Article

Maltreatment and Disabilities: A Population-Based Epidemiological Study

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Abstract

To assess the prevalence of abuse and neglect among a population of children identified as a function of an existing disability, relate specific types of disabilities to specific types of abuse, and to determine the effect of abuse and neglect on academic achievement and attendance rates for children with and without disabilities. An electronic merger of school records with Central Registry, Foster Care Review Board, and police databases was followed by a detailed record review of the circumstances of maltreatment. Analyses of the circumstances of maltreatment and the presence of disabilities established a 9% prevalence rate of maltreatment for nondisabled children and a 31% prevalence rate for the disabled children. Thus, the study established a significant association between the presence of an educationally relevant disability and maltreatment. Children with disabilities are 3.4 times more likely to be maltreated than nondisabled peers. School professionals need to be cognizant of the high base rate of maltreatment among the children they serve. Disability status needs to be considered in national incidence studies of maltreatment.

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... Children with autism often manifest sensory hypersensitivity and poor motor control, which may lead them to restrict the textures of food eaten (Ahearn, 2001;Prontnicki, 1995;Williams, Dalrymple, & Neal, 2000). Children with severe motor impairment and almost all children with severe speech problems also experience some degree of difficulty in feeding (Sullivan et al., 2000). Infants, who later develop eating problems, often present feeding difficulties or even reject food while being breastfed. ...
... With this understanding, legislation was enacted to track child maltreatment perpetrated against those diagnosed with a disability (The Child Abuse and Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act of 1988), though it was rare until CAPTA's reauthorization in 2010. Since that point, studies have suggested that those with intellectual or developmental disabilities are at an elevated risk (1.5À3.4 times) for experiencing maltreatment when compared to neurotypical individuals (Dinkler et al., 2017;Hibbard & Desch, 2007;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Relatedly, some studies sought to examine the type of deficit or symptomology associated with risk of maltreatment. ...
... Relatedly, some studies sought to examine the type of deficit or symptomology associated with risk of maltreatment. Sullivan and Knutson (2000) found that children with communication disorders experienced rates of physical abuse and neglect at five times the rates of their peers and were three times more likely to be sexually abused. Youth with developmental disabilities and behavioral issues were at the greatest risk for maltreatment (Govindshenoy & Spencer, 2007;Helton & Cross, 2011;Jaudes & Mackey-Bilaver, 2008;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000), with one study in particular finding these youth were seven times more likely to experience physical or emotional abuse, or neglect (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). ...
Chapter
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Social skills represent a complex area within human behavior. Children and adolescents who have difficulties in social skills and who are poorly accepted by peers are at risk of developing some negative consequences. For people that have Asperger’s syndrome (AS), social skills are the biggest life challenge. It is, therefore, important to detect AS early in order to help them to fit in society more effectively and achieve their full potential. In this paper, we present a clinical case of a teenage girl diagnosed with AS, that also presented some depressive and anxiety symptoms. We will learn more about the traits of AS, the differences expected between boys and girls with AS, the impact of AS in adolescence, but also the relation between these traits and epilepsy, since she was diagnosed with absence seizures. In the therapeutic process the principles of cognitive behavioral, narrative, and family therapy were applied. Therapy was aimed at psych educating about the AS diagnosis; developing social competencies; developing strategies to cope with stress, anxiety, and aggression; improving self-esteem and enhancing autonomy.
... Indeed, those with lower education and fewer friends also had less awareness of risk, increasing their social vulnerability. Social vulnerability also appears to tap into some skill over and above either IQ, social intelligence or adaptive behavior (Fisher et al., 2018;Sofronoff et al., 2011;Wilson et al., 1996). Social vulnerability does not systematically lead to abuse, but it indicates a likelihood of being abused. ...
... Social vulnerability does not systematically lead to abuse, but it indicates a likelihood of being abused. In comparison with other variables such as anxiety, anger, behavior problems and social skills, social vulnerability was found to be the best predictor of bullying victimization for children with Asperger Syndrome (Sofronoff et al., 2011). Likewise, social vulnerability distinguished victims of interpersonal violence (assault, sexual assault, robbery, financial exploitation, break-in) from non-victims in the previous year in a sample of adults with ID (Wilson et al., 1996) The assessment of social vulnerability aims to evaluate the ability of a person to detect potentially harmful interpersonal situations (Seward et al., 2018). ...
... Likewise, social vulnerability distinguished victims of interpersonal violence (assault, sexual assault, robbery, financial exploitation, break-in) from non-victims in the previous year in a sample of adults with ID (Wilson et al., 1996) The assessment of social vulnerability aims to evaluate the ability of a person to detect potentially harmful interpersonal situations (Seward et al., 2018). People with disabilities, particularly those with intellectual disabilities, are significantly more at risk of being victims of interpersonal violence than the general population (Dion et al., 2011;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Not all social institutions providing services for adults with ID in Switzerland have a psychologist on staff: the assessments are sometimes carried out by educational staff or the team/center manager. ...
Article
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Background: A test identified as valid and accurate in research will not automatically be considered appropriate by those involved in its use, or even be used in the first place. The Social Vulnerability Test-22 items [TV-22] is a measure specially designed for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aims to evaluate the implementation outcomes of the TV-22; more precisely its acceptability (e.g., complexity), appropriateness (e.g., perceived relevance) and the assessment fidelity (i.e., adherence to assessment guidelines) by special education practitioners. Procedures: Thirty-one practitioners (8 psychologists, 11 educators, 12 special education center managers) administered the TV-22 during an interview with an adult with ID. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect practitioners' opinions on the acceptability and the appropriateness of the TV-22 for their clinical practice. Quantitative analyses were performed to assess the fidelity of the assessments and the influence of some personal factors. Results: The results indicate a good appropriateness, a reasonable acceptability, - but a low assessment fidelity of the TV-22 by some practitioners. Psychologists stand out for a more rigorous use of the test. Implications: Results highlight the importance of evaluating implementation outcomes when a new measure is developed to ensure its appropriateness and correct use by stakeholders.
... Research has repeatedly demonstrated that people with disabilities are at significantly greater risk of experiencing violence compared to their non-disabled counterparts. There is also some indication that rates of violent victimisation are higher amongst people with intellectual disability, specifically compared to those with sensory or physical disabilities (Basile et al., 2016;Hughes et al., 2012;Jones et al., 2012;Nixon et al., 2017;Rand & Harrell, 2009;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Lower IQ, behavioural difficulties and poor interpersonal skills have been shown to increase risk of experiencing violence amongst people with disabilities and mental illness (De Vries et al., 2019;de Waal et al., 2018;Fisher et al., 2012Fisher et al., , 2013Hickson et al., 2008;Wilson et al., 1996). ...
... There have been far fewer studies examining experiences of violence amongst Autistic people, with most focused on peer victimisation and maltreatment in childhood. These studies have found that Autistic children are at higher risk of peer victimisation, and physical, emotional and sexual abuse compared to non-disabled peers (Carter, 2009;Maiano et al., 2016;Mandell et al., 2005;Pfeffer, 2016;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Autistic children have also been shown to be at higher risk of poly-victimisation, that is, they experience multiple forms of violence across different episodes (Finkelhor et al., 2007;Fisher & Taylor, 2016;Pfeffer, 2016). ...
... Autistic children have also been shown to be at higher risk of poly-victimisation, that is, they experience multiple forms of violence across different episodes (Finkelhor et al., 2007;Fisher & Taylor, 2016;Pfeffer, 2016). However, most studies to date have included large proportions of individuals with co-occurring intellectual disability (Mandell et al., 2005;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000) making it difficult to determine whether autistic traits confer any increased risk over and above that of general cognitive ability (Fisher et al., 2012, Fisher et al., 2013Hickson et al., 2008). In addition, most studies have been based on parent report rather than gathering information from the child themselves which may result in an under-reporting of the nature and extent of violence experiences. ...
Article
Background Research has repeatedly demonstrated that people with disabilities, particularly intellectual disabilities, experience violence at higher rates compared to people without disabilities. There have been fewer studies of violence amongst Autistic people with most focused on abuse and peer victimisation during childhood. Many of these studies include large numbers of children with intellectual disability making it difficult to infer whether autistic traits confer any increased risk for violence. Method A cross-sectional survey design was employed to compare rates of reported childhood and recent physical and sexual violence, degree of traumatic impact, and tendency to confide in others amongst 245 Autistic adults without intellectual disability and 49 non-Autistic adults. We also examined whether autistic traits and emotion regulation were associated with experiences of reported violence. Results A higher proportion of Autistic adults reported experiencing sexual and physical violence during childhood. There was no difference in recent violence or traumatic impact, however Autistic adults were more likely to report they had never confided in anyone about their experience/s. Autistic traits (but not emotion regulation difficulties) were a significant predictor of experiencing violence. Conclusions The findings provide further evidence that Autistic people experience higher rates of physical and sexual violence and this cannot be attributed solely to the risk that is conferred by co-occurring intellectual disability. This information is important for policy makers and service providers so that steps can be taken to protect Autistic people from exposure to violence however further research is needed to better understand the extent and nature of violence experienced by Autistic people.
... Child abuse and neglect among children with disabilities According to an American population-basedepidemiological study, as compared to children without disabilities, children with disabilities are at 3.7 times higher risk of physical abuse, 3.14 times higher risk for sexual abuse, and 3.8 times higher risk of emotional maltreatment 16 . The risk of maltreatment is variable within the different types of disabilities 17 . ...
... For example, children with visual impairment are more likely to be sexually abused and neglected as compared to typically developing peers. 16 Secondly, children with disabilities were more likely than children without disabilities to experience multiple forms of maltreatment (63% vs. 54.9%, respectively) and recurring episodes of maltreatment rather than a single episode (71% vs. 29%, respectively). ...
... For children with and without disabilities, it was seen that the perpetrators from immediate family accounted for 82.2% of cases of physical abuse, 89.5% of emotional abuse and 92.4% of neglect cases, whereas 53.1% of cases of child sexual abuse were accounted for by immediate and extended family members. 16 Thirdly, it can be seen that males with disabilities are at a much higher risk for physical abuse and neglect as compared to females, however, more females with disabilities are at a higher risk for sexual abuse than males. Whereas, among the non-disabled, maltreated children, girls are significantly more at risk for maltreatment including neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. ...
