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Maltreatment and Disabilities: A Population-Based Epidemiological Study

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Maltreatment and Disabilities: A Population-Based Epidemiological Study

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To assess the prevalence of abuse and neglect among a population of children identified as a function of an existing disability, relate specific types of disabilities to specific types of abuse, and to determine the effect of abuse and neglect on academic achievement and attendance rates for children with and without disabilities. An electronic merger of school records with Central Registry, Foster Care Review Board, and police databases was followed by a detailed record review of the circumstances of maltreatment. Analyses of the circumstances of maltreatment and the presence of disabilities established a 9% prevalence rate of maltreatment for nondisabled children and a 31% prevalence rate for the disabled children. Thus, the study established a significant association between the presence of an educationally relevant disability and maltreatment. Children with disabilities are 3.4 times more likely to be maltreated than nondisabled peers. School professionals need to be cognizant of the high base rate of maltreatment among the children they serve. Disability status needs to be considered in national incidence studies of maltreatment.

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... Indeed, those with lower education and fewer friends also had less awareness of risk, increasing their social vulnerability. Social vulnerability also appears to tap into some skill over and above either IQ, social intelligence or adaptive behavior (Fisher et al., 2018;Sofronoff et al., 2011;Wilson et al., 1996). Social vulnerability does not systematically lead to abuse, but it indicates a likelihood of being abused. ...
... Social vulnerability does not systematically lead to abuse, but it indicates a likelihood of being abused. In comparison with other variables such as anxiety, anger, behavior problems and social skills, social vulnerability was found to be the best predictor of bullying victimization for children with Asperger Syndrome (Sofronoff et al., 2011). Likewise, social vulnerability distinguished victims of interpersonal violence (assault, sexual assault, robbery, financial exploitation, break-in) from non-victims in the previous year in a sample of adults with ID (Wilson et al., 1996) The assessment of social vulnerability aims to evaluate the ability of a person to detect potentially harmful interpersonal situations (Seward et al., 2018). ...
... Likewise, social vulnerability distinguished victims of interpersonal violence (assault, sexual assault, robbery, financial exploitation, break-in) from non-victims in the previous year in a sample of adults with ID (Wilson et al., 1996) The assessment of social vulnerability aims to evaluate the ability of a person to detect potentially harmful interpersonal situations (Seward et al., 2018). People with disabilities, particularly those with intellectual disabilities, are significantly more at risk of being victims of interpersonal violence than the general population (Dion et al., 2011;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Not all social institutions providing services for adults with ID in Switzerland have a psychologist on staff: the assessments are sometimes carried out by educational staff or the team/center manager. ...
Article
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Background: A test identified as valid and accurate in research will not automatically be considered appropriate by those involved in its use, or even be used in the first place. The Social Vulnerability Test-22 items [TV-22] is a measure specially designed for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aims to evaluate the implementation outcomes of the TV-22; more precisely its acceptability (e.g., complexity), appropriateness (e.g., perceived relevance) and the assessment fidelity (i.e., adherence to assessment guidelines) by special education practitioners. Procedures: Thirty-one practitioners (8 psychologists, 11 educators, 12 special education center managers) administered the TV-22 during an interview with an adult with ID. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect practitioners' opinions on the acceptability and the appropriateness of the TV-22 for their clinical practice. Quantitative analyses were performed to assess the fidelity of the assessments and the influence of some personal factors. Results: The results indicate a good appropriateness, a reasonable acceptability, - but a low assessment fidelity of the TV-22 by some practitioners. Psychologists stand out for a more rigorous use of the test. Implications: Results highlight the importance of evaluating implementation outcomes when a new measure is developed to ensure its appropriateness and correct use by stakeholders.
... Child abuse and neglect among children with disabilities According to an American population-basedepidemiological study, as compared to children without disabilities, children with disabilities are at 3.7 times higher risk of physical abuse, 3.14 times higher risk for sexual abuse, and 3.8 times higher risk of emotional maltreatment 16 . The risk of maltreatment is variable within the different types of disabilities 17 . ...
... For example, children with visual impairment are more likely to be sexually abused and neglected as compared to typically developing peers. 16 Secondly, children with disabilities were more likely than children without disabilities to experience multiple forms of maltreatment (63% vs. 54.9%, respectively) and recurring episodes of maltreatment rather than a single episode (71% vs. 29%, respectively). ...
... For children with and without disabilities, it was seen that the perpetrators from immediate family accounted for 82.2% of cases of physical abuse, 89.5% of emotional abuse and 92.4% of neglect cases, whereas 53.1% of cases of child sexual abuse were accounted for by immediate and extended family members. 16 Thirdly, it can be seen that males with disabilities are at a much higher risk for physical abuse and neglect as compared to females, however, more females with disabilities are at a higher risk for sexual abuse than males. Whereas, among the non-disabled, maltreated children, girls are significantly more at risk for maltreatment including neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. ...
Article
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Background: Children with disabilities, are entitled to the same rights as enshrined in UNCRC because of the universality of this document. However, children with any kind of disability are at a much higher risk of maltreatment, especially in developing countries. This dynamic may be shaped by a lack of adequate laws, policies, trained staff, and coordination along with social context. Objective: While writing this article, a detailed desk review was carried out to explore the policies and legislations relevant to rights and protection of children with special needs. A small study was also conducted to explore the present situation of children with disabilities in terms of abuse and neglect and how they can be safeguarded against neglect and abuse in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We did detailed desk review of policies and legislations regarding protection of children. We also conducted 10 in-depth interviews to understand the condition of children with special needs in reference to child rights and child protection. Themes emerging from qualitative research are discussed to elaborate on the results. Results: Lack of awareness, illiteracy, parental poverty are risk factors whereas the joint family system contributes positively to the protection of children with disabilities. Conclusion: Linking with Pakistan’s commitments, policies, laws, existing systems, and social context, this study provides an insight on challenges, opportunities, and how the rights-based agenda of protecting children with disabilities can be taken forward. However, for more in depth knowledge of situation more detailed research needs to be conducted. Keywords: Children with disabilities, child abuse and neglect, child protection, Pakistan.
... The duration and severity of CM, age of exposure, and the types of CM are all predictive of lasting negative outcomes, including reduced health, reduced learning, problems with relationships and regulating emotions, increased risk for criminal activity, all of which contribute to difficulty obtaining and maintaining employment later in life (Ellison et al., 2018;Kairys et al., 2002). Children with disabilities are among the most likely to experience various forms of maltreatment (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Children with developmental disabilities who do not respond to typical parenting interventions are among the most at risk for exposure to parental maltreatment particularly while remote learning is occurring (Kairys et al., 2002;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). ...
... Children with disabilities are among the most likely to experience various forms of maltreatment (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Children with developmental disabilities who do not respond to typical parenting interventions are among the most at risk for exposure to parental maltreatment particularly while remote learning is occurring (Kairys et al., 2002;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). The rates of childhood maltreatment have increased during the pandemic for several reasons, including school closures, resulting in children being left alone when parents in essential and frontline service work are unable to work remotely; the added stress and strain within families affected by unemployment; and remote learning preventing school personnel, who are the most likely to report suspected child maltreatment, from detecting and reporting suspected maltreatment and neglect (Abramson, 2020). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly influenced all aspects of daily life. Especially hard hit during the pandemic are typically marginalized individuals, including individuals with chronic illnesses and disabilities. Vocational rehabilitation counselors are uniquely positioned to support these individuals both during and after the pandemic. The Illinois Work and Well-Being Model can be utilized by researchers and counselors supporting marginalized individuals as an effective theoretical framework to address anticipated COVID-19-related challenges. In this article we also provide insights into three potential issues that may be more likely to occur as a result of the pandemic. These issues are a delay in career development, an extended absence from work, and experiences of both primary and secondary trauma. We conclude by providing future directions for research that could impact the lives of individuals directly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Shakeshaft (2004) estimated that students with intellectual disabilities experienced sexual abuse three times more frequently than their neurotypical peers. Sullivan and Knutson (2000) found that people with intellectual disabilities had records of sexual abuse four times more than their neurotypical peers. To date, the literature is unclear whether children with autism are sexually abused at disproportionately high rates (Sullivan and Knutson 2000). ...
... Sullivan and Knutson (2000) found that people with intellectual disabilities had records of sexual abuse four times more than their neurotypical peers. To date, the literature is unclear whether children with autism are sexually abused at disproportionately high rates (Sullivan and Knutson 2000). That clearly changes, however, when people with autism become adults. ...
Article
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People with neurodevelopmental disabilities, including intellectual disabilities and autism, want to have relationships but few are given the tools and opportunity to create those relationships in a safe and meaningful way. This strong desire to have relationships, coupled with reduced access to information, puts people with neurodevelopmental disabilities at high risk for being targets of sexual abuse and exploitation, as well as demonstrating social-sexual behavior that is unexpected or offensive to others. Research has long demonstrated that people with intellectual disabilities are sexually assaulted at much higher rates than the general population. In addition, it is common for people with intellectual disabilities and autism to miss out on employment, housing, and social opportunities due to unexpected social-sexual behaviors. To address this need, the research team developed the social-sexual education (SSE) program to teach people with neurodevelopmental disabilities how to create safe and meaningful relationships while also giving them information about sexual abuse and coercion. We recruited licensed professionals to pilot test the SSE program, and then we evaluated the tool using quantitative and qualitative methods. Our findings provide preliminary support for the SSE program. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Compared to neurotypically developing peers, children with IDD were found to experience more coercive parenting (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000;Vig & Kaminer, 2002). Such negative parenting practice have been found to be correlated with poorer parental self-efficacy, worse parent-child relationships (Day et al., 2021), and higher levels of parental PTS (van Ee, Kleber, & Mooren, 2012). ...
