium Development Goals). The aim of this chapter is to apply the capability approach (CA) framework in order to assess policies towards education and, in particular, access to education.
Article
Background: Child labour deprives children of their childhood potentials, mental and social development. It is very common in our communities and exposes them to so many dangers. Aim: To evaluate the practice and hazards of street hawking among children in UmunaOrlu South East Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which data was collected from one hundred and fifty child hawkers in UmunaOrlu using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires. The data was collated and analyzed using Microsoft excel package. Results were presented in frequency tables, bar charts and pie charts. Results: Most of the child hawker 89(59.3%) were within the age group of 9 to 13years with females 87 (58%) being in the majority. Most of the children attained only primary education 111 (74%), with 84 (56%) of them living with both parents. Food and other edibles were the most commonly hawked items 109(72.4%). Twenty-four (48%) hawked their wares after school hours while 25 (50%) hawked all through the day. Twenty-four have experienced sexual harassments, out of which 6 were complicated by unwanted pregnancy. Besides, 120 expressed discontent with hawking while 51 of them have been involved in one accident or another. Conclusion: The burden of child hawking with its attendant hazards in Orlu are quite enormous. Relevant legislations against this menace and strict enforcement of such laws are recommended.
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p>The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has labelled street children as “children in difficult circumstances”, who represent a minority population that has been under-represented for too long in health research. This a concern because street children are at risk of carrying a greater disease burden. Their homeless lifestyle makes them more vulnerable to health risks and problems than children who live at home; as they roam the streets begging for food and money to obtain basic needs and are found sleeping in half-destroyed houses, abandoned basements, under bridges and in the open air. This paper presents health results from a systematic review of literature from 17 databases and including 16 countries in Africa. The review revealed that there are more boys than girls living on the street in their adolescence and who mainly have left home due to poverty and abuse. These children in these countries are vulnerable to poor health due to factors such as homelessness, risky sexual behaviour, substance abuse and violence. Among the health problems identified are growth and nutritional disorders, physical injuries, violence, sexual abuse, communicable diseases including diarrhoeal diseases, malaria, respiratory diseases, neglected tropical diseases, mental health issues, substance abuse, reproductive health disorders, mortality, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. Primary interventions that could prevent poor health and improve the health status of street children include provision of safe shelter, proper nutrition, access to health care, health education, and sexual reproductive health, protection from any form of abuse, violence and substance abuse. Enforcing state policies and laws in all African countries is required to protect street children from neglect, abuse and to increase their access to education. More research on the health risks and health status of street children is still required, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, which carries the greatest disease burden and poverty.</p
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This chapter is about childhood adversities and the problems and mental health of street children, child laborers, and child slaves and soldiers. It describes intolerable and worse distressing aspects of child deprivation that are complex, social, cultural, political, and economical in nature; that often overlap as the different categories or types can be mutually inclusive and difficult to differentiate; or they are hard to understand the constraints of the constructs thereof; are controversial in terms of their impact on child development and mental health; and more importantly, to anybody they stimulate evoke variable responses and a range of thresholds of emotive issues such as degrees of acceptability, child rights, ethics, and morals (ILO 2015; Geneva 2015; Liebel 2015; Munthali 2018; Myers 2001). These constructs in this chapter referring to street children, child laborers, child slaves, and soldiers are dealt with separately in more detail. Finally, this chapter cites some examples of what works in improving the lives of child laborers, street children, and child slaves and soldiers.
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The authors introduce the extent and longevity of non-domiciled children and youth. While multiple definitions are presented, the authors divide the current status of non domiciled youth by homeless youth in the developed world and street children in the developing world. The origins of homeless youth are related to abuse. They are older than street children, more likely to come from middle class families, and equal in gender. A necessary condition of street children is poverty; several other factors are important including abuse, neglect, and historical and cultural context. Nor are all street children are on the street solely because of psychological reasons. Many are there because they are poor and being on the street is one way of coping with poverty by finding income generating sources. Many other street children are victims of war and natural disasters. Others are stateless. Comparisons and differences between street children and working children are introduced. For example, street children and homeless youth often rebel against authoritarian parents.
Article
This paper utilizes a 2002 datasets gathered through interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine the dangers and hazards reported by children who work in the urban economy. Findings indicate that slightly over half of interviewed child laborers are female; they begin work as early as age 7; and work for an average of 4 hours a day in order to contribute financially to the sustenance of the family; and to acquire training needed in future occupations. The children come mostly from large households of about 6 persons, where many of their parents have low levels of education, income, and occupational statuses. Furthermore, because the sample is urban based, children come mostly from nuclear and monogamous households. A significant percentage of working children are involved in motor accidents, face attempted kidnapping, rape, and sexual molestation. Many are also invited by gangsters to participate in robbery and anti-social activities. Others suffer from physical exhaustion and pains due to frequent long walks. These health problems have detrimental effects on children’s school attendance, punctuality, school performance, and leisure time. This study has policy implications for regulating child labor in Nigeria.
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This article reports that studies show that humans tend to fall sick when they realize that their social network has been narrowed or broken. In this study two qualitative techniques were used: participant observation and in-depth interviews, ethnographic of reference. Seventeen adolescents were interviewed. The systems observed were composed of different social segments that ranged from family, school, health services, specific institutions for people in streets circumstances, police, trading sector, trafficking and even the itinerant, passersby, drivers (especially the headlights) and the"brothers" of the street. For these adolescents the situation of vulnerability in the family environment appears to contribute to the early use of drugs. Glue has emerged as the substance mostly used by adolescents in street circumstances. Thus, it is essential to emphasize the responsibility of social networks to help families, children and adolescents decreasing the social detachment and reducing social inequalities in Brazil.