Article
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Background: Children with disabilities, are entitled to the same rights as enshrined in UNCRC because of the universality of this document. However, children with any kind of disability are at a much higher risk of maltreatment, especially in developing countries. This dynamic may be shaped by a lack of adequate laws, policies, trained staff, and coordination along with social context. Objective: While writing this article, a detailed desk review was carried out to explore the policies and legislations relevant to rights and protection of children with special needs. A small study was also conducted to explore the present situation of children with disabilities in terms of abuse and neglect and how they can be safeguarded against neglect and abuse in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We did detailed desk review of policies and legislations regarding protection of children. We also conducted 10 in-depth interviews to understand the condition of children with special needs in reference to child rights and child protection. Themes emerging from qualitative research are discussed to elaborate on the results. Results: Lack of awareness, illiteracy, parental poverty are risk factors whereas the joint family system contributes positively to the protection of children with disabilities. Conclusion: Linking with Pakistan’s commitments, policies, laws, existing systems, and social context, this study provides an insight on challenges, opportunities, and how the rights-based agenda of protecting children with disabilities can be taken forward. However, for more in depth knowledge of situation more detailed research needs to be conducted. Keywords: Children with disabilities, child abuse and neglect, child protection, Pakistan.
... Studies revealed that children with disabilities are at an increased risk of experiencing CM. Fisher et al. stated that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are 2.5 times more likely than those not referred to the child protection facilities in the USA due to abuse, while Sullivan and Knutson revealed that disabled children are four times more likely to be sexually abused than a child without disabilities 3,4 . In a caregivers' reported study by Mandell et al., approximately 20 percent of children with ASD are physically abused, and 17 percent are sexually abused in the USA 5 . ...
... In addition, ASD children have a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour than non-ASD children 16 . These behavioural challenges can often cause caregivers more distress, which leads them to take aggressive disciplinary actions 4,5 . Different ecological models explained that children with ASD are at elevated risk of CM. ...
... Studies revealed that parental abusive behaviours toward their children are related mainly to their stressful personal experiences 17 . Having a child with disabilities have a negative impact on the parent's mental state, causing immense emotional, physical, and economic stress,which subsequently makes them abusive towards their children 4,5 . ...
Article
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Children with disabilities are at an increased risk of experiencing child maltreatment (CM). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CM among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Bangladesh. We interviewed 45 randomly selected mothers of ASD children who attended a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to treat their children. Data regarding CM was collected using a standard screening tool recommended by the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN). We asked mothers to report about their child-rearing practices to identify CM, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and neglect, along with their non-violent disciplinary practices. The children's age range was 3 to 9 years, and approximately 82 percent were boys. All children were found to have experiences of physical and psychological abuse throughout their childhood. Seventy-three percent of children experienced neglect during the past year while 82 percent during their entire childhood. The reported prevalence of sexual abuse was 4.4 percent in the past year and 8.9 percent during their childhood. However, all parents followed non-violent disciplinary practices, and the prevalence of maltreatment did not differ between boys and girls. Higher instances of CM in Bangladesh, especially among ASD children, raise concern for its adverse social consequences and calls for appropriate mitigation practices as proclaimed by the United Nations Child Rights Charter.
... The duration and severity of CM, age of exposure, and the types of CM are all predictive of lasting negative outcomes, including reduced health, reduced learning, problems with relationships and regulating emotions, increased risk for criminal activity, all of which contribute to difficulty obtaining and maintaining employment later in life (Ellison et al., 2018;Kairys et al., 2002). Children with disabilities are among the most likely to experience various forms of maltreatment (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Children with developmental disabilities who do not respond to typical parenting interventions are among the most at risk for exposure to parental maltreatment particularly while remote learning is occurring (Kairys et al., 2002;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). ...
... Children with disabilities are among the most likely to experience various forms of maltreatment (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Children with developmental disabilities who do not respond to typical parenting interventions are among the most at risk for exposure to parental maltreatment particularly while remote learning is occurring (Kairys et al., 2002;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). The rates of childhood maltreatment have increased during the pandemic for several reasons, including school closures, resulting in children being left alone when parents in essential and frontline service work are unable to work remotely; the added stress and strain within families affected by unemployment; and remote learning preventing school personnel, who are the most likely to report suspected child maltreatment, from detecting and reporting suspected maltreatment and neglect (Abramson, 2020). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly influenced all aspects of daily life. Especially hard hit during the pandemic are typically marginalized individuals, including individuals with chronic illnesses and disabilities. Vocational rehabilitation counselors are uniquely positioned to support these individuals both during and after the pandemic. The Illinois Work and Well-Being Model can be utilized by researchers and counselors supporting marginalized individuals as an effective theoretical framework to address anticipated COVID-19-related challenges. In this article we also provide insights into three potential issues that may be more likely to occur as a result of the pandemic. These issues are a delay in career development, an extended absence from work, and experiences of both primary and secondary trauma. We conclude by providing future directions for research that could impact the lives of individuals directly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Notwithstanding research shortcomings, young children with a range of chronic illnesses and disabilities, compared to their healthy counterparts, have been found to be at increased risk of maltreatment and over-represented in the child welfare system (Jaudes & Mackey-Bilaver, 2008;Jones et al., 2012;Stein et al., 2013;Turner et al., 2011). In their population-based epidemiological study of 50,278 school children, Sullivan and Knutson (2000) reported a 31% prevalence rate of maltreatment among children with diagnosed disabilities, compared to 9% for those without disabilities. The children with disabilities in this sample were also more likely to endure multiple forms (e.g., both neglect and physical abuse) and recurring episodes of maltreatment. ...
... Level of risk linked to child age and sex varies. In Sullivan and Knutson's (2000) study, younger age appeared to increase risk of maltreatment in some disabilities but not others; and boys with disabilities were more likely to be maltreated than girls with disabilities, though possibly a function of higher prevalence of disability status among males. Likelihood of child abuse and neglect is generally compounded by interacting familial and environmental risk factors such as caregiver substance use, physical and mental illness, intimate partner violence, parenting stress, and limited supports and resources (Mulder et al., 2018;Stith et al., 2009); however, it is less clear how these predisposing variables uniquely impact children with medical complexity. ...
Article
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Children with medical complexity may be at elevated risk of experiencing child maltreatment and child welfare system involvement, though empirical data are limited. This study examined the extent of child welfare system involvement among children with medical complexity and investigated associated health and social factors. A retrospective chart review of children with medical complexity (N = 208) followed at a pediatric hospital-based complex care program in Canada was conducted. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios using logistic regression were computed. Results showed that nearly one-quarter (23.6%) had documented contact with the child welfare system, most commonly for neglect; of those, more than one-third (38.8%) were placed in care. Caregiver reported history of mental health problems (aOR = 3.19, 95%CI = 1.55–6.56), chronic medical conditions (aOR = 2.86, 95%CI = 1.09–7.47), and interpersonal violence or trauma (aOR = 17.58, 95%CI = 5.43–56.98) were associated with increased likelihood of child welfare system involvement, while caregiver married/common-law relationship status (aOR = 0.35, 95%CI = 0.16–0.74) and higher number of medical technology supports (aOR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.57–0.99) were associated with decreased likelihood. Implications for intervention and prevention of maltreatment in children with high healthcare needs are discussed.
... Children with IDD are three to four times more likely to be abused or neglected than their typically developing peers [18,19,20] (The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), 2013). Their inability to differentiate between care and abuse makes them more vulnerable, perhaps due to developmental and cognitive delays [12,21]. ...
Article
This study investigated teachers’ perceptions on in school-based care and support for children with intellectual disabilities and a history of sexual abuse. The participants were a convenience sample of 28 teachers from four special educational needs schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa (females = 80%, age range = 30 to 55 years). The teachers participated in a focus group discussion on school-based quality of care and support for intellectually disabled children with a history of sexual abuse. A focus group interview schedule was designed and administered to collect the data. A thematic method of data analysis was used to collect the data.Two themes resulted from the data analysis: infrequency (80%) and short duration of support, and educator sensitivity. The most important point to consider is that the affected children are referred to the relevant structure and that parents are frequently consulted throughout the process. It is highly recommended that the issue of sexual abuse of children with disability should be handled with great care and sensitivity.
... People with intellectual disabilities face a 4-10 times greater risk of becoming victims of sexual abuse than people without intellectual disabilities. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Although there is a wide variety of definitions of sexual abuse, most focus on sexual acts, a lack of consent and an idea of exploitation. 9 10 Research shows that sexual abuse is a prevalent problem for people with an intellectual disability. ...
Article
Objectives: To explore characteristics of sexual abuse within residential settings for people with an intellectual disability and to map out measures undertaken and improvement plans made by healthcare organisations after sexual abuse. Design: Descriptive analysis of reports about sexual violence against persons with an intellectual disability submitted to the Dutch Health and Youth Care Inspectorate by healthcare organisations. Setting: Residential settings for people with an intellectual disability in The Netherlands. Selection: 186 incident reports submitted to the Inspectorate between January 2017 and December 2019 were included. Results: 125 incident reports concerned sexual abuse by fellow clients and 61 reports concerned sexual abuse by professionals. Client perpetrators were predominantly male whereas almost 30% of the abusing professionals were female. The majority of the perpetrating professionals were unlicensed professionals. Clients who committed sexual abuse were mostly relocated to another residential setting. Most healthcare organisations invested in education and training for employees instead of improving the sexual education programme for clients after an incident of sexual abuse. If there was a strong suspicion of sexual abuse by a professional, resignation followed in most cases. In just two cases, the perpetrating professional was reported to a warning registry. Conclusions: A small amount of the perpetrating professionals held a licensed profession, which makes it challenging to address this form of sexual abuse through healthcare regulation. It raises the question why warning registries are not engaged more often after alleged sexual abuse. Constantly relocating abusing clients might endanger the (sexual) safety of clients in these new environments. Previous literature suggests that adequate sexual education regarding social skills and sexual behaviour is very effective for the majority of clients who commit sexual abuse. Healthcare organisations could take up a more prominent role in this to ensure safety for their own clients and for clients residing elsewhere.
... Moreover, this study's analysis of the similarities and differences between the two groups raises questions about how the SN issue relates to diversity in the context of foster care. On one hand, several aspects, including potentially unexpected ones such as maltreatment type, have been linked to the existence of SN (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000) and do not represent statistical differences between the groups in our study. On the other hand, we must not underestimate the higher proportion of prenatal maltreatment among children with SN, some of which may have originated in pregnancy. ...
Article
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This study aims to advance the understanding of children with special needs in foster care by identifying the characteristics, processes, and outcomes of their placement. The study uses a quantitative approach to identify 190 children with special needs (registered) from among 2,157 foster children in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands, Spain and examines key data covering 2008 to 2018. The results show that children with special needs are overrepresented in placements with single-parent foster carers (mainly women), raising questions about the extent to which the care system takes the complexity of special needs into account.