Article
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Background: Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disorders often experience potentially traumatic events while caring for their children. Heightened posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) have been found in this population. Objective: We aimed to explore risk and protective factors for their PTS and PTG. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 385 parents (average age M = 43.14 years, SD = 7.40; 95.3% mothers). Results: Parenting trauma showed an adverse effect on developing PTS (beta = 0.25, p < .01) and a positive role in promoting PTG (beta = 0.16, p < .01). Social support was protective in its correlation with lower levels of PTS (beta = -0.12, p < .01) and higher levels of PTG (beta = 0.22, p < .01). Barriers to care were associated with increased PTS (beta = 0.23, p < .01), but unrelated to PTG (beta = .01, p = .855). Negative parenting showed a significant, but small, correlation with more severe PTS (beta = 0.11, p < .05), and was unrelated to PTG (beta = -0.09, p = .065). Conclusions: Our study increases the understanding of posttraumatic reactions in parents, predominantly mothers, of children with IDD and identified parenting-related trauma, social support, and barriers to mental health care as predictive factors of the reactions. More research is needed to confirm and validate the effects of the discussed factors. Although causation can not be inferred, prompt and adequate screening and therapeutic resources should be provided to those mothers who were exposed to multiple stressful caregiving events and had limited healthcare access and less support from their spouses, peers, and caregiving partners. Highlights: Parents of a child with Intellectual and Developmental Disorders with parenting trauma had higher posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG).Social support was related to lower PTS and higher PTG.Barriers to care were related to higher PTS but unrelated to PTG.
... Along with other immune mediated conditions, such as coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, it appears that disorders of autoimmunity contribute a significant burden of disease in our DS cohort. This is in keeping with existing hypothesises regarding immune dysfunction in DS19 118 203 208 .In both the primary and subgroup-analysis individuals with DS had a significantly increased study prevalence of non-accidental injury or maltreatment, compared with controls (Children of studies suggesting that the prevalence of maltreatment is higher among children with intellectual disability[308][309][310][311][312] , literature specific to DS is scant. As explored in the Background, there are two existing studies which show either no increased risk of maltreatment among children with DS, compared to the general population 314 , or no difference after adjustment for confounding factors 315 . ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Down Syndrome (DS) affects ~10,500 children in the UK. Individuals with DS continue to have poorer health outcomes compared with the general population, and other forms of intellectual disability. By systematically mapping two decades of paediatric DS literature, I found a general decline in the number of publications, since 2014. The majority of publications utilised observational methodologies, with few interventional (5.6%) or qualitative/mixed-method studies (4.3%). Most publications focused on development & cognition, oncology and neurology; relatively few looked at the prevalence of morbidities and health surveillance. Using a large electronic health record dataset I determined the prevalence of morbidities among individuals with DS (N=4,648, age range 0-75 years), and compared with matched controls. The most prevalent morbidities in the DS cohort were hypothyroidism (30.4%), congenital cardiac disease (27.8%), epilepsy (21.9%) and hearing impairment (19.2%). We also found an increased risk of autism (aOR 7.7), chronic kidney disease (aOR 2.3), inflammatory bowel disease (aOR 2.4), non-accidental injury (aOR 1.9), sleep disordered breathing (SDB) (aOR 6.6) and vitamin-D deficiency (aOR 3.1). Finally, I explored current practice with regard to the routine health surveillance of children with DS, in paediatric departments across the UK. Sixty four departments returned a copy of their local health surveillance protocol. Practice was compared across departments, and with three national guidelines. For congenital cardiac disease, hypothyroidism and hearing/visual impairment, practice appeared to be consistent and compliant with national guidelines. However, in other areas (echocardiogram at transition, SBD, vitamin-D deficiency & renal/liver function), practice was patchy and inconsistent. The findings highlight a need for ongoing research in the field of paediatric DS, targeted at areas of greatest need, and those morbidities which are prevalent in the DS cohort. Furthermore, our findings highlight a need a single, evidence based guideline for the health surveillance of children with DS, to promote high quality, consistent care.
... Experience of multiple types of maltreatment was significantly associated with ASD symptoms. A previous study showed that children experiencing multiple types of maltreatment had a higher number of family stress factors (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Our findings may suggest that family stress factors are especially high in children with ASD symptoms. ...
Article
The present study examined how maltreatment experience was associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children under institutional care. The key caregivers of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years who were under institutional care in Nagano prefecture, Japan were asked to answer the background questionnaire, ADHD‐Rating Scale, and the Japanese children's version of the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient. A total of 378 valid responses were obtained, of which 222 reported maltreatment experience prior to institutionalization. Both hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive scores were significantly higher in the maltreated group. Maltreatment experience was significantly associated with the presence of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (p = 0.003) and inattentive symptoms (p = 0.027). Particularly, those who had experienced physical abuse were significantly more likely to have hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (p = 0.012) and autistic trait (p = 0.002). Thorough assessment of neurodevelopmental symptoms should be performed when placing children with maltreatment experience into institutional care.
... les enfants vivaient majoritairement avec leur mère. Dans 45% des cas, la mère était seule au domicile, dans 22% des cas, la mère vit avec le père des enfants et dans 14% des cas, elle vit avec quelqu'un d'autre que le père.Il est également important de garder en tête certains facteurs comme déclenchant ou aggravant les situations de maltraitance.Sullivan et Knutson (2000) notent que les enfants en situation de handicap présentent entre 3 et 4 fois plus de risque de subir des actes de maltraitance (31% contre 9% dans la population témoin).Cette étude précise également les raisons qui ont déclenché le placement. Pour quatre enfants sur cinq, le placement est judiciaire. Les causes énoncées sont majoritaire ...
Thesis
Quels sont donc les motifs évoqués pour demander ou prononcer un placement d’enfant ? Même si la Loi les définit, ceux-ci n’ont-ils pas une part de perception subjective ? En effet, qu’est-ce que les conditions d’une éducation « gravement compromise » (art. 375 du Code Civil) ? Se désintéresser « manifestement » de son enfant (art. 350 du Code Civil) ? Peut-on donner une définition objective de « l’intérêt de l’enfant » ? Notre recherche s’est proposée d’analyser les arguments conduisant au placement de mineurs, en comparant trois périodes, à 5 ans d’intervalle, à partir de 2000, juste avant deux lois importantes de 2002, l’une rénovant l’action sociale et l’autre redéfinissant l’autorité parentale et introduisant « l’intérêt de l’enfant ». Nous posons l’hypothèse que les arguments avancés pour demander ou prononcer le placement évoluent dans le temps, notamment au regard des évolutions légales. Pour ce faire, nous avons analysé sémantiquement, avec le logiciel TROPES, les dossiers clos de 65 enfants placés, selon plusieurs critères : la période, l’âge des enfants et le sexe des enfants. Nous avons pu mettre en lumière une évolution des termes employés, avec des rapports éducatifs et des jugements s’étoffant au fil du temps et se focalisant de plus en plus sur les conditions de vie de l’enfant et son état psychique, et ce quelque soit l’âge et le sexe. Toutefois, d’autres différences ont pu être mises à jour: l’âge et le sexe des enfants influent sur l’expression de la symptomatologie de la maltraitance subie, mais aussi sur la perception qu’en ont les différents professionnels, travailleurs sociaux et juges.
... People with intellectual disabilities face a 4-10 times greater risk of becoming victims of sexual abuse than people without intellectual disabilities. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Although there is a wide variety of definitions of sexual abuse, most focus on sexual acts, a lack of consent and an idea of exploitation. 9 10 Research shows that sexual abuse is a prevalent problem for people with an intellectual disability. ...
Article
Objectives: To explore characteristics of sexual abuse within residential settings for people with an intellectual disability and to map out measures undertaken and improvement plans made by healthcare organisations after sexual abuse. Design: Descriptive analysis of reports about sexual violence against persons with an intellectual disability submitted to the Dutch Health and Youth Care Inspectorate by healthcare organisations. Setting: Residential settings for people with an intellectual disability in The Netherlands. Selection: 186 incident reports submitted to the Inspectorate between January 2017 and December 2019 were included. Results: 125 incident reports concerned sexual abuse by fellow clients and 61 reports concerned sexual abuse by professionals. Client perpetrators were predominantly male whereas almost 30% of the abusing professionals were female. The majority of the perpetrating professionals were unlicensed professionals. Clients who committed sexual abuse were mostly relocated to another residential setting. Most healthcare organisations invested in education and training for employees instead of improving the sexual education programme for clients after an incident of sexual abuse. If there was a strong suspicion of sexual abuse by a professional, resignation followed in most cases. In just two cases, the perpetrating professional was reported to a warning registry. Conclusions: A small amount of the perpetrating professionals held a licensed profession, which makes it challenging to address this form of sexual abuse through healthcare regulation. It raises the question why warning registries are not engaged more often after alleged sexual abuse. Constantly relocating abusing clients might endanger the (sexual) safety of clients in these new environments. Previous literature suggests that adequate sexual education regarding social skills and sexual behaviour is very effective for the majority of clients who commit sexual abuse. Healthcare organisations could take up a more prominent role in this to ensure safety for their own clients and for clients residing elsewhere.