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The aim of this study was to shed light on the predicaments of the street children in their street life, their coping mechanism in response to innumerable problems and survival status. Pondering the gravity of the research topic qualitative method with the juxtaposition of FGDs (focus group discussion) and case studies was employed to generate descriptive data. With the organizational support of Underprivileged Children's Educational Programs (UCEP) 4 FGDs were administered on a total respondent size of 74 beneficiary and non-beneficiary street children in Mirpur and Lalbagh areas in the Dhaka city of Bangladesh. Meanwhile, 9 case studies were conducted that gave extra flavour in the research to present more vivid and cross-checked data. The findings drew the flamboyant picture of the ongoing endangered livelihood mostly and mainly triggered by poverty, insecurity, powerlessness, weak or no social network and social capital, insufficient institutional support etc. Since the respondents lacked proper capabilities to secure a descent job, they had to endure oppression, torture, insecurity and other problems to survive on the streets. Drawing upon their problems this research finally dismantled some specific coping mechanisms adopted by the street children whether by avoidance of or approach to the predicaments and stress they face to survive on the street.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This paper describes research on the perceptions of 60 teenage runaways and 50 nonrunaways (controls) re conflicts with parents conducted at The Ohio State University during 1972-73. A Value Issue Scale recorded teenage perceptions of conflicts dichotomized under major versus minor issues. Responses on the 39-item scale were grouped to test four hypothetical statements. Runaways identified more items as major issues and reported more conflicts with parents on all items except one—going to college. Intensified perceptions of conflict among runaways indicated deficiencies in positive reinforcement. Findings suggested the need for parents to "listen" during confrontations with teenagers.
Article
RESEARCH on runaway children in America has, to date, offered limited help to practitioners who work with such young people and their families. A typology that will facilitate the organization of factual data is needed. Using a broad historical perspective, this article analyzes the development of the problem and recent dramatic increases in the number of runaways. A typology is presented that classifies runaways according to the level of alienation between child and family and the degree to which the child has internalized running as a response to stressful situations. Treatment suggestions appropriate to each category are discussed.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Results indicate that factors contributing to conflict vary significantly depending upon the sex of the child. (Author)
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This book is an attempt to bring together the body of practical experience in the treatment of maladjusted children which clinicians have been accumulating during the past 15 years. 2 chapters are devoted to a discussion of the most usable diagnostic procedures for understanding the child. The remainder of the book takes up and critically evaluates the treatment methods used by professional workers in the clinical, social work, and educational fields. The use of the facilities of the school, the recreational group, and the camp in the treatment of the individual child; the techniques of changing harmful parental and family attitudes; the methods of conducting various levels of treatment interviews; the use of foster home placement and institutional care—these and other avenues of treatment are discussed. Criteria are given to assist in the intelligent selection of treatment methods in the case of a particular child. The book summarizes clinical experience and available research regarding each type of treatment, and contains up-to-date bibliographies permitting further study of each topic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The study examines adolescent drinking customs in the context of the informal social structure of the high school. Teenage drinking behavior was also examined in relationship to demographic variables and parental use of alcoholic beverages. The study identified a mosaic adolescent society consisting of eight informal social status subgroups with contrasting and often hostile values, attitudes, and leisure-time patterns. A highly significant (p < .001) relationship was found between the students' subgroup membership and drinking category. Parental alcohol use also was related to teenagers' use (p < .001), and interesting variations were identified when teenage drinking behavior was studied in relationship to demographic factors.
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Discusses the problem of youth who run away from home because they are abused or neglected and the role of alternative youth services in dealing with these adolescents. (SS)
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between runaway behavior in adolescence and an adolescent's self-concept and antecedent parental treatment. The Cornell Parent Behavior Questionnaire and the Adjective Check List were used to assess 47 runaways and a matched group of non-runaways. Analyses of the data indicated: (a) runaway adolescents report more punishment and less support from their parents; (b) runaway girls report the most and runaway boys the least degrees of parental control; (c) runaways hold a less favorable self-concept, specifically on the dimensions of anxiety, self-doubt, poor interpersonal relationships, and defensiveness; (d) runaways also manifest, as an aspect of the self, a readiness for counseling.
Article
This study combined a treatment sample (n = 127) and a control sample (n = 114) of adolescents (ages 13-17) to investigate the relationship between adolescent peer groups and incidence of psychosocial problems. A content analysis resulted in four separate types of peer groups. The group with the lowest level of involvement in school activities was labeled by other adolescents in negative terms. An analysis of variance indicated that the least involved and most negatively labeled group generally had the most positive attitudes toward alcohol and drug use, the lowest levels of perceived harm due to alcohol and drug use, and the highest levels of alcohol abuse, drug use, delinquency, and depression. This group also had the lowest level of self-esteem, most external locus of control, least perceived access to occupational opportunities, and highest level of societal estrangement. The results are interpreted as providing support for both control and labeling theories. Implications for theory-based intervention are discussed.
Article
Typologies provide a tool for improving diagnosis of runaway proneness among adolescents. Researchers have found several clusters of personal and situational variables which are characteristic of runaways to a much greater extent than nonrunaways. Also highlighted are the results of the author's qualitative research on suburban runaways. The study develops a five-point continuum of parent-youth conflict. This article views the integration of typologies of runaways as an important first step in the development of basic assessment tools for adolescent clients.
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Running away and its associated behavior is one of the few ways in which an adolescent girl may act out. In a treatment-oriented Court Clinic, a study was made of runaway girls from an essentially middle-class area. The suggested dynamics revolved around family interaction, in which there was a threatened unconscious incestuous relationship with the father incited by the mother. Subsequent acting out of the unresolved Oedipal conflict through running away represents an attempted solution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Street-children: An assessment of predisposing factors in Ibadan metropolis
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