... Along with other immune mediated conditions, such as coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, it appears that disorders of autoimmunity contribute a significant burden of disease in our DS cohort. This is in keeping with existing hypothesises regarding immune dysfunction in DS19 118 203 208 .In both the primary and subgroup-analysis individuals with DS had a significantly increased study prevalence of non-accidental injury or maltreatment, compared with controls (Children of studies suggesting that the prevalence of maltreatment is higher among children with intellectual disability[308][309][310][311][312] , literature specific to DS is scant. As explored in the Background, there are two existing studies which show either no increased risk of maltreatment among children with DS, compared to the general population 314 , or no difference after adjustment for confounding factors 315 . ...
Conference Paper
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Down Syndrome (DS) affects ~10,500 children in the UK. Individuals with DS continue to have poorer health outcomes compared with the general population, and other forms of intellectual disability. By systematically mapping two decades of paediatric DS literature, I found a general decline in the number of publications, since 2014. The majority of publications utilised observational methodologies, with few interventional (5.6%) or qualitative/mixed-method studies (4.3%). Most publications focused on development & cognition, oncology and neurology; relatively few looked at the prevalence of morbidities and health surveillance. Using a large electronic health record dataset I determined the prevalence of morbidities among individuals with DS (N=4,648, age range 0-75 years), and compared with matched controls. The most prevalent morbidities in the DS cohort were hypothyroidism (30.4%), congenital cardiac disease (27.8%), epilepsy (21.9%) and hearing impairment (19.2%). We also found an increased risk of autism (aOR 7.7), chronic kidney disease (aOR 2.3), inflammatory bowel disease (aOR 2.4), non-accidental injury (aOR 1.9), sleep disordered breathing (SDB) (aOR 6.6) and vitamin-D deficiency (aOR 3.1). Finally, I explored current practice with regard to the routine health surveillance of children with DS, in paediatric departments across the UK. Sixty four departments returned a copy of their local health surveillance protocol. Practice was compared across departments, and with three national guidelines. For congenital cardiac disease, hypothyroidism and hearing/visual impairment, practice appeared to be consistent and compliant with national guidelines. However, in other areas (echocardiogram at transition, SBD, vitamin-D deficiency & renal/liver function), practice was patchy and inconsistent. The findings highlight a need for ongoing research in the field of paediatric DS, targeted at areas of greatest need, and those morbidities which are prevalent in the DS cohort. Furthermore, our findings highlight a need a single, evidence based guideline for the health surveillance of children with DS, to promote high quality, consistent care.
... Compared to neurotypically developing peers, children with IDD were found to experience more coercive parenting (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000;Vig & Kaminer, 2002). Such negative parenting practice have been found to be correlated with poorer parental self-efficacy, worse parent-child relationships (Day et al., 2021), and higher levels of parental PTS (van Ee, Kleber, & Mooren, 2012). ...
... As soon as such norms for a successful personal development are defined, one can roughly differentiate between positive and negative environmental influences. The latter can affect health, gross and fine motor skills, socio-emotional development, the speed of information processing, self-concepts, knowledge, or language behavior and range from alcohol to stress during pregnancy, residential areas with high crime rates, low educational levels, emotional, physical or sexual abuse, as well as a neglectful parenting style (Sullivan and Knutson 2000;Spera 2005). ...
Article
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Machine behavior that is based on learning algorithms can be significantly influenced by the exposure to data of different qualities. Up to now, those qualities are solely measured in technical terms, but not in ethical ones, despite the significant role of training and annotation data in supervised machine learning. This is the first study to fill this gap by describing new dimensions of data quality for supervised machine learning applications. Based on the rationale that different social and psychological backgrounds of individuals correlate in practice with different modes of human–computer-interaction, the paper describes from an ethical perspective how varying qualities of behavioral data that individuals leave behind while using digital technologies have socially relevant ramification for the development of machine learning applications. The specific objective of this study is to describe how training data can be selected according to ethical assessments of the behavior it originates from, establishing an innovative filter regime to transition from the big data rationale n = all to a more selective way of processing data for training sets in machine learning. The overarching aim of this research is to promote methods for achieving beneficial machine learning applications that could be widely useful for industry as well as academia.
... Experience of multiple types of maltreatment was significantly associated with ASD symptoms. A previous study showed that children experiencing multiple types of maltreatment had a higher number of family stress factors (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Our findings may suggest that family stress factors are especially high in children with ASD symptoms. ...
Article
The present study examined how maltreatment experience was associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children under institutional care. The key caregivers of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years who were under institutional care in Nagano prefecture, Japan were asked to answer the background questionnaire, ADHD‐Rating Scale, and the Japanese children's version of the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient. A total of 378 valid responses were obtained, of which 222 reported maltreatment experience prior to institutionalization. Both hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive scores were significantly higher in the maltreated group. Maltreatment experience was significantly associated with the presence of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (p = 0.003) and inattentive symptoms (p = 0.027). Particularly, those who had experienced physical abuse were significantly more likely to have hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (p = 0.012) and autistic trait (p = 0.002). Thorough assessment of neurodevelopmental symptoms should be performed when placing children with maltreatment experience into institutional care.
... The available research suggests that parents with intellectual disability who experienced a positive upbringing often seek to emulate their own parents, and turn to family members first for guidance and support (Booth & Booth, 1995;Llewellyn & McConnell, 2010). Nonetheless, adults with intellectual disability are more likely to have experienced maltreatment in their upbringing, compared with adults without intellectual disability (Byrne, 2018;McConnell et al., 2011;McGaw et al., 2007;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). In the United Kingdom, McGaw et al. (2007) found that 80% of their sample of parents with intellectual disability attending a special parenting service had experienced childhood abuse or neglect. ...
Article
Background Parents with intellectual disability, like all other parents, are embedded in networks of capability-enhancing and/or capability-inhibiting relationships. This study investigated links between how parents with intellectual disability experienced their upbringing, continuity and discontinuity in familial relationships, and their assessments of their own parenting. Method Structured interviews, incorporating scales and open-ended questions, were conducted with 91 parents in receipt of specialist services for people with intellectual disability, including 82 mothers and 9 fathers. Results Most participants (81%) had experienced at least one form of childhood abuse or household adversity. Participants who recalled a more positive upbringing, including less adversity and more parental care, tended to have stronger support networks and reported greater parenting role satisfaction and emotional warmth in their interactions with their own children. Conclusion The results highlight the need to understand parenting by people with intellectual disability in biographical and relational context.
... les enfants vivaient majoritairement avec leur mère. Dans 45% des cas, la mère était seule au domicile, dans 22% des cas, la mère vit avec le père des enfants et dans 14% des cas, elle vit avec quelqu'un d'autre que le père.Il est également important de garder en tête certains facteurs comme déclenchant ou aggravant les situations de maltraitance.Sullivan et Knutson (2000) notent que les enfants en situation de handicap présentent entre 3 et 4 fois plus de risque de subir des actes de maltraitance (31% contre 9% dans la population témoin).Cette étude précise également les raisons qui ont déclenché le placement. Pour quatre enfants sur cinq, le placement est judiciaire. Les causes énoncées sont majoritaire ...
Thesis
Quels sont donc les motifs évoqués pour demander ou prononcer un placement d’enfant ? Même si la Loi les définit, ceux-ci n’ont-ils pas une part de perception subjective ? En effet, qu’est-ce que les conditions d’une éducation « gravement compromise » (art. 375 du Code Civil) ? Se désintéresser « manifestement » de son enfant (art. 350 du Code Civil) ? Peut-on donner une définition objective de « l’intérêt de l’enfant » ? Notre recherche s’est proposée d’analyser les arguments conduisant au placement de mineurs, en comparant trois périodes, à 5 ans d’intervalle, à partir de 2000, juste avant deux lois importantes de 2002, l’une rénovant l’action sociale et l’autre redéfinissant l’autorité parentale et introduisant « l’intérêt de l’enfant ». Nous posons l’hypothèse que les arguments avancés pour demander ou prononcer le placement évoluent dans le temps, notamment au regard des évolutions légales. Pour ce faire, nous avons analysé sémantiquement, avec le logiciel TROPES, les dossiers clos de 65 enfants placés, selon plusieurs critères : la période, l’âge des enfants et le sexe des enfants. Nous avons pu mettre en lumière une évolution des termes employés, avec des rapports éducatifs et des jugements s’étoffant au fil du temps et se focalisant de plus en plus sur les conditions de vie de l’enfant et son état psychique, et ce quelque soit l’âge et le sexe. Toutefois, d’autres différences ont pu être mises à jour: l’âge et le sexe des enfants influent sur l’expression de la symptomatologie de la maltraitance subie, mais aussi sur la perception qu’en ont les différents professionnels, travailleurs sociaux et juges.
... The finding that psychological harm was significantly lower for athletes who identified as Indigenous is difficult to interpret but raises questions about the low sample size and possible interactions with gender and sport type. In contrast to research in the general population indicating that individuals with a disability experience more abuse than individuals without a disability (Horner-Johnson & Drum, 2006;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000), there were no significant differences in experiences of harm between athletes with or without a disability. Given the existing research demonstrating the increased risk of violence experienced by those with underrepresented identities (Turell et al., 2018), future research is needed on the experiences of athletes with underrepresented identities. ...
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This study assessed the prevalence of maltreatment experienced by Canadian National Team athletes. In total, 995 athletes participated in this study, including current athletes and athletes who had retired in the past 10 years. An anonymous online survey was administered, consisting of questions about experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual harm, and neglect, as well as questions about identity characteristics, when the harm was experienced, and who perpetrated the harm. Neglect and psychological harm were most frequently reported, followed by sexual harm and physical harm. Female athletes reported significantly more experiences of all forms of harm. Retired athletes reported significantly more neglect and physical harm. Athletes reportedly experienced more harmful behaviors during their time on the national team than before joining a national team. Coaches were the most common perpetrators of all harms except for sexual harm, which was most frequently perpetrated by peers. This study highlighted the prevalence with which Canadian National Team athletes reportedly experience harmful behaviors in sport, suggesting the need for preventative and intervention initiatives.
... Previous sexual victimisation is a common circumstance among sexual offenders (Fago, 2012). Total population cohorts have shown that individuals with ID are at increased risk of being victims of sexual abuse (Sullivan and Knutson, 2000) and the perpetrator is normally known to be the victim (Turk and Brown, 1993;Wissink et al., 2015). Type of abuse and later offending behaviour among ID individuals are seemingly related (Lindsay et al., 2012). ...