... Poor social ability can be associated with an increased risk of exposure to adverse life experiences in ASD. Children with developmental disabilities, including ASD, are likely to experience maltreatment, bullying, and maladaptation in the local community and social life (9). Thus, these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) reportedly cause poor selfesteem and motivation, thus resulting in subsequent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse in adults with ASD (10). ...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) than typically developed (TD) children. Since multiple lines of studies have suggested that ACEs are related to myelination in the frontal lobe, an exposure to ACEs can be associated with white matter microstructural disruption in the frontal lobe, which may be implicated in subsequential psychological deficits after the adulthood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ACEs and microstructural integrity on frontal lobe-related white matter tracts using diffusion tensor imaging in 63 individuals with ASD and 38 TD participants. Using a tractography-based analysis, we delineated the uncinate fasciculus (UF), dorsal cingulum (Ci), and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), which are involved in the neural pathology of ASD, and estimated each diffusion parameter. Compared to the TD participants, individuals with ASD displayed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the left ATR. Then, ASD individuals exposed to severe ACEs displayed higher RD than those exposed to mild ACEs and TD participants in the left ATR. Moreover, the severity of ACEs, particularly neglect, correlated with lower FA and higher RD in the left UF and ATR in individuals with ASD, which was not observed in TD participants. These results suggest that an exposure to ACEs is associated with abnormality in the frontal lobe-related white matter in ASD.
... Previous sexual victimisation is a common circumstance among sexual offenders (Fago, 2012). Total population cohorts have shown that individuals with ID are at increased risk of being victims of sexual abuse (Sullivan and Knutson, 2000) and the perpetrator is normally known to be the victim (Turk and Brown, 1993;Wissink et al., 2015). Type of abuse and later offending behaviour among ID individuals are seemingly related (Lindsay et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Aims To study associations between intellectual disability (ID) and sexual and violent offending among individuals subject to pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment. To investigate sentences following pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment in offenders with and without ID. Methods A population-based observational study using data from pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessments in Sweden (1997–2013), the Swedish National Crime Register and several other Swedish national registers. The study population consisted of 7450 offenders (87% men, 13% women) who were subject to forensic psychiatric assessment in 1997–2013, of whom 481 (6.5%) were clinically assessed as having ID. Results ID offenders were more likely than non-ID offenders to have a sexual crime as an index crime [26.2 v . 11.5%, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–3.58] as well as previous convictions regarding sexual offending (10.4 v . 5.6%, adj OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70–3.12). These associations were restricted to male offenders; sexual offending was uncommon among women. Comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder reduced the association between ID and sexual offending (adj OR 2.7 v . 3.1, p = 0.017), while comorbid autism spectrum disorder had no significant influence on the association (adj OR 2.7 v . 3.0, p = 0.059). Violent crime was equally common among ID and non-ID offenders. Offenders with ID were more likely than non-ID offenders to be sentenced to forensic psychiatric care or community sanctions and measures (such as probation, conditional sentences or fines) than to prison; however, 15% of individuals who received an ID diagnosis during the forensic psychiatric assessment were sentenced to prison. Previous criminal convictions, concurrent antisocial personality disorders and substance use disorders were associated with a higher probability of a prison sentence among offenders with ID. Conclusions Sexual crime is overrepresented among offenders with ID compared to offenders with other mental disorders than ID in forensic psychiatric contexts. ID offenders become subject to forensic psychiatric care and forensic psychiatric services need evidence-based treatment programmes for offenders with ID. In addition, there is a need for early intervention strategies suitable for disability services and special education schools, in order to address the complex needs of individuals with ID and prevent sexual and violent offending.
... In 2018, national survey data indicated that 5.4% of American youth (age 5-15 years) and 6.3% of young adults (age 16-20 years) reported having a disability (Erickson et al., 2020). However, 22% of maltreated youth have a disability (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000) and a study of children in Minnesota found a similar pattern among those who were the subject of reports to the child welfare system as well as higher risk among children with such reports aged 5 to 18 (Lightfoot et al., 2011). The same study found that among children with substantiated maltreatment likelihood of being in foster care was doubled among those with disabilities. ...
Article
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Youth in foster care are at greater risk of incarceration and homelessness as they age out of care and transition to adulthood. Prior studies have shown that multiple placements, childhood trauma, race and ethnicity, and educational attainment are associated with these adverse outcomes. However, few studies have examined the prevalence and risk factors of incarceration and homelessness among youth in foster care with disabilities as they age out and transition into adulthood. Using data from the 2014 cohort of the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD) and Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System (AFCARS), this study examines the prevalence of incarceration and homelessness by disability type at age 17, and how risk factors are related to incarceration and homelessness at ages 19 and 21. Findings show that youth in foster care with emotional disabilities are more likely to experience homelessness and incarceration, but this association was not robust in multivariate models. On the other hand, those with a physical or intellectual/developmental disability have lower odds of homelessness. Employment and school enrollment are associated with a lower risk of homelessness and incarceration, regardless of disability type. These results suggest that disaggregating youth in foster care by type of disability is necessary to provide specific recommendations to improve and target resources and supports for these vulnerable youth as they age out of foster care and transition to adulthood.
... To safeguard the right to education, it is important to understand the extent to which different groups of children may be missing out. It is particularly important to understand how the state protects, or fails to protect, children's right to education when they have a duty to protect children in need of support or at risk of harm (Sullivan and Knutson, 2000). In this paper, we analyze national, linked administrative data which contain longitudinal education and social care records for all children attending state schools in England to identify non-enrolment, which may be an indicator of pushing out-called off-rolling in the UK-among children with and without a history of CSC involvement. ...
Article
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Background Pushing out (off-rolling) occurs where pupils are illegally excluded from school. Those receiving children's social care (CSC) services (children in need (CiN), on child protection plans (CPPs) or looked after (CLA)) are thought to be at increased risk, but limited evidence inhibits understanding of this phenomenon. The extent of pushing out can be inferred from non-enrolment in administrative data. Objective To estimate proportions of children not enrolled across secondary school (aged 11–16, up to year 11) and to explore the association between CSC history and non-enrolment in year 10/11. Participants and setting >1 M pupils in year 7 (aged 11/12) in English state schools, 2011/12 and 2012/13. Methods We estimated the proportion of children not enrolled across years 8 to 11, disaggregated by CSC history. We assessed with regression modelling the association between CSC history and non-enrolment in years 10/11. Results Of children without CSC history, 3.8% had ≥1 year not enrolled by year 11. This was higher in those with a history CiN (8.1%), CPP (9.4%) or CLA (10.4%) status. The odds of non-enrolment in years 10/11 were higher among those with CLA history vs non-exposed peers (OR 4.76, 95% CI 4.49–5.05) as well as in those with CPP history (3.60, 3.39–3.81) and CiN history (2.53, 2.49–2.58). History of special educational needs further increased non-enrolment odds, including after confounder adjustment. Conclusions Findings imply that children with CSC history are more likely to be pushed out from school than children without, especially those with special educational needs.
... De plus, les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA sont plus susceptibles de faire face à des évènements de vie que les tout-venant (Ghaziuddin, 2005;Kerns, Newschaffer, et Berkowitz, 2015). En effet, les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA ont 1,5 à 3 fois plus de risque de subir des maltraitances au sein de leur foyer (Hibbard & Desch, 2007;Reiter, Bryen, & Shachar, 2007;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000), leurs parents semblent plus à risque de divorcer, bien que l'ampleur de ce phénomène reste à étudier (de 23,5 à 80% ; Baeza-Velasco, Michelon, Rattaz, Pernon, & Baghdadli, 2013;Freedman, Kalb, Zablotsky, & Stuart, 2012;Hartley et al., 2010). Ainsi, l'effet des évènements stressants est un domaine à particulièrement étudier chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA. ...
Thesis
Dès la première description du Trouble du Spectre de l'Autisme, Kanner (1943) a souligné la présence momentanée de manifestations dépressives chez un des cas. Aujourd'hui, l'Episode Dépressif Caractérisé (EDC) est considéré comme étant un des troubles psychiatriques les plus fréquemment associés au TSA, ayant des répercussions à court, moyen et long termes sur l'enfant ayant un TSA et sa famille. Pourtant, aujourd'hui, il n'existe pas de consensus concernant la façon d'évaluer la symptomatologie dépressive chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA. Les objectifs de cette recherche sont de créer et de valider une échelle de repérage des signes de l'EDC, d'identifier les facteurs associés aux signes de l'EDC chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA et d'étudier les manifestations dépressives dans leur fonctionnement habituel. Quatre études ont été réalisées. La première a permis de créer l'échelle de repérage des signes de l'EDC spécifique aux enfants et aux adolescents ayant un TSA. Elle est composée de 3 parties : une évaluation des douleurs et des médicaments pris par l'enfant, le listing des changements environnementaux et l'évaluation de la symptomatologie dépressive ; en deux étapes : une description du fonctionnement habituel de l'enfant puis une mesure de l'ampleur des changements de comportements. La seconde étude visait à valider cette échelle (N=153). La fidélité inter-juges est très satisfaisante mais devra être évaluée sur un échantillon plus important (ρfiabilité=0,98 ; ρfiabilité=0,02). L'échelle a de bonnes validités apparente, de contenu et de critère et une excellente consistance interne (αéchelleEDC=0,91). Elle est composée de deux facteurs : un de changements comportementaux et l'autre de changements émotionnels et cognitifs. La troisième étude visait à identifier les facteurs associés à l'EDC chez les enfants et les adolescents ayant un TSA (N=58). Des facteurs individuels, notamment liés au parcours de soin concernant le diagnostic de TSA mais aussi la santé somatique ; familiaux, notamment le vécu parental et le désir d'avoir des amis sont liés à la symptomatologie dépressive. La quatrième étude avait pour objectif d'identifier des manifestations dépressives dans le fonctionnement habituel des enfants et des adolescents ayant un TSA (N=133). Plus d'un tiers de l'échantillon exprime de la tristesse quasiment tous les jours et plus d'un quart n'exprime quasiment jamais de joie. Plus de la moitié des enfants et des adolescents de l'échantillon ne prend aucun plaisir au quotidien. Un jeune sur cinq a des comportements auto-agressifs et 28% ont des comportements hétéro-agressifs tous les jours. La moitié de l'échantillon a des difficultés de sommeil et 58% en a d'appétit tous les jours. Enfin, trois quarts des jeunes expriment de la culpabilité ou de la dévalorisation tous les jours.