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Aims To study associations between intellectual disability (ID) and sexual and violent offending among individuals subject to pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment. To investigate sentences following pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment in offenders with and without ID. Methods A population-based observational study using data from pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessments in Sweden (1997–2013), the Swedish National Crime Register and several other Swedish national registers. The study population consisted of 7450 offenders (87% men, 13% women) who were subject to forensic psychiatric assessment in 1997–2013, of whom 481 (6.5%) were clinically assessed as having ID. Results ID offenders were more likely than non-ID offenders to have a sexual crime as an index crime [26.2 v . 11.5%, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–3.58] as well as previous convictions regarding sexual offending (10.4 v . 5.6%, adj OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70–3.12). These associations were restricted to male offenders; sexual offending was uncommon among women. Comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder reduced the association between ID and sexual offending (adj OR 2.7 v . 3.1, p = 0.017), while comorbid autism spectrum disorder had no significant influence on the association (adj OR 2.7 v . 3.0, p = 0.059). Violent crime was equally common among ID and non-ID offenders. Offenders with ID were more likely than non-ID offenders to be sentenced to forensic psychiatric care or community sanctions and measures (such as probation, conditional sentences or fines) than to prison; however, 15% of individuals who received an ID diagnosis during the forensic psychiatric assessment were sentenced to prison. Previous criminal convictions, concurrent antisocial personality disorders and substance use disorders were associated with a higher probability of a prison sentence among offenders with ID. Conclusions Sexual crime is overrepresented among offenders with ID compared to offenders with other mental disorders than ID in forensic psychiatric contexts. ID offenders become subject to forensic psychiatric care and forensic psychiatric services need evidence-based treatment programmes for offenders with ID. In addition, there is a need for early intervention strategies suitable for disability services and special education schools, in order to address the complex needs of individuals with ID and prevent sexual and violent offending.
... Arguably, an important nding in the current study was that 39.0% of the total sample reported experiencing four or more ACEs categories across their lifespan, rates (25.9% to 31%) which were much higher than individuals with other physical/neurodevelopmental disabilities (e.g., hearing/visual disability, intellectual disability) (40,41). This is particularly concerning given the young age of participants in our study and individuals who endorsed more than four categories of ACEs are four to twelve times more likely to engage in health-risk behaviours (e.g., substance use, alcohol dependence, suicidality) and have chronic health problems later in life (14). ...
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Background: Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at risk of having adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), especially those with child protection or justice system involvement. The complex relationship between FASD and psychosocial vulnerabilities in the affected individual is an important clinical risk factor for comorbidity. This study (1) explored the ACEs and associated stressors in individuals with FASD; (2) compared the ACEs profiles of those who had been involved with the child protection system only, justice system only, both or neither; (3) examined the relationship between ACEs and comorbid conditions such as mood and neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively via file review from diagnostic clinics in Western Australia. Life adversity was coded using a standardised ACEs questionnaire. 211 participants (71.6% males) with FASD with a mean age of 11.12 (range = 2-21) were included in the total sample. Results: Exposure to drinking/substance misuse at home (70.1%) and domestic violence (51.7%) were the two most common ACEs across the total sample. In the entire cohort, 39.3% had four or more ACEs. Additional stressors reported were involvement with child protection system (69.7%), disengagement from school (43.1%), trouble with the law (40.3%), transiency (19.0%), documented victims of bullying (12.3%), traumatic brain injury (9.0%) and homelessness (5.2%). Further, individuals who had been involved with both the child protection and justice system were four to eleven times more likely than those without any involvement to report parental drinking/substance misuse at home, parental incarceration, exposure to domestic violence and emotional/physical neglect. Higher rates of life adversity in this clinical population were associated with an increased number of comorbidities, p <.001. Specifically, those with FASD who had comorbidities such as attachment disorder (p =.001), substance use disorder (p =.006), and PTSD (p <.001) also reported higher ACEs score. Conclusion: ACEs were common in this clinical population, particularly those who had been involved with both the child protection and justice system. Increased ACEs in this clinical population were associated with increased comorbidities. This highlights that prevention, intervention and early diagnosis of FASD are important for at risk children to reduce the negative effects of ACEs.
... Poor social ability can be associated with an increased risk of exposure to adverse life experiences in ASD. Children with developmental disabilities, including ASD, are likely to experience maltreatment, bullying, and maladaptation in the local community and social life (9). Thus, these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) reportedly cause poor selfesteem and motivation, thus resulting in subsequent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse in adults with ASD (10). ...
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Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) than typically developed (TD) children. Since multiple lines of studies have suggested that ACEs are related to myelination in the frontal lobe, an exposure to ACEs can be associated with white matter microstructural disruption in the frontal lobe, which may be implicated in subsequential psychological deficits after the adulthood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ACEs and microstructural integrity on frontal lobe-related white matter tracts using diffusion tensor imaging in 63 individuals with ASD and 38 TD participants. Using a tractography-based analysis, we delineated the uncinate fasciculus (UF), dorsal cingulum (Ci), and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), which are involved in the neural pathology of ASD, and estimated each diffusion parameter. Compared to the TD participants, individuals with ASD displayed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the left ATR. Then, ASD individuals exposed to severe ACEs displayed higher RD than those exposed to mild ACEs and TD participants in the left ATR. Moreover, the severity of ACEs, particularly neglect, correlated with lower FA and higher RD in the left UF and ATR in individuals with ASD, which was not observed in TD participants. These results suggest that an exposure to ACEs is associated with abnormality in the frontal lobe-related white matter in ASD.
... Young children are at increased risk of both re-reporting and recurrence (Fuller & Nieto, 2009;Hindley et al., 2006;Johnson-Reid et al., 2010;White et al., 2015) relative to older children. Presence of a childhood disability or childhood mental illness has been associated with re-reporting (Loman, 2006;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000) but have primarily been identified in cases of maltreatment recurrence (Hindley et al., 2006;White et al., 2015). Child gender and race have not previously been shown to be significant predictors of maltreatment re-reporting or recurrence (Hindley et al., 2006;White et al., 2015) although there is some evidence to suggest African-American and Hispanic children are less likely to be subjects of a re-report relative to White children (Connell et al., 2007). ...
Article
Background Maltreatment re-reporting and recurrence represent missed opportunities for prevention and early intervention in child welfare settings. Objectives This study identified latent classes of risk among families who experienced a child maltreatment re-report or maltreatment recurrence within 12-months of initial case closure. Participants and setting Administrative child welfare data from a large urban county were subject to secondary analysis. Samples included children who experienced a maltreatment re-report (n = 4390), and children who experienced a second maltreatment substantiation (n = 694). Methods Five modifiable risk factors (i.e., mental health, substance abuse, domestic violence, disability, parenting challenges) were extracted from the initial investigation and subject to latent class analysis. Case characteristics (i.e., age, gender, race, ethnicity, maltreatment type) were then compared across the latent classes in a post-hoc analysis. Results Re-report classes were characterized by (1) “Few Identified Challenges” (56%, n = 2458), (2) “Mental Health and Domestic Violence Challenges” (26%, n = 1133), and (3) “Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, Mental Health, and Parenting Challenges” (18%, n = 790). Re-report classes differed according to child age, race, ethnicity, neglect and physical abuse allegations. Recurrence classes were characterized by (1) “Domestic Violence Challenges” (48%, n = 333), (2) “Mental Health Challenges” (15%, n = 104), and (3) “Domestic Violence, Mental Health, and Parenting Challenges” (37%, n = 257). Recurrence classes differed according to child race and age. Conclusions Findings underscore the complex and co-occurring nature of maltreatment risk, and provide insights to strengthen assessment and intervention practices to reduce repeated contacts with child welfare systems.
... In 2018, national survey data indicated that 5.4% of American youth (age 5-15 years) and 6.3% of young adults (age 16-20 years) reported having a disability (Erickson et al., 2020). However, 22% of maltreated youth have a disability (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000) and a study of children in Minnesota found a similar pattern among those who were the subject of reports to the child welfare system as well as higher risk among children with such reports aged 5 to 18 (Lightfoot et al., 2011). The same study found that among children with substantiated maltreatment likelihood of being in foster care was doubled among those with disabilities. ...
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Youth in foster care are at greater risk of incarceration and homelessness as they age out of care and transition to adulthood. Prior studies have shown that multiple placements, childhood trauma, race and ethnicity, and educational attainment are associated with these adverse outcomes. However, few studies have examined the prevalence and risk factors of incarceration and homelessness among youth in foster care with disabilities as they age out and transition into adulthood. Using data from the 2014 cohort of the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD) and Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System (AFCARS), this study examines the prevalence of incarceration and homelessness by disability type at age 17, and how risk factors are related to incarceration and homelessness at ages 19 and 21. Findings show that youth in foster care with emotional disabilities are more likely to experience homelessness and incarceration, but this association was not robust in multivariate models. On the other hand, those with a physical or intellectual/developmental disability have lower odds of homelessness. Employment and school enrollment are associated with a lower risk of homelessness and incarceration, regardless of disability type. These results suggest that disaggregating youth in foster care by type of disability is necessary to provide specific recommendations to improve and target resources and supports for these vulnerable youth as they age out of foster care and transition to adulthood.
... To safeguard the right to education, it is important to understand the extent to which different groups of children may be missing out. It is particularly important to understand how the state protects, or fails to protect, children's right to education when they have a duty to protect children in need of support or at risk of harm (Sullivan and Knutson, 2000). In this paper, we analyze national, linked administrative data which contain longitudinal education and social care records for all children attending state schools in England to identify non-enrolment, which may be an indicator of pushing out-called off-rolling in the UK-among children with and without a history of CSC involvement. ...
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Background Pushing out (off-rolling) occurs where pupils are illegally excluded from school. Those receiving children's social care (CSC) services (children in need (CiN), on child protection plans (CPPs) or looked after (CLA)) are thought to be at increased risk, but limited evidence inhibits understanding of this phenomenon. The extent of pushing out can be inferred from non-enrolment in administrative data. Objective To estimate proportions of children not enrolled across secondary school (aged 11–16, up to year 11) and to explore the association between CSC history and non-enrolment in year 10/11. Participants and setting >1 M pupils in year 7 (aged 11/12) in English state schools, 2011/12 and 2012/13. Methods We estimated the proportion of children not enrolled across years 8 to 11, disaggregated by CSC history. We assessed with regression modelling the association between CSC history and non-enrolment in years 10/11. Results Of children without CSC history, 3.8% had ≥1 year not enrolled by year 11. This was higher in those with a history CiN (8.1%), CPP (9.4%) or CLA (10.4%) status. The odds of non-enrolment in years 10/11 were higher among those with CLA history vs non-exposed peers (OR 4.76, 95% CI 4.49–5.05) as well as in those with CPP history (3.60, 3.39–3.81) and CiN history (2.53, 2.49–2.58). History of special educational needs further increased non-enrolment odds, including after confounder adjustment. Conclusions Findings imply that children with CSC history are more likely to be pushed out from school than children without, especially those with special educational needs.
... De plus, les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA sont plus susceptibles de faire face à des évènements de vie que les tout-venant (Ghaziuddin, 2005;Kerns, Newschaffer, et Berkowitz, 2015). En effet, les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA ont 1,5 à 3 fois plus de risque de subir des maltraitances au sein de leur foyer (Hibbard & Desch, 2007;Reiter, Bryen, & Shachar, 2007;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000), leurs parents semblent plus à risque de divorcer, bien que l'ampleur de ce phénomène reste à étudier (de 23,5 à 80% ; Baeza-Velasco, Michelon, Rattaz, Pernon, & Baghdadli, 2013;Freedman, Kalb, Zablotsky, & Stuart, 2012;Hartley et al., 2010). Ainsi, l'effet des évènements stressants est un domaine à particulièrement étudier chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA. ...
Thesis
Dès la première description du Trouble du Spectre de l'Autisme, Kanner (1943) a souligné la présence momentanée de manifestations dépressives chez un des cas. Aujourd'hui, l'Episode Dépressif Caractérisé (EDC) est considéré comme étant un des troubles psychiatriques les plus fréquemment associés au TSA, ayant des répercussions à court, moyen et long termes sur l'enfant ayant un TSA et sa famille. Pourtant, aujourd'hui, il n'existe pas de consensus concernant la façon d'évaluer la symptomatologie dépressive chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA. Les objectifs de cette recherche sont de créer et de valider une échelle de repérage des signes de l'EDC, d'identifier les facteurs associés aux signes de l'EDC chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA et d'étudier les manifestations dépressives dans leur fonctionnement habituel. Quatre études ont été réalisées. La première a permis de créer l'échelle de repérage des signes de l'EDC spécifique aux enfants et aux adolescents ayant un TSA. Elle est composée de 3 parties : une évaluation des douleurs et des médicaments pris par l'enfant, le listing des changements environnementaux et l'évaluation de la symptomatologie dépressive ; en deux étapes : une description du fonctionnement habituel de l'enfant puis une mesure de l'ampleur des changements de comportements. La seconde étude visait à valider cette échelle (N=153). La fidélité inter-juges est très satisfaisante mais devra être évaluée sur un échantillon plus important (ρfiabilité=0,98 ; ρfiabilité=0,02). L'échelle a de bonnes validités apparente, de contenu et de critère et une excellente consistance interne (αéchelleEDC=0,91). Elle est composée de deux facteurs : un de changements comportementaux et l'autre de changements émotionnels et cognitifs. La troisième étude visait à identifier les facteurs associés à l'EDC chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA (N=58). Des facteurs individuels, notamment liés au parcours de soin concernant le diagnostic de TSA mais aussi la santé somatique ; familiaux, notamment le vécu parental et le désir d'avoir des amis sont liés à la symptomatologie dépressive. La quatrième étude avait pour objectif d'identifier des manifestations dépressives dans le fonctionnement habituel des enfants et des adolescents ayant un TSA (N=133). Plus d'un tiers de l'échantillon exprime de la tristesse quasiment tous les jours et plus d'un quart n'exprime quasiment jamais de joie. Plus de la moitié des enfants et des adolescents de l'échantillon ne prend aucun plaisir au quotidien. Un jeune sur cinq a des comportements auto-agressifs et 28% ont des comportements hétéro-agressifs tous les jours. La moitié de l'échantillon a des difficultés de sommeil et 58% en a d'appétit tous les jours. Enfin, trois quarts des jeunes expriment de la culpabilité ou de la dévalorisation tous les jours.
... De un modo particular, y según los datos aportados por el Observatorio Estatal de la Discapacidad (2018), un 17,2 % de mujeres con discapacidad han sufrido violencia física fuera de la pareja. A pesar de la gravedad de los hechos y del alto índice de incidencia, estamos ante situaciones de gran complejidad ya que la violencia y el maltrato hacia personas con discapacidad que se producen preferentemente en la intimidad del hogar y/o por parte de una persona cuidadora (Oliván, 2002;Sullivan y Knutson, 2000) resultan normalmente impunes (Revuelta, 2014) -12 -A su vez, desde la mirada de la víctima, el maltrato por abuso genera baja autoestima, sentimientos de soledad, ansiedad, tristeza, depresión, intentos de suicidio, actitudes defensivas, entre otras (Ruiz y Gallardo, 2002). Resulta preocupante la falta de atención hacia este colectivo, pues, como señala Tremiño (2014), no es hasta el año 2010 cuando por parte del equipo clínico de la Fundación Carmen Pardo-Valcarce se crea una de las primeras unidades especializadas en la atención integral a víctimas con discapacidad intelectual (Unidad de Atención a Víctimas con Discapacidad Intelectual). ...
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Se presentan los resultados de un estudio parcial de caso único a través de la perspectiva biográfico-narrativa. Teniendo en cuenta un trabajo de campo previo más amplio, para este texto hemos realizado una entrevista semiestructurada y dos en profundidad para abordar de manera focal un caso de violación y abuso sexual a Teresa, persona diagnosticada con Discapacidad Intelectual (PCDI). De las entrevistas emergen diferentes categorías inductivas (violencia intrafamiliar –abusos sexuales, insultos, agresiones–, identidad como persona con discapacidad) que se abordan en la discusión en dos ejes interpretativos que se corresponden con dos etapas diferenciadas de la vida de la participante (la naturalización de la violencia y el inicio del cambio como forma de lucha). Como resultados más destacables encontramos hechos, en una primera etapa, que nos hablan de la repetición en el tiempo de dos tipos de abusos (físico, emocional) por parte de sus familiares, entre los que reluce la condición de discapacidad, y, una segunda etapa, presentamos su proceso de subversión personal sobre el que Teresa pudo reconducir esta situación. Como parte de las conclusiones, entendimos las medidas preventivas y de respeto a la diversidad como elementos esenciales para erradicar la violencia hacia las PCDI.
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Video modeling was used to teach children with autism spectrum disorder how to respond to taped stranger lure scenarios and in-situ stranger lures. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess treatment effects. Measures consisted of reported verbal and motor responses to three abduction scenarios and actual responses to stranger lures planted near the children’s therapy program and within the children’s communities. Each child displayed increases in appropriate responses to taped abduction scenarios and in-situ stranger lures post-treatment. One year following the intervention 90% of the participants maintained and generalized the skills. This study indicated that children with ASD could learn to respond to taped stranger lure scenarios and correspondingly demonstrate these skills in situ and maintain these skills for at least one year following treatment.
Article
Compared to typically developing (TD) children, people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Exposure to ACEs is associated with adult ASD psychological comorbidities, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Occurrence of intrusive event reexperiencing, characteristic of PTSD, often causes social dysfunction in adults with ASD, but its pathological basis is unclear. This study examined brain regions related to the severity of intrusive reexperiencing and explored whether ACE severity was associated with that of intrusive reexperiencing and/or extracted regional gray matter volume. Forty-six individuals with ASD and 41 TD subjects underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of ACEs and intrusive reexperiencing. Brain regions related to the severity of intrusive reexperiencing in both groups were identified by voxel-based whole brain analyses. Associations among the severity of intrusive reexperiencing, that of ACEs, and gray matter volume were examined in both groups. The severities of intrusive reexperiencing and ACEs were significantly associated with reduced gray matter volume in the right precuneus in individuals with ASD but not in TD subjects. Although the right precuneus gray matter volume was smaller in individuals with ASD and severe ACEs than in those with mild ACEs or TD subjects, it was similar in the latter two groups. However, ACE-dependent gray matter volume reduction in the right precuneus led to intrusive reexperiencing in individuals with ASD. This suggests that exposure to ACEs is associated with right precuneus gray matter reduction, which is critical for intrusive reexperiencing in adults with ASD. Lay Summary Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and of subsequent manifestation of intrusive reexperiencing of stressful life events. The present study found that reduced gray matter volume in the right precuneus of the brain was associated with more severe intrusive reexperiencing of ACEs by individuals with ASD. These results suggest that ACEs affect neural development in the precuneus, which is the pathological basis of intrusive event reexperiencing in ASD.
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Zusammenfassung Einleitung Kinder und Jugendliche mit Behinderungen stellen eine Hochrisikogruppe dar, die signifikant häufiger von sexualisierter Gewalt betroffen ist als Kinder und Jugendliche ohne Behinderungen. Forschungsziele Das vorliegende narrative Review aktualisiert den Überblick über die internationale Forschungslage zu Prävalenz, Risikofaktoren und Interventionen von und bei sexualisierter Gewalt gegen Kinder und Jugendliche mit Behinderungen. Methoden Durch systematische Recherchen in Pubmed, PsycINFO und verschiedenen Suchmaschinen wurden 39 Publikationen extrahiert, die seit 2014 das Themenfeld der sexualisierten Gewalt gegen Kinder und Jugendliche mit Behinderungen beleuchten und damit einen Reviewartikel von 2014 aktualisieren. Ergebnisse Die eingeschlossenen 39 Artikel wurden in die Bereiche Epidemiologie (Prävalenz n = 17, Risikofaktoren n = 5, Folgen sexualisierter Gewalt n = 2), Versorgung (Prävention n = 7, Intervention n = 6) und Verschiedenes (n = 2) unterteilt. Eine aktuelle Metaanalyse unterstreicht das erhöhte Risiko für Kinder und Jugendliche mit Behinderungen im Vergleich zu Gleichaltrigen ohne Behinderungen, von sexualisierter Gewalt betroffen zu werden. Zwei neu entwickelte, strukturierte und evaluierte Präventionsprogramme treten diesem Risiko entgegen. Für die Versorgung von Kindern und Jugendlichen nach dem Erleben von sexualisierter Gewalt gibt es lediglich für Kinder und Jugendliche mit Hörbehinderungen eine Publikation mit konkreten Hinweisen; für alle anderen Behinderungsformen ließ sich auch seit 2014 kein evaluiertes Programm auffinden. Schlussfolgerung Implikationen für künftige Forschung zu sexualisierter Gewalt gegen Kinder und Jugendliche mit Behinderungen und deren Versorgung werden diskutiert.