... People with intellectual disabilities (ID hereafter) are more likely to be exposed to traumatic events (Horner-Johnson & Drum, 2006;Martorell & Tsakanikos, 2008;Martorell et al., 2009;Reiter et al., 2007;Wigham & Emerson, 2015;Wissink et al., 2015), for example, the risk of being a victim of sexual abuse by a person with ID is up to ten times higher than that of people without disabilities (Focht-New et al., 2008;Horner-Johnson & Drum, 2006). Specifically, between 60% and 80% of women with ID and between 25% and 35% of men with ID have been victims of some episode of sexual abuse in their lifetime (Curry et al., 2009;Kuosmanen & Starke, 2015;Levy & Packman, 2004;Reid, 2018;Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). Moreover, this population has a higher prevalence of suffering bullying or intimidation (Young et al., 2012), and of being victims of crimes including physical assault, robbery, and all forms of hate crime (Shakespeare, 2012). ...
... De un modo particular, y según los datos aportados por el Observatorio Estatal de la Discapacidad (2018), un 17,2 % de mujeres con discapacidad han sufrido violencia física fuera de la pareja. A pesar de la gravedad de los hechos y del alto índice de incidencia, estamos ante situaciones de gran complejidad ya que la violencia y el maltrato hacia personas con discapacidad que se producen preferentemente en la intimidad del hogar y/o por parte de una persona cuidadora (Oliván, 2002;Sullivan y Knutson, 2000) resultan normalmente impunes (Revuelta, 2014) -12 -A su vez, desde la mirada de la víctima, el maltrato por abuso genera baja autoestima, sentimientos de soledad, ansiedad, tristeza, depresión, intentos de suicidio, actitudes defensivas, entre otras (Ruiz y Gallardo, 2002). Resulta preocupante la falta de atención hacia este colectivo, pues, como señala Tremiño (2014), no es hasta el año 2010 cuando por parte del equipo clínico de la Fundación Carmen Pardo-Valcarce se crea una de las primeras unidades especializadas en la atención integral a víctimas con discapacidad intelectual (Unidad de Atención a Víctimas con Discapacidad Intelectual). ...
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Se presentan los resultados de un estudio parcial de caso único a través de la perspectiva biográfico-narrativa. Teniendo en cuenta un trabajo de campo previo más amplio, para este texto hemos realizado una entrevista semiestructurada y dos en profundidad para abordar de manera focal un caso de violación y abuso sexual a Teresa, persona diagnosticada con Discapacidad Intelectual (PCDI). De las entrevistas emergen diferentes categorías inductivas (violencia intrafamiliar –abusos sexuales, insultos, agresiones–, identidad como persona con discapacidad) que se abordan en la discusión en dos ejes interpretativos que se corresponden con dos etapas diferenciadas de la vida de la participante (la naturalización de la violencia y el inicio del cambio como forma de lucha). Como resultados más destacables encontramos hechos, en una primera etapa, que nos hablan de la repetición en el tiempo de dos tipos de abusos (físico, emocional) por parte de sus familiares, entre los que reluce la condición de discapacidad, y, una segunda etapa, presentamos su proceso de subversión personal sobre el que Teresa pudo reconducir esta situación. Como parte de las conclusiones, entendimos las medidas preventivas y de respeto a la diversidad como elementos esenciales para erradicar la violencia hacia las PCDI.
... Children with developmental disabilities struggle with their communication skills, are more likely to be socially isolated, and are prone to experiencing high levels of familial stress (Hibbard & Desch, 2007;Kerns et al., 2015). These factors are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and make them more susceptible to maltreatment (Sullivan & Knutson, 2000). ...
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Children and adolescents with autism have a higher likelihood of being exposed to bullying, abuse, and sexual assault which, through repeated exposure, has been demonstrated to impede academic, social, and physical functioning among this population. However, the complexity of unpacking the characteristics of autism and trauma can pose a challenge for school psychologists in using the most appropriate clinical method of intervention. This paper summarizes the co‐occurrence of autism and trauma in an effort to better inform practitioners and recommends the need for valid and reliable assessments that measure adverse experiences for children with autism. A practitioner assessment guide of childhood trauma and autism spectrum disorder is also provided to facilitate a comprehensive assessment process. We conclude that there is a pressing need for more research examining the relationship between autism and trauma by better understanding the relationship of these constructs, and for the development of more effective assessments to provide more evidence‐based interventions. Discussion of trauma exposure prevalence of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and potential impacts on functioning. Summary of co‐occurrence of ASD and trauma to inform assessment practice in schools. School‐based practitioners are provided an assessment guide of childhood trauma and ASD. Discussion of trauma exposure prevalence of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and potential impacts on functioning. Summary of co‐occurrence of ASD and trauma to inform assessment practice in schools. School‐based practitioners are provided an assessment guide of childhood trauma and ASD.
... 9 Additionally, growth, behaviour and other problems may be overlooked and seen to be the result of a disability. 10 Furthermore, treatments in CF are often complex and time-consuming and there is evidence that parents and care-givers perceive this as a high burden 11 which may result in strain to family life and finances. 12 Individuals with CF may also have an increased risk of experiencing traumas specifically related to living with the condition during childhood such as having to undergo frightening procedures. ...
Article
Objective: This exploratory study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Design: Childhood exposure to 16 ACEs was measured during an annual review assessment (N = 80). Methods: CF patients (n = 80) attending the All Wales Adult CF Service for a routine annual review assessment completed an adapted version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) short-form ACE questionnaire alongside measures of psychological well-being. Results: In this sample, 65 (78%) reported at least one type of childhood adversity and 11 (14%) experienced four or more ACEs. Parental divorce or separation and verbal abuse were the most frequently reported ACEs. Illness related trauma in childhood was also prevalent with 52 (64%) reporting having experienced a painful or frightening medical procedure and 23 (28%) feeling forced to have treatment or a procedure. Conclusion: Individuals with CF reported a number of childhood traumas including trauma relating to medical procedures. Those with a history of ACEs may have increased risks of emotional and physical difficulties and may benefit from additional support from the CF psychosocial team.
... Auch in der Studie von Schröttle et al. werden Frauen mit Hörbeeinträchtigungen als in besonderes hohem Maße von sexualisierter Gewalt betroffene Gruppe benannt, ebenso blinde und sehbehinderte Frauen (Schröttle et al. 2012, S. 61). Zum gleichen Schluss kommenBrunes und Heir (2018) in einer norwegischen Stichprobe.Sullivan und Knutson (2000) machen ebenfalls für blinde und sehbehinderte Kinder und Jugendliche ein erhöhtes Risiko aus, jedoch nicht für hörbeeinträchtigte(Sullivan & Knutson 2000, S. 1266.Sevlever et al. (2013) betrachten wiederum die besonderen Risikobedingungen für Personen, die von einer Autismus-Spektrum-Störung betroffen sind. Die wenigen empirischen Befunde in diesem Kontext taxieren die Viktimisierungsrate auf 16 % ...
... Sexual abuse is mainly found among girls under 16 years of age [5][6][7] and the majority of children are abandoned by their parents [8]. Having any type of disability [9], a behavioral and/or learning disability [10], witnessing spousal abuse, the presence of parental psychopathological disorders [5, 11,12], a history of suspicious or sudden unexplained death, placement and/or proven maltreatment in siblings [5] are significantly associated with the risk of child maltreatment. ...
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Purpose: Better prevention of child abuse requires knowledge of risk factors and situations. The general objective of this study was to determine the relative frequency of child abuse in Yaoundé and to draw its epidemiological profile. Methodology: the researchers conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019, i.e., 5 years, in 4 referral hospitals in Yaoundé. All records of victims of abuse under the age of 18 years were included. The data collected were analyzed using Epi-info TM version 7.2 software. Ethical clearance was obtained to conduct our study. Findings: Of the 19,187 usable records, child abuse victims represented 0.68% (132). Most of the victims were female (121; 91.7%), under 11 years of age (106; 80.3%), middle siblings (46; 35.0%) and HIV infection was the most common medical history at 17.4% (23). The accompanying person for the first consultation was their mother (72/132; 54.5%). Four (3.0%) children had lost both parents. The main antecedent related to the legal guardian was HIV seropositivity, 70.2% (66/94). Conclusion: Child abuse, far from being negligible, concerned primarily girls under 11 years of age. HIV infection was a factor found in both the child victim and the legal guardian in our context. Recommendations: Pay particular attention to children outside marriage or living in a blended family. Encourage societal debates around the abuse suffered by children.
... However, it should be noted that the children with dysfunctions are not only disciplined more by nonviolent practices, but they are also more often exposed to almost all types of violent parental practices. In the past, the researchers constantly report that children with disabilities and behavioral disturbances are constantly more frequently exposed to all forms of violence (physical, emotional) and neglect [40][41][42][43][44][45] . ...