Article
Recent international literature review identified an immense lack of publications on parenting capacity assessment and childhood disability. This is problematic given the established and substantially higher risk of neglect and abuse that disabled children encounter. This heightened risk is also compounded by multiple barriers to effective professional safeguarding practice. This paper particularly focuses on one complex aspect of these capacity assessments. Specifically, the convergence of identities such as gender, ethnicity and disability are considered through an intersectionality lens rather than dealing with these identities in a separate way. Specifically, Crenshaw’s theory of intersectionality is applied to existing research evidence to derive themes. These themes are presented in the paper as a means of informing critical thinking, for practitioners seeking to address convergent identities, within existing parenting capacity assessment frameworks and disability supplemental tools.
Article
Background Children's disabilities and long-term illnesses (DLTIs) are a significant risk factor in the development of maltreatment. Objective The study is focused on the association of children's DLTIs with child maltreatment and poly-victimization perpetrated by parents. Participants and setting The study is based on a 2013 Child Victim Survey (N = 11,364), which is a cross-sectional survey. This nationally representative survey focused on the life situation of Finnish children aged 12–17 years, as well as on experiences of violence, crime, and bullying. Methods Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of children's DLTIs and child maltreatment. Results Poly-victimization played a significant role in child maltreatment. Children's hearing impairment (OR 5.68, 95% Cl 2.25–14.35), physical disability (OR 3.32, 95% Cl 1.61–6.88), and mental health problems (OR 4.37, 95% Cl 1.63–11.72) increased the odds of poly-victimization more than other forms of abuse. The situation was similar with both somatic diseases (OR 1.59, 95% Cl 1.14–2.21) and psychiatric illnesses (OR 2.12, 95% Cl 1.36–2.47) in children. Further, somatic and psychiatric multimorbidity in children increased the odds of poly-victimization (OR 4.17, 95% Cl 2.25–7.75) slightly more than risk of physical abuse (OR 3.57, 95% 1.11–11.49). As control variables, child's gender and age, the family financial situation, and the parent's intimate partner violence were adjusted in all of the analyses. Conclusion Clinical professionals should consider children's multimorbidity as a potential risk factor of maltreatment. The results of the study can be used to support families and children with DLTIs.
Article
Sex education is critical for the development of healthy sexual identity and relationships. However, students with intellectual disability and/or on the autism spectrum often receive less holistic sex education in comparison to their neurotypical counterparts. A scoping review was undertaken to determine parents’, teachers’ and students’ perspectives, attitudes and experiences related to sex education for high school-aged students with intellectual disability and/or on the autism spectrum. Findings revealed that only a few studies consulted students themselves, while most sought only parents’ and teachers’ perspectives. Teachers and parents had generally positive attitudes towards sex education for students with intellectual disability and/or on the autism spectrum. However, teachers’ beliefs may prevent them from delivering sex education as intended. Furthermore, parents reported a lack of confidence in discussing sexuality with their children. Well-designed, disability-inclusive education programmes that prioritise safety, assertiveness and self-determination can support positive outcomes. Removing barriers to sex education in schools, and learning from students with intellectual disability and/or on the autism spectrum what they think could improve things for themselves and peers, is key to supporting them with their needs.
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Individuals with physical, intellectual, and developmental disabilities reproductively mature at the same rate as the general population. However, they often lag far behind their peers in access to education about the emotional, social, and medical challenges that accompany the physical changes of the emerging adult. Access to education and reproductive health services is essential for the development of a sense of self, establishing fulfilling physical and emotional relationships, and protection from abuse and poor outcomes that can be anticipated and prevented. The approach to a patient’s sexuality and reproductive health needs varies across disabilities and chronic conditions. Understanding that each patient is a sexual being who requires attention to sexuality and reproductive health needs will optimize the mental health, safety, and general health outcomes across the spectrum of physical, intellectual, and developmental disabilities. This chapter will address the needs of this complex population by offering insight into the problems of limited sexuality education, understanding the risk of abuse, addressing alternative approaches to ensuring access to preventative sexual health and routine screenings, and maximizing the opportunities for healthy relationships.
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Purpose of Review This paper reviews the empirical literature on exposures to disaster or terrorism and their impacts on the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families since the last published update in 2017. We also review the literature on studies examining the mental health and functioning of children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent Findings Few studies have examined the effects of disaster or terrorism on children with disabilities. Research shows that children with disabilities and their families have higher levels of disaster exposure, lower levels of disaster preparedness, and less recovery support due to longstanding discriminatory practices. Similarly, many reports of the COVID-19 pandemic have documented its negative and disproportionate impacts on children with disabilities and their families. Summary In the setting of climate change, environmental disasters are expected to increase in frequency and severity. Future studies identifying mitigating factors to disasters, including COVID-19; increasing preparedness on an individual, community, and global level; and evaluating post-disaster trauma-informed treatment practices are imperative to support the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families.
Article
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011, this study examined the associations between spanking experiences and children's subsequent reading and math scores. Two different groups were matched on a range of family sociodemographics and children's initial reading and math scores using entropy balancing: not spanked vs spanked (Ns=17,171–17,537); and not recently vs recently spanked (Ns=10,393–10,724). Sample sizes were provided in ranges because they varied across multiple imputed data sets. The results of the lagged dependent variable regression analyses showed that a lifetime experience of spanking by age 5 did not predict children's subsequent reading and math scores. However, children who were recently spanked at the age of 5 showed significantly lower reading and math scores at ages 6 and 7 compared with those who were spanked but not recently. These results, replicated using different estimation methods (i.e., difference score analyses), strengthen the argument that spanking may impair early reading and math skills.
Article
Family violence, including child maltreatment (CM) and intimate partner violence (IPV), plagues far too many American families, particularly those in low-income communities. CM and IPV are intertwined and impose a significant emotional, health and financial burden on children and families and an economic burden on our country. Although these and other forms of violence are influenced by shared risk factors across the socioecological spectrum, prevention efforts typically intervene on a single type of violence at a microsystem level via individual or family intervention. Research is needed to identify policies operating at macrosystem levels that reduce, at scale, multiple forms of violence affecting children. In this paper, we propose a three-step theory of change through which health insurance expansions might reduce rates of CM and IPV, using Medicaid expansion as an exemplar. The proposed framework can inform research examining the link between health insurance and the primary prevention of CM and IPV.
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Karaman-Kepenekci, Y. ve Baydık, B. (2009) Zihin Engelliler Öğretmen Adaylarının Çocuk Haklarına İlişkin Tutumları. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 42(1): 329–350
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Not all groups are equally likely to be subject to acts of aggression; specific subgroups are more likely to be victimized. For example, youth who identify as a sexual minority are more likely to be victims of traditional forms of bullying than their heterosexual friends. There has been less research, however, on population subgroups and the likelihood of becoming a victim of cyber aggression. In exploring this topic, this chapter examines several questions including, “How important is the amount of time spent online as an intermediate variable in predicting whether an individual will become a victim of cyber aggression?” and “Does sexual orientation impact the likelihood of being a victim of cyberaggression above and beyond the amount of time spent online?” Multivariate statistical methods and survey data from the Pew Research Center for the year 2014 was used in this analysis.
Chapter
This chapter discusses research findings on intellectual disability (ID), criminal law, and the different forms of aggressive behavior such as sexual violence, homicide, theft, arson, and alcohol-drug abuse. ID is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by significantly impaired and varying intellectual-adaptive functioning. Given that a number of legal issues have been raised over the past decades regarding individuals with ID and civil as well as criminal law, particular attention will also be given to neuropsychological research regarding civil law and the most common problems for individuals with ID, such as financial capacity and capacity for medical consent. Finally, there will be a section for the most important issues regarding the trial and conviction for individuals with ID, and a presentation of a research on attitudes toward ID and legal issues. The chapter concludes with suggestions for reform of the law relating to ID and the need for further research.
Article
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Sexual abuse is an unwanted sexual activity which the perpetrator uses force upon, makes threats against, or takes advantage of the victim without his / her consent. This study aims to draw attention to the sexual abuse which individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder are exposed to. With this aim, news published online in national, local and regional Turkish newspapers between the years of 2015-2019 related to this issue were analyzed. To reach the related media content, one of the news agencies’ archive was utilized to search for published news via keywords (“sexual abuse”, “sexual assault”, “sexual harassment”, “rape” and “intellectual”, “handicapped”, “disabled”, “autism” and “Down”). As a result, 11351 news related to those keywords were reached and the total number of retained news was 1124. In this study, document analysis was carried out using deductive content analysis to analyze the content of news related to sexual abuse of individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Findings are discussed; suggestions for researchers, legislators, families, teachers, and practitioners are posed.
Chapter
Pediatric clinicians are key players in the sexual and reproductive health of children. Although clinicians often think about sexuality and sexual development during adolescence, it is essential that healthcare professionals address sexual development and gender identity in a culturally effective and developmentally appropriate manner with children and their caregivers. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published guidelines for the promotion of healthy sexual development and sexuality spanning birth to adolescence. Clinicians have an opportunity to have open discussion with caregivers about healthy intimacy during infancy, sexual exploration during early childhood, and various elements of sexuality during middle childhood.
Chapter
People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) can be involved in several ways to prevent abuse. This chapter begins with a definition of the concept of active prevention. Active prevention focuses on empowering people to maximize their abilities and learn risk reduction and decision-making strategies to protect themselves. The relevance of this mode of prevention is discussed, as are some of its limits. The chapter then examines the concepts of individual and collective social vulnerability and various ways of measuring the social vulnerability of people with IDD. Finally, the results of research carried out in the French-speaking part of Switzerland are presented. These studies introduce the development of a measure of social vulnerability and present some considerations after implementation of the French translation of ESCAPE-DD, a decision-making abuse prevention intervention for people with IDD.
Article
Objective This study examines how disability is associated with risk during the transition to adulthood for youth who age out of foster care and considers how experiences in the child welfare system contribute to these associations. Background The transition to adulthood is important for later socioeconomic standing, health, and wellbeing. Youth who age out of foster care with disabilities may require a high level of support during this transition yet may lack support. Method This study employs linear probability models to estimate the association between disability and incarceration, homelessness, childbearing, and substance abuse between ages 17 and 21 using linked administrative data from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (N=5,221). Results Having a physical or sensory disability is associated with lower risk in the transition to adulthood. Alternatively, having an emotional or mental related disability is associated with increased risk of incarceration and homelessness, but the association with homelessness is accounted for by child welfare experiences. Conclusion Due to the importance of foster care and child protective histories in explaining some risky outcomes for youth with emotional and mental disabilities, policy makers and practitioners should include those early stages of care when seeking it improve outcomes in the transition to adulthood for youth with disabilities who age out of foster care.
Article
Full-text available
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems.
Article
Full-text available
We have studied the impact of various kinds of abuse and neglect on the child's perception of himself and his future. We found, when considering physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, that less than 5% of these mistreatments occurred in isolation. Since the vast majority of mistreated children are subject to more than one kind of abuse or neglect, it was important to delineate which combinations have the greatest effect. We found that a combination of physical neglect, physical abuse, and verbal abuse had the greatest impact on children, affecting such things as their enjoyment of living and hopes for the future. An early age of onset for verbal abuse and emotional neglect was significantly associated with greater severity and frequency of mistreatment. Neglect appears to be a precursor to abuse in many cases.
Article
A laboratory analogue of naturalistic observation was used to examine the relationship of observer drift to instructional set and experimenter status. 3 instructional sets (no check, random check, and spot check) and 2 levels of experimenter status were studied. Results indicated a highly significant decrease in observer reliability coinciding with the shift from training to data collection. This performance decrement was observed in all 3 instructional set conditions. Within the spot-check condition, reliability on spot-check days was found to be significantly greater than mean reliability immediately before and after spot checks. Further results revealed that observers trained by the high-status experimenter performed less reliably than observers trained by the other 2 experimenters. The possible implications of these results for future observational research and suggestions for minimizing observer drift are discussed.
Article
This study investigated the frequency with which a group of identified child abuse victims in a single year appeared in independently gathered school records as manifesting developmental difficulties. Records from school entry were studied to determine the frequency of school behavioral problems, suspensions, and referral to special education consideration. This procedure based on independent and previously existing records yielded substantially lesser evidence of problems and handicapping conditions than those reported in the literature.RésuméEn se basant sur un ensemble de dossiers scolaires réunis d'une manière indépendante, cette étude se propose de calculer la fréquence annuelle avec laquelle un groupe identifié d'enfants maltraités présente des difficultés dans leur développement. Les dossiers scolaires ont été examinés afin de déterminer la fréquence des problèmes de conduite à l'école, les suspensions, ainsi que les renvois pour considération en vue d'une éducation spéciale. Cette recherche basée sur des dossiers scolaires indépendants et déjà existants montre que les enfants maltraités ne présentent pas autant de problèmes de développement et de handicaps que ne le suggère la littérature.
Article
Child abuse and neglect state liaison officers representing 50 states and 7 U.S. territories were surveyed regarding data collection procedures, accuracy of reporting, state assistance to local agencies, and training for child welfare workers in the area of maltreated children with disabilities. The current study is a replication of a similar survey conducted by Camblin in 1982. Results indicate that (a) more states provided assistance to local child welfare agencies than was reported in 1982, (b) the number of states that routinely collected disability information in child maltreatment cases had declined, (c) seven states documented specific disabilities in children, (d) two states reported on the number of children disabled as a result of abuse, (e) fewer states reported having accurate information on the incidence of disabled children reported for maltreatment, and (f) seven states required training in disabilities for child welfare workers, with an average of four hours required. Implications of the results for identifying and serving maltreated children with disabilities are discussed and recommendations for child welfare agencies are presented.
Article
The literature on the contribution of low birthweight, perinatal problems, congenital disorders, and mental retardation to child abuse is reviewed. While existing transactional and ecological theories suggest such child factors should contribute to abuse, a careful analysis of studies indicates handicapping conditions are not major causal factors. Results of prospective, longitudinal research suggest that minor deviations in child behavior rather than major handicaps are related to the occurrence of abuse. Efforts to help families adjust to having a handicapped child, while helpful in alleviating the stresses in such families, will not have a major impact on the incidence of abuse.
Article
This abstract uses graphs and text to summarize recent statistics on the education of children with disabilities based on data from the U.S. Department of Education. It reports that 12.2 percent of students enrolled in American schools in 1993-94 were officially designated as having disabilities. More than two-thirds of students have mental or emotional impairments with 51.2 percent of all students with disabilities identified as having learning disabilities, followed by speech/language impairments (21.2 percent), mental retardation (11.3 percent), and "serious emotional disturbances" (8.7 percent). Much smaller numbers were reported for hearing, orthopedic, visual, multiple, and other disabilities. Analysis indicated that 70.4 percent of students with disabilities spend at least two-fifths of their school day attending classes with non-disabled students; students least likely to be integrated are those with mental retardation, multiple disabilities, or deaf-blindness. Data from 1991-92 indicate that 57.3 percent of students with disabilities graduate from high school with ordinary diplomas. Concerning postsecondary education, statistics from 1992-93 indicate that 6.3 percent of college undergraduates and 4.0 percent of graduate and professional students identify themselves as having a disability. A 1990 survey of former special education students found that 16.5 percent had attended college. (DB)
Article
Investigated the relationship of child abuse and neglect to academic achievement and discipline problems in a school-age population. A representative community sample of 420 maltreated children in kindergarten through Grade 12 were matched with 420 nonmaltreated children in the same community. Using social service and school records as the sources of data, the authors found maltreated children performed significantly below their nonmaltreated peers in standardized tests and grades and were more likely to repeat a grade. Maltreated children also had significantly more discipline referrals and suspensions. Of the maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest outcomes on academic performance, and physically abused children showed the most discipline problems. Variations in maltreatment effects by grade level, public assistance status, and gender are also described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Why is the abuse of individuals with disabilities so prevalent, and how can it be prevented? This . . . reference addresses these questions and describes proven prevention strategies to promote the personal safety and well-being of individuals with disabilities. The author combines his extensive experience working in the human services with his distinguished background in research to present information that is both authoritative and revealing. Case studies, alarming statistics, and an integrated ecological model of abuse make this . . . volume one that will compel society to confront the conditions that foster abuse and finally end "the silence." This book offers [specific guidance] for professionals and families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
More than any other subtype of abuse and neglect, psychological maltreatment offers a number of unique challenges to theoreticians and researchers. Although progress has been made, contention still remains over the definition of psychological maltreatment and its relation to other forms of child abuse and neglect (Brassard, Germain, & Hart, 1987; Garbarino, Guttmann, & Seeley, 1986). Thus, the definition and operationalization of psychological maltreatment continue to be important issues that require further research and explanation. In fact, the development of standardized definitions and assessment techniques for all forms of maltreatment is crucial to increase communication across laboratories, and across disciplines.
Article
Using census and administrative agency data for 177 urban census tracts, variation in rates of officially reported child maltreatment is found to be related to structural determinants of community social organization: economic and family resources, residential instability, household and age structure, and geographic proximity of neighborhoods to concentrated poverty. Furthermore, child maltreatment rates are found to be intercorrelated with other indicators of the breakdown of community social control and organization. These other indicators are similarly affected by the structural dimensions of neighborhood context. Children who live in neighborhoods that are characterized by poverty, excessive numbers of children per adult resident, population turnover, and the concentration of female-headed families are at highest risk of maltreatment. This analysis suggests that child maltreatment is but one manifestation of community social organization and that its occurrence is related to some of the same underlying macro-social conditions that foster other urban problems.
Article
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences—in particular family structure and maternal schooling—between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems.
Article
In this paper we examine the relationship between neighborhood poverty and three different types of child maltreatment; neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We explore both rates of reporting and rates of substantiated reports across low, moderate, and high poverty areas. We use 1990 Census data and Child Protective Services (CPS) data to study this relationship. We find that neighborhood poverty is positively associated with all three forms of child maltreatment, but to different degrees. Of the three types of child maltreatment, child neglect is most powerfully associated with neighborhood poverty status.RésuméCet article examine le lien entre la pauvreté du voisinage et 3 types de maltraitance: la négligence, les mauvais traitements physiques et l'abus sexuel. Nous explorons aussi bien les signalements que les signalements confirmés dans des quartiers pas trés pauvres, modérément pauvres et très pauvres. Nous utilisons le Recensement 1991 et les données des Services de Protection de l'Enfance pour étudier ce lien. Nous trouvons que la pauvreté du voisinage est associée positivement aux trois types de maltraitance, mais à des degrés divers. Des trois types de maltraitance, c'est la négligence qui est le plus associée à la pauvreté du voisinage.ResumenEn este artículo se estudia la relación entre la pobreza del vecindario y tres tipos diferentes de maltrato infantil: negligencia, maltrato fisico, y abuso sexual. Se exploran las tasas de notificaciones y de notificaciones confirmadas en areas de pobreza baja, moderada, y alta. Para estudiar esta relación se utilizan datos del censo de 1990 y datos de los Servicios de Protección Infantil. Se encuentra que la pobreza del vecindario está asociada positivamente con las tres formas de maltrato infantil, pero en grados diferentes. De los tres tipos de maltrato, la negligencia es la que está asociada de manera más intensa con la pobreza del vecindario.
Article
Friedrich and Boriskin's (1976) seminal review presented compelling evidence pointing toward the contribution of child factors in heightening risk for physical abuse. Indeed, many authors currently accept that certain child characteristics (e.g., prematurity, low birthweight) can directly lead to abuse. Much of the data in this area, however, is based on methodologically weak designs, and recent findings do not support the premise that children have a major role in the etiology of abuse. There is some suggestion that children with relatively circumscribed features may add to risk in families that already exhibit additional factors predisposing them to maltreatment. This paper re-examines the role of the child in abuse, reviews recent relevant research findings, and offers new directions that research in this area might take.
Article
Mothers from 198 low-income, female-headed families enrolled in child protective services because of child abuse or neglect were compared with an equal number of age-matched controls, to determine if unplanned childbearing and family size increase the risk of child neglect or abuse. Logistic regression analyses suggest that unplanned childbearing increases the risk of child abuse but not of child neglect. Large family size significantly raises the risk of both types of maltreatment, although this factor had a greater effect on the risk of abuse than on the risk of neglect. Finally, unplanned childbearing appears to be indirectly related to abuse through its effect on family size.
Article
Evidence suggests that handicapped children are at increased risk for abuse and neglect. Communicatively impaired youngsters are particularly vulnerable because of their limited ability to report the maltreatment. Of 482 abused handicapped children evaluated at Boys Town National Research Hospital, 212 had hearing impairment, 87 speech language disorders, 39 learning disorders, 43 behavioral-emotional disturbances, 74 mental retardation, 5 visual impairment, 3 cleft lip or palate, and 19 other disorders. The perpetrator was either a relative or a "trusted other" in 97.2% of sexual abuse cases. Handicapped males were much more likely to be victims of sexual abuse than nonhandicapped males in the general population. Children being educated in residential schools were more likely to be sexually abused than mainstreamed youngsters. These children may be at risk for abuse from a wide variety of potential perpetrators, including teachers, dormitory counselors, van drivers, clergy, classroom aides, older students, peer siblings, scout leaders, abused peers, baby-sitters, and custodians.