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Corporal punishment (CP) is a widely spread disciplining practice among parents and caregivers globally. Our paper aimed to explore the relationship between the parental attitudes towards CP, expected outcomes of CP, and parenting practices on one hand, with the reported dysfunctions of their children, on the other. Additionally, we aimed to explore the relationship between the use of CP and the reported academic, developmental, and psychological–emotional dysfunctions of their children. The present study involved a nationally representative sample of 1186 parents in Serbia, who had at least one child aged 0–18 years at the moment of interviewing. The parents filled out a series of questionnaires on their attitudes towards CP, expectations of CP outcomes, and their parental practices. Findings indicate that parents that report having a child with dysfunctions have positive attitudes towards CP and expect positive outcomes of CP. These parents also report using more CP as a disciplining method, as well as other harsh disciplining practices. We also identified parental positive expectations of CP, use of physical assault, psychological aggression, neglect as significant predictors of reported child dysfunctions severity. Having all the results in mind, we can assume that children with health-related and school-related issues might be at potential risk of further maltreatment.
Chapter
This chapter discusses research findings on intellectual disability (ID), criminal law, and the different forms of aggressive behavior such as sexual violence, homicide, theft, arson, and alcohol-drug abuse. ID is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by significantly impaired and varying intellectual-adaptive functioning. Given that a number of legal issues have been raised over the past decades regarding individuals with ID and civil as well as criminal law, particular attention will also be given to neuropsychological research regarding civil law and the most common problems for individuals with ID, such as financial capacity and capacity for medical consent. Finally, there will be a section for the most important issues regarding the trial and conviction for individuals with ID, and a presentation of a research on attitudes toward ID and legal issues. The chapter concludes with suggestions for reform of the law relating to ID and the need for further research.
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Child abuse is a preventable phenomenon of considerable concern resulting in significant child mortality and morbidity. We analyze various abuse lesions such as radiological (visceral and skeletal lesions and those associated with head trauma) and cutaneous (burns, bruises, bites, etc.) to enhance streamlined identification of injuries in cases of physical child abuse. For effective results, it is essential to remain mindful of all background factors, such as the caregiver setting and the prevalence of child maltreatment in the concerned community while acknowledging the possibility of natural causes (genetic diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta and hemophilia, or acquired abnormalities) that can mimic NAT and cause confusion in diagnosis and treatment. The margin of error in cases of abuse is negligible, therefore, making its diagnosis a momentous as well as challenging clinical task. An ineffective diagnosis can have detrimental emotional consequences for the family and may even expose the child to future potentially fatal episodes of abuse. Hence, there is a need to direct special focus on the importance of accurate history taking and immediate, responsible reporting to authorities, as well as to child protective services. Therefore, considering the multifactorial approach this subject requires, this review aims to delve into prevalence statistics, various risk factors, and their effect on psychological health to offer a near-complete regulation to ensure an effective understanding of NAT on part of doctors, social workers, and other relevant authorities.
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Sexual abuse is an unwanted sexual activity which the perpetrator uses force upon, makes threats against, or takes advantage of the victim without his / her consent. This study aims to draw attention to the sexual abuse which individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder are exposed to. With this aim, news published online in national, local and regional Turkish newspapers between the years of 2015-2019 related to this issue were analyzed. To reach the related media content, one of the news agencies’ archive was utilized to search for published news via keywords (“sexual abuse”, “sexual assault”, “sexual harassment”, “rape” and “intellectual”, “handicapped”, “disabled”, “autism” and “Down”). As a result, 11351 news related to those keywords were reached and the total number of retained news was 1124. In this study, document analysis was carried out using deductive content analysis to analyze the content of news related to sexual abuse of individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Findings are discussed; suggestions for researchers, legislators, families, teachers, and practitioners are posed.
Article
The transition to adulthood is an important process with implications for inequality. Both those with disabilities and those who age of out of foster care are vulnerable during this transition. This project examines the intersection of these groups, exploring employment, education, and disability benefit receipt, the supports these youth receive, and how these supports may mitigate risk in this transition. Findings suggest that those with emotional or mental disabilities face employment risks in the transition to adulthood, and that services may mitigate some of this risk and present unique benefits for youth with disabilities. For example, the odds of employment are greater and the odds of receiving disability benefits are lower among those who receive academic supports (orFTE=1.3, orSSI/SSDI=0.7), post-secondary supports (orFTE=1.3, orSSI/SSDI=0.8), education financial assistance (orPTE=1.3, orSSI/SSDI=0.7), and career services (orPTE=1.3, orSSI/SSDI=0.7). These services should be prioritized for funding, especially education financial assistance as a lower proportion of youth with disabilities receive than their non-disabled peers.
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People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) can be involved in several ways to prevent abuse. This chapter begins with a definition of the concept of active prevention. Active prevention focuses on empowering people to maximize their abilities and learn risk reduction and decision-making strategies to protect themselves. The relevance of this mode of prevention is discussed, as are some of its limits. The chapter then examines the concepts of individual and collective social vulnerability and various ways of measuring the social vulnerability of people with IDD. Finally, the results of research carried out in the French-speaking part of Switzerland are presented. These studies introduce the development of a measure of social vulnerability and present some considerations after implementation of the French translation of ESCAPE-DD, a decision-making abuse prevention intervention for people with IDD.
Article
Objective This study examines how disability is associated with risk during the transition to adulthood for youth who age out of foster care and considers how experiences in the child welfare system contribute to these associations. Background The transition to adulthood is important for later socioeconomic standing, health, and wellbeing. Youth who age out of foster care with disabilities may require a high level of support during this transition yet may lack support. Method This study employs linear probability models to estimate the association between disability and incarceration, homelessness, childbearing, and substance abuse between ages 17 and 21 using linked administrative data from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (N=5,221). Results Having a physical or sensory disability is associated with lower risk in the transition to adulthood. Alternatively, having an emotional or mental related disability is associated with increased risk of incarceration and homelessness, but the association with homelessness is accounted for by child welfare experiences. Conclusion Due to the importance of foster care and child protective histories in explaining some risky outcomes for youth with emotional and mental disabilities, policy makers and practitioners should include those early stages of care when seeking it improve outcomes in the transition to adulthood for youth with disabilities who age out of foster care.
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Children and youth with FASD are at high risk to be taken into state child welfare care. This has placed these children at further risk to abuse, neglect, and health and mental health problems including high rates of suicide and negative educational outcomes. This chapter describes the context relating to children with FASD in care in the province of Manitoba including the overrepresentation of Indigenous children in care with FASD. It presents some of the salient research relating to the prevalence of CIC with FASD, and it examines the crossover between CIC and the youth justice system. In addition, it describes some of the major intervention approaches taken in Manitoba in an attempt to respond to the growing numbers of CIC with FASD. Finally, the chapter identifies some of the major lessons learned from research and practice in Manitoba and their implications for the development of policy and practice necessary to provide the needed supports and services to improve the developmental outcomes of CIC with FASD.Key wordsChildren in care FASD Child welfare Intervention Prevention Youth Justice Indigenous
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Not all groups are equally likely to be subject to acts of aggression; specific subgroups are more likely to be victimized. For example, youth who identify as a sexual minority are more likely to be victims of traditional forms of bullying than their heterosexual friends. There has been less research, however, on population subgroups and the likelihood of becoming a victim of cyber aggression. In exploring this topic, this chapter examines several questions including, “How important is the amount of time spent online as an intermediate variable in predicting whether an individual will become a victim of cyber aggression?” and “Does sexual orientation impact the likelihood of being a victim of cyberaggression above and beyond the amount of time spent online?” Multivariate statistical methods and survey data from the Pew Research Center for the year 2014 was used in this analysis.
Chapter
Pediatric clinicians are key players in the sexual and reproductive health of children. Although clinicians often think about sexuality and sexual development during adolescence, it is essential that healthcare professionals address sexual development and gender identity in a culturally effective and developmentally appropriate manner with children and their caregivers. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published guidelines for the promotion of healthy sexual development and sexuality spanning birth to adolescence. Clinicians have an opportunity to have open discussion with caregivers about healthy intimacy during infancy, sexual exploration during early childhood, and various elements of sexuality during middle childhood.
Chapter
Individuals with physical, intellectual, and developmental disabilities reproductively mature at the same rate as the general population. However, they often lag far behind their peers in access to education about the emotional, social, and medical challenges that accompany the physical changes of the emerging adult. Access to education and reproductive health services is essential for the development of a sense of self, establishing fulfilling physical and emotional relationships, and protection from abuse and poor outcomes that can be anticipated and prevented. The approach to a patient’s sexuality and reproductive health needs varies across disabilities and chronic conditions. Understanding that each patient is a sexual being who requires attention to sexuality and reproductive health needs will optimize the mental health, safety, and general health outcomes across the spectrum of physical, intellectual, and developmental disabilities. This chapter will address the needs of this complex population by offering insight into the problems of limited sexuality education, understanding the risk of abuse, addressing alternative approaches to ensuring access to preventative sexual health and routine screenings, and maximizing the opportunities for healthy relationships.
Article
Background: Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs (CYSHCN) have or are at an increased risk for a chronic condition necessitating medical and related services beyond what children usually require. While evidence suggests that CYSHCN are at an increased risk of injury, little is known about this population within the trauma system. This study describes CYSHCN within the pediatric trauma system and examines patterns of injury risk (i.e., intent, place of injury, trauma type, and mechanism of injury) based on SHCN status. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we used data from the 2018 National Trauma Data Bank to identify pediatric encounters (1-18 years, N = 115,578) and compare demographics (sex, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and age) by CYSHCN status using Chi squared and t-tests. CYSHCN encounters were compared to non-SHCN encounters using multinomial logistic regression models, controlling for demographics. Results: Overall, 16.7% pediatric encounters reported a SHCN. CYSHCN encounters are older and a higher proportion are publicly-insured than non-SHCN encounters (p < 0.001). CYSHCN encounters have a higher risk of assault (RR = 1.331) and self-inflicted (RR = 4.208) injuries relative to unintentional injury (p < 0.001). CYSHCN encounters have a higher relative risk of traumatic injury occurring in a private residence (p < 0.01) than other locations such as school (RR = 0.894). Younger CYSHCN encounters have a higher risk of assault relative to unintentional injury when compared to non-SHCN encounters (p < 0.01). Pediatric trauma encounters reporting mental health and alcohol/Substance Use Disorder SHCN have a higher probability of self-inflicted and assault injuries than non-SHCN encounters (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These findings suggest that CYSHCN have different traumatic injury patterns than their non-SHCN peers-particularly in terms of intentional and private residence injury-and deserve a special focus for traumatic injury prevention. Level of evidence: III; Prognostic/Epidemiologic.
Article
Given that some cutaneous mimics of child abuse result from rare disease, they may be more prone to misdiagnosis. For possible child abuse cases in which diagnosis remains uncertain at time of initial dermatologic evaluation, it is important that dermatologists are prepared to distinguish true dermatologic conditions in cases of ambiguous skin findings. Additionally, this review will aid clinicians in recognizing the possibility of concurrent true dermatologic disease and skin findings related to abuse with the acknowledgement that they are not mutually exclusive. Proper recognition of mimics of abuse may prevent unnecessary stress and child protective service investigation.
Article
Background Despite the potential efficacy of hospital-based multidisciplinary child protection team (CPTs), research analyzing Japanese CPT databases is scarce. Objective We aimed to describe the characteristics of children and families reported to a CPT in Japan and investigate factors associated with the substantiation of maltreatment. Participants and setting This retrospective, cross-sectional study took place in a national children's hospital in Japan and included 350 children who were reported to CPTs between April 2014 and March 2018. Methods Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using the CPT database and medical records. Results Among 350 cases, 33.4 % were substantiated. Children of <6 years of age comprised 73.4 % of the cases. The majority (67.7 %) received an injury-related diagnosis and physical maltreatment was suspected in 68.3 % of cases. In the univariable analysis, older age, a primary diagnosis other than injury, reporting department, psychological maltreatment, witnessing intimate partner violence, maltreatment by relatives other than biological father or mother, developmental disability, emotional/behavioral difficulty or psychological disorder, maternal/paternal psychological difficulty, and maternal history of maltreatment were significantly associated with substantiation. When adjusted for demographic, child and familial factors, a diagnosis other than injury (AOR 2.02, 95 % CI = 1. 11–3.65) and parental psychological difficulties (AOR 2.49, 95 % CI = 1.37–4.55) were independently associated with substantiation. Conclusion Most cases reported to our CPT were young children with an injury-related diagnosis. Substantiation was associated with a diagnosis other than injury and parental psychological difficulties. Further prospective and comprehensive studies are needed to establish universal guidelines for databases of hospital-based CPTs.
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Karaman-Kepenekci, Y. ve Baydık, B. (2009) Zihin Engelliler Öğretmen Adaylarının Çocuk Haklarına İlişkin Tutumları. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 42(1): 329–350
Article
Family violence, including child maltreatment (CM) and intimate partner violence (IPV), plagues far too many American families, particularly those in low-income communities. CM and IPV are intertwined and impose a significant emotional, health and financial burden on children and families and an economic burden on our country. Although these and other forms of violence are influenced by shared risk factors across the socioecological spectrum, prevention efforts typically intervene on a single type of violence at a microsystem level via individual or family intervention. Research is needed to identify policies operating at macrosystem levels that reduce, at scale, multiple forms of violence affecting children. In this paper, we propose a three-step theory of change through which health insurance expansions might reduce rates of CM and IPV, using Medicaid expansion as an exemplar. The proposed framework can inform research examining the link between health insurance and the primary prevention of CM and IPV.
Article
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011, this study examined the associations between spanking experiences and children's subsequent reading and math scores. Two different groups were matched on a range of family sociodemographics and children's initial reading and math scores using entropy balancing: not spanked vs spanked (Ns=17,171–17,537); and not recently vs recently spanked (Ns=10,393–10,724). Sample sizes were provided in ranges because they varied across multiple imputed data sets. The results of the lagged dependent variable regression analyses showed that a lifetime experience of spanking by age 5 did not predict children's subsequent reading and math scores. However, children who were recently spanked at the age of 5 showed significantly lower reading and math scores at ages 6 and 7 compared with those who were spanked but not recently. These results, replicated using different estimation methods (i.e., difference score analyses), strengthen the argument that spanking may impair early reading and math skills.
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Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare the socially problematic conditions in blind and deaf students on the one hand with normal students on the other hand. Materials & Methods: This research is a causal-comparative study. The population consisted of all students with learning disability in 2013-2014 school year. A sample of 100 students was selected through random cluster sampling. Also 100 normal students were selected after they were matched with their peers in the other group for age and intelligence as the comparison group. To collect data, Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children (Dodge, 1990) was used as research tool. Multivariate analysis of variance and univariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the groups under investigation, namely, normal students on one hand and deaf and blind students on the other hand, with respect to components of the problematic social situations scale (p<0.001). The differences between the average response of students in the groups under investigation were statistically significant in the following components: peer group entry, response to stimulation, response to failure, and social expectations (p<0.001), teacher expectations (p<0.01) and response to the success (p<0.05). Children with visual impairment had the biggest problems in response to stimulation scale in comparison among others. Finally, the average differences between the children with visual impairment and normal ones and between visual and hearing impaired children were significant. (p<0.001). Conclusion: It was found that children with visual and hearing impairment have problems in the components of entering the peer group, response to stimulation, response to the failure, response to success, social expectations, and teacher expectations. So, it is suggested that interventional and effective plans should be formulated to deal with the problem.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with developmental disorders (DDs) in protective custody are more likely to experience specific placement types and stay in care longer than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in the DD-only group, we examined whether the likelihood of each placement type differed by specific DD diagnosis. Methods: This observational retrospective study used child welfare administrative data linked to electronic health records in a large Ohio county. Participants were aged 5 to 20 years (N = 2787). DD diagnoses were determined using problem list and encounter diagnosis codes. Results: Children with versus without DD were less likely to be in kinship placement (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.94) and more likely to be in congregate care (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04-1.53) and nonrelative foster care (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.00-1.45). A likelihood of independent living placement did not differ for those with and without DD. Those with versus without DD had longer lengths of stay in protective custody (p ≤ 0.001), but the number of placement changes did not differ after accounting for length of stay. The pattern of results differed somewhat by individual DD diagnosis. Conclusion: Compared with their typically developing peers, children with DD are less likely to be in kinship care and tend to have longer lengths of stay in protective custody. If replicated, these findings suggest the need to identify and address mechanisms to support children with DD across placement settings and to better understand factors prolonging their protective custody stay.
Article
Child abuse might be suspected when children present with cutaneous bruising, intracranial hemorrhage, or other manifestations of bleeding. In these cases, it is necessary to consider medical conditions that predispose to easy bleeding or bruising. When evaluating for the possibility of bleeding disorders and other conditions that predispose to hemorrhage, it is important for pediatricians to consider the child’s presenting history, medical history, and physical examination findings before initiating a laboratory investigation. Many medical conditions can predispose to easy bleeding. Before ordering laboratory tests for a disease, it is useful to understand the biochemical basis and clinical presentation of the disorder, condition prevalence, and test characteristics. This technical report reviews the major medical conditions that predispose to bruising or bleeding and should be considered when evaluating for abusive injury.
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We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems.
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We have studied the impact of various kinds of abuse and neglect on the child's perception of himself and his future. We found, when considering physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, that less than 5% of these mistreatments occurred in isolation. Since the vast majority of mistreated children are subject to more than one kind of abuse or neglect, it was important to delineate which combinations have the greatest effect. We found that a combination of physical neglect, physical abuse, and verbal abuse had the greatest impact on children, affecting such things as their enjoyment of living and hopes for the future. An early age of onset for verbal abuse and emotional neglect was significantly associated with greater severity and frequency of mistreatment. Neglect appears to be a precursor to abuse in many cases.
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A laboratory analogue of naturalistic observation was used to examine the relationship of observer drift to instructional set and experimenter status. 3 instructional sets (no check, random check, and spot check) and 2 levels of experimenter status were studied. Results indicated a highly significant decrease in observer reliability coinciding with the shift from training to data collection. This performance decrement was observed in all 3 instructional set conditions. Within the spot-check condition, reliability on spot-check days was found to be significantly greater than mean reliability immediately before and after spot checks. Further results revealed that observers trained by the high-status experimenter performed less reliably than observers trained by the other 2 experimenters. The possible implications of these results for future observational research and suggestions for minimizing observer drift are discussed.
Article
This study investigated the frequency with which a group of identified child abuse victims in a single year appeared in independently gathered school records as manifesting developmental difficulties. Records from school entry were studied to determine the frequency of school behavioral problems, suspensions, and referral to special education consideration. This procedure based on independent and previously existing records yielded substantially lesser evidence of problems and handicapping conditions than those reported in the literature.RésuméEn se basant sur un ensemble de dossiers scolaires réunis d'une manière indépendante, cette étude se propose de calculer la fréquence annuelle avec laquelle un groupe identifié d'enfants maltraités présente des difficultés dans leur développement. Les dossiers scolaires ont été examinés afin de déterminer la fréquence des problèmes de conduite à l'école, les suspensions, ainsi que les renvois pour considération en vue d'une éducation spéciale. Cette recherche basée sur des dossiers scolaires indépendants et déjà existants montre que les enfants maltraités ne présentent pas autant de problèmes de développement et de handicaps que ne le suggère la littérature.