Article
Forty-five children who had been sexually abused were psychologically evaluated. Parents or guardians of the children completed symptom checklists. Results indicated that the majority of children (71%) were abused 4 or fewer times. In addition, genital manipulation and/or fondling was the most common form of abuse. In 82% of the cases, there were no marital separations or family breakups of any kind within six months before or six months after the abuse. Many children (69%) displayed psychological symptoms. The most frequent were nightmares, bedwetting, clinging behavior, inappropriate sexual behavior, anxiety and sadness. Results of this study are largely inconsistent with popular notions about the nature of child sexual abuse. The major methodological shortcoming of the investigation was the lack of a systematic control group.
Article
This paper reports the extent to which states assemble information on the incidence of abuse and neglect among handicapped populations. Data were collected from all states on the types of pre-existing disabilities cited on child abuse reporting forms and the perceived accuracy of this information. The study also sought to identify specific methods used to provide assistance to local agencies regarding the problems associated with abuse of the handicapped. Surveys were distributed to and completed by representatives of the designated child protection agencies within each state and the District of Columbia (n = 51). General findings were that although it is generally acknowledged in research that handicapped children represent a disproportionate number of abuse and neglect victims, nearly half of the states do not collect any information on "special characteristics." Forms from the remaining states exhibited much variation in style and in the competency of collection techniques. These results suggest a significant lack of services specifically designed to improve the awareness of field representatives on the influence of exceptionalities in abusive cases. This information indicates that training and prevention programs will remain basically inadequate until the relationship between handicapped conditions and abuse/neglect is more clearly defined.
Article
Using census and administrative agency data for 177 urban census tracts, variation in rates of officially reported child maltreatment is found to be related to structural determinants of community social organization: economic and family resources, residential instability, household and age structure, and geographic proximity of neighborhoods to concentrated poverty. Furthermore, child maltreatment rates are found to be intercorrelated with other indicators of the breakdown of community social control and organization. These other indicators are similarly affected by the structural dimensions of neighborhood context. Children who live in neighborhoods that are characterized by poverty, excessive numbers of children per adult resident, populations turnover, and the concentration of female-headed families are at highest risk of maltreatment. This analysis suggests that child maltreatment is but one manifestation of community social organization and that its occurrence is related to some of the same underlying macro-social conditions that foster other urban problems.
Article
This study examined the role of residential and school mobility as a mediator between child maltreatment and academic outcomes. Using a sample of 711 maltreated and nonmaltreated children ranging from 5 to 15 years old matched on gender, grade, school, and socioeconomic status, path analytic techniques were employed to assess direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on recent achievement test scores, current grades, and grade repetitions. The results indicated that mobility did help account for the effects of maltreatment on each of the outcomes. For grades in English/reading, 32.7% of the effect of maltreatment was accounted for by amount of mobility, while for test scores and grade repetitions the numbers were 14.6% and 19.1%, respectively.
Article
Long-term intellectual and academic outcomes associated with early childhood victimization were studied using a sample of previously abused and neglected individuals (n = 413) and a matched control group (n = 286). IQ (Quick Test) and reading ability (WRAT-R) were assessed at approximately age 28 and differences between the groups were compared via multivariate analyses. Abused and neglected and control group individuals differed significantly in IQ and reading ability, even when controlling for age, sex, race, and social class. Types of maltreatment were associated with differences in IQ and reading ability in young adulthood. The limitations of this study are discussed as well as the role of IQ and/or reading ability as potential mediating variables for other outcomes.
Article
In a previous report, we demonstrated that adolescents' adjustment varies as a function of their parents' style (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful). This 1-year follow-up was conducted in order to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time. In 1987, an ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of approximately 2,300 14-18-year-olds provided information used to classify the adolescents' families into 1 of 4 parenting style groups. That year, and again 1 year later, the students completed a battery of standardized instruments tapping psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and behavior problems. Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time. However, whereas the benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment, the deleterious consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate.
Article
Using a prospective cohorts design, we assess the long-term criminal consequences of childhood sexual abuse through an examination of official criminal histories for a large sample of validated cases of childhood sexual abuse, compared to cases of physical abuse and neglect and a control group matched for age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic status. Compared to other types of abuse and neglect, early childhood sexual abuse does not uniquely increase an individual's risk for later delinquent and adult criminal behavior. Childhood sexual abuse victims were at increased risk of arrest as a juvenile for being a runaway. As adults, child sexual abuse victims were at higher risk of arrest for sex crimes than controls, as were victims of physical abuse and neglect. Childhood sexual abuse victims were more likely to be arrested for prostitution as adults than other abuse and neglect victims and controls, regardless of gender. However, there was no support for a direct relationship among child sexual abuse, arrests for running away in adolescence, and adult arrests for prostitution. The findings also suggest an association for males between physical abuse and arrests for violent sex crimes (rape and/or sodomy). Caution is needed in interpreting these findings because of exclusive reliance on official record data and the possible impact of agency intervention.
Article
Studies of the impact of abuse or neglect on children have focused largely on maltreated infants, toddlers, or preschool children. In this study a total of 139 school-age and adolescent children participated in a multi-model, multi-source assessment; 22 of the children had been physically abused, 47 had been neglected, and the remainder served as comparison subjects. Parent and child interviews, teacher ratings, and data from school records were used to comprehensively assess children's school performance; social and emotional development in school, at home, in the community, and with peers; and adaptive behavior in areas such as motor skills, personal care skills, and community orientation. With the effects of socioeconomic status covaried out, results showed that the abused children displayed pervasive and severe academic and socioemotional problems. Neglected children differed little from children who were neither abused nor neglected on measures of socioemotional development, but they displayed severe academic delays. Both groups of maltreated children showed unexpected strengths on measures of adaptive behavior.
Article
The present study examines the effect of child neglect, alone and in combination with abuse, on academic achievement and school disciplinary problems for elementary, junior high, and senior high students. The sample included 324 neglected children and adolescents, and a matched nonmaltreated sample of 420 children and adolescents. All subjects were in grades K through 12 in a small city in New York state. The results revealed that neglected children did perform more poorly than their nonmaltreated counterparts, having lower grades, more suspensions, more disciplinary referrals, and more grade repetitions, even when controlling for gender of child and SES. Neglect alone and neglect in combination with physical or sexual abuse was related to lower grades and more suspensions. The combination of abuse and neglect had a particularly strong effect on the number of disciplinary referrals and grade repetitions. Abused/neglected students in junior high had the highest number of grade repetitions. The number of disciplinary referrals continued to increase through senior high for both neglected and abused/neglected students. Interestingly, the academic performance of all subjects dropped during junior high. Neglect and neglect in combination with abuse appeared to exacerbate a decline in academic performance that occurs as children enter junior high school.
Article
The differential effects of neglect and physical abuse on psychological functioning are not well understood. The present study examined the relationship between reported neglect and physical abuse and symptomatology and attachment styles in a sample of 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. In contrast to physical abuse, which must involve some parental involvement in a child's life, neglect is characterized by a lack of parent-child interaction. As such, it was hypothesized that childhood neglect would be more predictive of symptomatology and dysfunctional attachment styles than would physical abuse. Results confirmed the expected relationship between neglect and more severe psychological problems and anxious attachment styles. Implications of these results point to the need to focus both empirically and theoretically on neglect and physical abuse as potentially separate moderators of psychosocial functioning.
Article
In this paper we examined the relationship between neighborhood poverty and three different types of child maltreatment; neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We explore both rates of reporting and rates of substantiated reports across low, moderate, and high poverty areas. We use 1990 Census data and Child Protective Services (CPS) data to study this relationship. We find that neighborhood poverty is positively associated with all three forms of child maltreatment, but to different degrees. Of the three types of child maltreatment, child neglect is most powerfully associated with neighborhood poverty status.
Article
Two questions were posed: (1) What are the proportions of boys and girls in various categories of substantiated child abuse? (2) Do the gender proportions differ for children with and without disabilities? Data collected by previous researchers from a demographically representative sample of U.S. child abuse reporting districts was analyzed. This included 1,249 case files involving 1,834 children. The number of girls and boys who did and did not have disabilities was identified for three age categories and for several categories of abuse. Chi-square analyses were used to determine whether there was a relationship between disability and gender for the various age and abuse categories. More boys were physically abused and neglected, but more girls were sexually abused. Boys with disabilities, however, were over-represented in all categories of abuse. Moreover, gender proportions among abused children with disabilities differed significantly from those found among other abused children. Although slightly more than half of abused children without disabilities were girls, 65% of abused children with disabilities were boys. Boys represented a significantly larger proportion of physically abused, sexually abused, and neglected children with disabilities than would be expected from their respective proportion of abused and neglected children without disabilities. Several possible explanations for the observed gender and disability status interaction are discussed.
Article
Circumstances of maltreatment and the presence of disabilities. An electronic merger of the records of all pediatric patients. Detailed record analysis of circumstances of maltreatment and the presence of disabilities. Differences between the Hospital and Residential samples, maltreatment and perpetrator characteristics, disability/maltreatment relationships, and their implications for primary health care are discussed.
Article
The effects of neighborhood and family income and family risk factors on developmental test scores at ages 1 through 3 are examined using a subsample (N = 347) from the Infant Health and Development Program. Beneficial effects of low numbers of risks were found for scores at ages 1 through 3. Family poverty was associated with lower scores at ages 2 and 3. Neighborhood affluence was associated with higher scores at age 3. The family risks-test score association at ages 1 through 3 and family income-test score association at ages 2 and 3 were mediated by home environment. Mediated effects were stronger for family income-test score associations at age 3 than for neighborhood income. Moderating effects of family risk on family and neighborhood income effects revealed an interaction between family poverty and risks for scores at age 3. Explanations for the early links between family risks and test scores and the later links between income and test scores are discussed.
Article
The relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production were examined in preschool children (N = 75) attending center-based child care. Three behavioral dimensions, shy/anxious/internalizing, angry/aggressive/externalizing, and social competence, were assessed by teacher report and classroom observation, and their relations with 2 measures of cortisol activity, median (or typical) levels and reactivity (quartile range score between second and third quartile values) were explored. Cortisol-behavior relations differed by gender: significant associations were found for boys but not for girls. Specifically, for boys externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median cortisol. Time of day of cortisol measurement affected the results. Surprisingly, median cortisol levels rose from morning to afternoon, a pattern opposite to that of the typical circadian rhythm of cortisol. This rise in cortisol over the day was positively correlated with internalizing behavior for boys. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings for the study of the development of hormone-behavior relations are discussed.
Central registries for child abuse and neglect: A national review of records management, due process safeguards, and data utilization
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