Article
Child abuse and neglect state liaison officers representing 50 states and 7 U.S. territories were surveyed regarding data collection procedures, accuracy of reporting, state assistance to local agencies, and training for child welfare workers in the area of maltreated children with disabilities. The current study is a replication of a similar survey conducted by Camblin in 1982. Results indicate that (a) more states provided assistance to local child welfare agencies than was reported in 1982, (b) the number of states that routinely collected disability information in child maltreatment cases had declined, (c) seven states documented specific disabilities in children, (d) two states reported on the number of children disabled as a result of abuse, (e) fewer states reported having accurate information on the incidence of disabled children reported for maltreatment, and (f) seven states required training in disabilities for child welfare workers, with an average of four hours required. Implications of the results for identifying and serving maltreated children with disabilities are discussed and recommendations for child welfare agencies are presented.
Article
The literature on the contribution of low birthweight, perinatal problems, congenital disorders, and mental retardation to child abuse is reviewed. While existing transactional and ecological theories suggest such child factors should contribute to abuse, a careful analysis of studies indicates handicapping conditions are not major causal factors. Results of prospective, longitudinal research suggest that minor deviations in child behavior rather than major handicaps are related to the occurrence of abuse. Efforts to help families adjust to having a handicapped child, while helpful in alleviating the stresses in such families, will not have a major impact on the incidence of abuse.
Article
This abstract uses graphs and text to summarize recent statistics on the education of children with disabilities based on data from the U.S. Department of Education. It reports that 12.2 percent of students enrolled in American schools in 1993-94 were officially designated as having disabilities. More than two-thirds of students have mental or emotional impairments with 51.2 percent of all students with disabilities identified as having learning disabilities, followed by speech/language impairments (21.2 percent), mental retardation (11.3 percent), and "serious emotional disturbances" (8.7 percent). Much smaller numbers were reported for hearing, orthopedic, visual, multiple, and other disabilities. Analysis indicated that 70.4 percent of students with disabilities spend at least two-fifths of their school day attending classes with non-disabled students; students least likely to be integrated are those with mental retardation, multiple disabilities, or deaf-blindness. Data from 1991-92 indicate that 57.3 percent of students with disabilities graduate from high school with ordinary diplomas. Concerning postsecondary education, statistics from 1992-93 indicate that 6.3 percent of college undergraduates and 4.0 percent of graduate and professional students identify themselves as having a disability. A 1990 survey of former special education students found that 16.5 percent had attended college. (DB)
Article
Investigated the relationship of child abuse and neglect to academic achievement and discipline problems in a school-age population. A representative community sample of 420 maltreated children in kindergarten through Grade 12 were matched with 420 nonmaltreated children in the same community. Using social service and school records as the sources of data, the authors found maltreated children performed significantly below their nonmaltreated peers in standardized tests and grades and were more likely to repeat a grade. Maltreated children also had significantly more discipline referrals and suspensions. Of the maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest outcomes on academic performance, and physically abused children showed the most discipline problems. Variations in maltreatment effects by grade level, public assistance status, and gender are also described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Why is the abuse of individuals with disabilities so prevalent, and how can it be prevented? This . . . reference addresses these questions and describes proven prevention strategies to promote the personal safety and well-being of individuals with disabilities. The author combines his extensive experience working in the human services with his distinguished background in research to present information that is both authoritative and revealing. Case studies, alarming statistics, and an integrated ecological model of abuse make this . . . volume one that will compel society to confront the conditions that foster abuse and finally end "the silence." This book offers [specific guidance] for professionals and families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
More than any other subtype of abuse and neglect, psychological maltreatment offers a number of unique challenges to theoreticians and researchers. Although progress has been made, contention still remains over the definition of psychological maltreatment and its relation to other forms of child abuse and neglect (Brassard, Germain, & Hart, 1987; Garbarino, Guttmann, & Seeley, 1986). Thus, the definition and operationalization of psychological maltreatment continue to be important issues that require further research and explanation. In fact, the development of standardized definitions and assessment techniques for all forms of maltreatment is crucial to increase communication across laboratories, and across disciplines.
Article
Using census and administrative agency data for 177 urban census tracts, variation in rates of officially reported child maltreatment is found to be related to structural determinants of community social organization: economic and family resources, residential instability, household and age structure, and geographic proximity of neighborhoods to concentrated poverty. Furthermore, child maltreatment rates are found to be intercorrelated with other indicators of the breakdown of community social control and organization. These other indicators are similarly affected by the structural dimensions of neighborhood context. Children who live in neighborhoods that are characterized by poverty, excessive numbers of children per adult resident, population turnover, and the concentration of female-headed families are at highest risk of maltreatment. This analysis suggests that child maltreatment is but one manifestation of community social organization and that its occurrence is related to some of the same underlying macro-social conditions that foster other urban problems.
Article
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences—in particular family structure and maternal schooling—between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems.
Article
In this paper we examine the relationship between neighborhood poverty and three different types of child maltreatment; neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We explore both rates of reporting and rates of substantiated reports across low, moderate, and high poverty areas. We use 1990 Census data and Child Protective Services (CPS) data to study this relationship. We find that neighborhood poverty is positively associated with all three forms of child maltreatment, but to different degrees. Of the three types of child maltreatment, child neglect is most powerfully associated with neighborhood poverty status.RésuméCet article examine le lien entre la pauvreté du voisinage et 3 types de maltraitance: la négligence, les mauvais traitements physiques et l'abus sexuel. Nous explorons aussi bien les signalements que les signalements confirmés dans des quartiers pas trés pauvres, modérément pauvres et très pauvres. Nous utilisons le Recensement 1991 et les données des Services de Protection de l'Enfance pour étudier ce lien. Nous trouvons que la pauvreté du voisinage est associée positivement aux trois types de maltraitance, mais à des degrés divers. Des trois types de maltraitance, c'est la négligence qui est le plus associée à la pauvreté du voisinage.ResumenEn este artículo se estudia la relación entre la pobreza del vecindario y tres tipos diferentes de maltrato infantil: negligencia, maltrato fisico, y abuso sexual. Se exploran las tasas de notificaciones y de notificaciones confirmadas en areas de pobreza baja, moderada, y alta. Para estudiar esta relación se utilizan datos del censo de 1990 y datos de los Servicios de Protección Infantil. Se encuentra que la pobreza del vecindario está asociada positivamente con las tres formas de maltrato infantil, pero en grados diferentes. De los tres tipos de maltrato, la negligencia es la que está asociada de manera más intensa con la pobreza del vecindario.
Article
Friedrich and Boriskin's (1976) seminal review presented compelling evidence pointing toward the contribution of child factors in heightening risk for physical abuse. Indeed, many authors currently accept that certain child characteristics (e.g., prematurity, low birthweight) can directly lead to abuse. Much of the data in this area, however, is based on methodologically weak designs, and recent findings do not support the premise that children have a major role in the etiology of abuse. There is some suggestion that children with relatively circumscribed features may add to risk in families that already exhibit additional factors predisposing them to maltreatment. This paper re-examines the role of the child in abuse, reviews recent relevant research findings, and offers new directions that research in this area might take.
Article
Mothers from 198 low-income, female-headed families enrolled in child protective services because of child abuse or neglect were compared with an equal number of age-matched controls, to determine if unplanned childbearing and family size increase the risk of child neglect or abuse. Logistic regression analyses suggest that unplanned childbearing increases the risk of child abuse but not of child neglect. Large family size significantly raises the risk of both types of maltreatment, although this factor had a greater effect on the risk of abuse than on the risk of neglect. Finally, unplanned childbearing appears to be indirectly related to abuse through its effect on family size.
Article
Evidence suggests that handicapped children are at increased risk for abuse and neglect. Communicatively impaired youngsters are particularly vulnerable because of their limited ability to report the maltreatment. Of 482 abused handicapped children evaluated at Boys Town National Research Hospital, 212 had hearing impairment, 87 speech language disorders, 39 learning disorders, 43 behavioral-emotional disturbances, 74 mental retardation, 5 visual impairment, 3 cleft lip or palate, and 19 other disorders. The perpetrator was either a relative or a "trusted other" in 97.2% of sexual abuse cases. Handicapped males were much more likely to be victims of sexual abuse than nonhandicapped males in the general population. Children being educated in residential schools were more likely to be sexually abused than mainstreamed youngsters. These children may be at risk for abuse from a wide variety of potential perpetrators, including teachers, dormitory counselors, van drivers, clergy, classroom aides, older students, peer siblings, scout leaders, abused peers, baby-sitters, and custodians.
Article
Forty-five children who had been sexually abused were psychologically evaluated. Parents or guardians of the children completed symptom checklists. Results indicated that the majority of children (71%) were abused 4 or fewer times. In addition, genital manipulation and/or fondling was the most common form of abuse. In 82% of the cases, there were no marital separations or family breakups of any kind within six months before or six months after the abuse. Many children (69%) displayed psychological symptoms. The most frequent were nightmares, bedwetting, clinging behavior, inappropriate sexual behavior, anxiety and sadness. Results of this study are largely inconsistent with popular notions about the nature of child sexual abuse. The major methodological shortcoming of the investigation was the lack of a systematic control group.
Article
This paper reports the extent to which states assemble information on the incidence of abuse and neglect among handicapped populations. Data were collected from all states on the types of pre-existing disabilities cited on child abuse reporting forms and the perceived accuracy of this information. The study also sought to identify specific methods used to provide assistance to local agencies regarding the problems associated with abuse of the handicapped. Surveys were distributed to and completed by representatives of the designated child protection agencies within each state and the District of Columbia (n = 51). General findings were that although it is generally acknowledged in research that handicapped children represent a disproportionate number of abuse and neglect victims, nearly half of the states do not collect any information on "special characteristics." Forms from the remaining states exhibited much variation in style and in the competency of collection techniques. These results suggest a significant lack of services specifically designed to improve the awareness of field representatives on the influence of exceptionalities in abusive cases. This information indicates that training and prevention programs will remain basically inadequate until the relationship between handicapped conditions and abuse/neglect is more clearly defined.
Article
Using census and administrative agency data for 177 urban census tracts, variation in rates of officially reported child maltreatment is found to be related to structural determinants of community social organization: economic and family resources, residential instability, household and age structure, and geographic proximity of neighborhoods to concentrated poverty. Furthermore, child maltreatment rates are found to be intercorrelated with other indicators of the breakdown of community social control and organization. These other indicators are similarly affected by the structural dimensions of neighborhood context. Children who live in neighborhoods that are characterized by poverty, excessive numbers of children per adult resident, populations turnover, and the concentration of female-headed families are at highest risk of maltreatment. This analysis suggests that child maltreatment is but one manifestation of community social organization and that its occurrence is related to some of the same underlying macro-social conditions that foster other urban problems.
Article
This study examined the role of residential and school mobility as a mediator between child maltreatment and academic outcomes. Using a sample of 711 maltreated and nonmaltreated children ranging from 5 to 15 years old matched on gender, grade, school, and socioeconomic status, path analytic techniques were employed to assess direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on recent achievement test scores, current grades, and grade repetitions. The results indicated that mobility did help account for the effects of maltreatment on each of the outcomes. For grades in English/reading, 32.7% of the effect of maltreatment was accounted for by amount of mobility, while for test scores and grade repetitions the numbers were 14.6% and 19.1%, respectively.
Article
Long-term intellectual and academic outcomes associated with early childhood victimization were studied using a sample of previously abused and neglected individuals (n = 413) and a matched control group (n = 286). IQ (Quick Test) and reading ability (WRAT-R) were assessed at approximately age 28 and differences between the groups were compared via multivariate analyses. Abused and neglected and control group individuals differed significantly in IQ and reading ability, even when controlling for age, sex, race, and social class. Types of maltreatment were associated with differences in IQ and reading ability in young adulthood. The limitations of this study are discussed as well as the role of IQ and/or reading ability as potential mediating variables for other outcomes.
Article
In a previous report, we demonstrated that adolescents' adjustment varies as a function of their parents' style (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful). This 1-year follow-up was conducted in order to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time. In 1987, an ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of approximately 2,300 14-18-year-olds provided information used to classify the adolescents' families into 1 of 4 parenting style groups. That year, and again 1 year later, the students completed a battery of standardized instruments tapping psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and behavior problems. Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time. However, whereas the benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment, the deleterious consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate.
Article
Using a prospective cohorts design, we assess the long-term criminal consequences of childhood sexual abuse through an examination of official criminal histories for a large sample of validated cases of childhood sexual abuse, compared to cases of physical abuse and neglect and a control group matched for age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic status. Compared to other types of abuse and neglect, early childhood sexual abuse does not uniquely increase an individual's risk for later delinquent and adult criminal behavior. Childhood sexual abuse victims were at increased risk of arrest as a juvenile for being a runaway. As adults, child sexual abuse victims were at higher risk of arrest for sex crimes than controls, as were victims of physical abuse and neglect. Childhood sexual abuse victims were more likely to be arrested for prostitution as adults than other abuse and neglect victims and controls, regardless of gender. However, there was no support for a direct relationship among child sexual abuse, arrests for running away in adolescence, and adult arrests for prostitution. The findings also suggest an association for males between physical abuse and arrests for violent sex crimes (rape and/or sodomy). Caution is needed in interpreting these findings because of exclusive reliance on official record data and the possible impact of agency intervention.
Article
Studies of the impact of abuse or neglect on children have focused largely on maltreated infants, toddlers, or preschool children. In this study a total of 139 school-age and adolescent children participated in a multi-model, multi-source assessment; 22 of the children had been physically abused, 47 had been neglected, and the remainder served as comparison subjects. Parent and child interviews, teacher ratings, and data from school records were used to comprehensively assess children's school performance; social and emotional development in school, at home, in the community, and with peers; and adaptive behavior in areas such as motor skills, personal care skills, and community orientation. With the effects of socioeconomic status covaried out, results showed that the abused children displayed pervasive and severe academic and socioemotional problems. Neglected children differed little from children who were neither abused nor neglected on measures of socioemotional development, but they displayed severe academic delays. Both groups of maltreated children showed unexpected strengths on measures of adaptive behavior.
Article
The present study examines the effect of child neglect, alone and in combination with abuse, on academic achievement and school disciplinary problems for elementary, junior high, and senior high students. The sample included 324 neglected children and adolescents, and a matched nonmaltreated sample of 420 children and adolescents. All subjects were in grades K through 12 in a small city in New York state. The results revealed that neglected children did perform more poorly than their nonmaltreated counterparts, having lower grades, more suspensions, more disciplinary referrals, and more grade repetitions, even when controlling for gender of child and SES. Neglect alone and neglect in combination with physical or sexual abuse was related to lower grades and more suspensions. The combination of abuse and neglect had a particularly strong effect on the number of disciplinary referrals and grade repetitions. Abused/neglected students in junior high had the highest number of grade repetitions. The number of disciplinary referrals continued to increase through senior high for both neglected and abused/neglected students. Interestingly, the academic performance of all subjects dropped during junior high. Neglect and neglect in combination with abuse appeared to exacerbate a decline in academic performance that occurs as children enter junior high school.
Article
The differential effects of neglect and physical abuse on psychological functioning are not well understood. The present study examined the relationship between reported neglect and physical abuse and symptomatology and attachment styles in a sample of 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. In contrast to physical abuse, which must involve some parental involvement in a child's life, neglect is characterized by a lack of parent-child interaction. As such, it was hypothesized that childhood neglect would be more predictive of symptomatology and dysfunctional attachment styles than would physical abuse. Results confirmed the expected relationship between neglect and more severe psychological problems and anxious attachment styles. Implications of these results point to the need to focus both empirically and theoretically on neglect and physical abuse as potentially separate moderators of psychosocial functioning.
Article
In this paper we examined the relationship between neighborhood poverty and three different types of child maltreatment; neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We explore both rates of reporting and rates of substantiated reports across low, moderate, and high poverty areas. We use 1990 Census data and Child Protective Services (CPS) data to study this relationship. We find that neighborhood poverty is positively associated with all three forms of child maltreatment, but to different degrees. Of the three types of child maltreatment, child neglect is most powerfully associated with neighborhood poverty status.
Article
Two questions were posed: (1) What are the proportions of boys and girls in various categories of substantiated child abuse? (2) Do the gender proportions differ for children with and without disabilities? Data collected by previous researchers from a demographically representative sample of U.S. child abuse reporting districts was analyzed. This included 1,249 case files involving 1,834 children. The number of girls and boys who did and did not have disabilities was identified for three age categories and for several categories of abuse. Chi-square analyses were used to determine whether there was a relationship between disability and gender for the various age and abuse categories. More boys were physically abused and neglected, but more girls were sexually abused. Boys with disabilities, however, were over-represented in all categories of abuse. Moreover, gender proportions among abused children with disabilities differed significantly from those found among other abused children. Although slightly more than half of abused children without disabilities were girls, 65% of abused children with disabilities were boys. Boys represented a significantly larger proportion of physically abused, sexually abused, and neglected children with disabilities than would be expected from their respective proportion of abused and neglected children without disabilities. Several possible explanations for the observed gender and disability status interaction are discussed.
Article
Circumstances of maltreatment and the presence of disabilities. An electronic merger of the records of all pediatric patients. Detailed record analysis of circumstances of maltreatment and the presence of disabilities. Differences between the Hospital and Residential samples, maltreatment and perpetrator characteristics, disability/maltreatment relationships, and their implications for primary health care are discussed.
Article
The effects of neighborhood and family income and family risk factors on developmental test scores at ages 1 through 3 are examined using a subsample (N = 347) from the Infant Health and Development Program. Beneficial effects of low numbers of risks were found for scores at ages 1 through 3. Family poverty was associated with lower scores at ages 2 and 3. Neighborhood affluence was associated with higher scores at age 3. The family risks-test score association at ages 1 through 3 and family income-test score association at ages 2 and 3 were mediated by home environment. Mediated effects were stronger for family income-test score associations at age 3 than for neighborhood income. Moderating effects of family risk on family and neighborhood income effects revealed an interaction between family poverty and risks for scores at age 3. Explanations for the early links between family risks and test scores and the later links between income and test scores are discussed.
Article
The relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production were examined in preschool children (N = 75) attending center-based child care. Three behavioral dimensions, shy/anxious/internalizing, angry/aggressive/externalizing, and social competence, were assessed by teacher report and classroom observation, and their relations with 2 measures of cortisol activity, median (or typical) levels and reactivity (quartile range score between second and third quartile values) were explored. Cortisol-behavior relations differed by gender: significant associations were found for boys but not for girls. Specifically, for boys externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median cortisol. Time of day of cortisol measurement affected the results. Surprisingly, median cortisol levels rose from morning to afternoon, a pattern opposite to that of the typical circadian rhythm of cortisol. This rise in cortisol over the day was positively correlated with internalizing behavior for boys. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings for the study of the development of hormone-behavior relations are discussed.
Central registries for child abuse and neglect: A national review of records management, due process safeguards, and data utilization
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