Genetic Diversity in an Andean Population from Peru and Regional Migration Patterns of Amerindians in South America: Data from Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA

ArticleinHuman Heredity 51(1-2):97-106 · February 2001with 173 Reads
DOI: 10.1159/000022964 · Source: PubMed
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Abstract
The genetic variability of a Quechua-speaking Andean population from Peru was examined on the basis of four Y chromosome markers and restriction sites that define the Amerindian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. Forty-nine out of 52 (90.4%) individuals had mtDNA which belonged to one of the four common Amerindian haplogroups, with 54% of the samples belonging to haplogroup B. Among 25 males, 12 had an Amerindian Y chromosome, which exists as four haplotypes defined on the basis of the DYS287, DYS199, DYS392 and DYS19 markers, three of which are shared by Amazonian Amerindians. Thus, there is a clear directionality of marriages, with an estimated genetic admixture with non-Amerindians that is 9 times lower for mtDNA than for Y chromosome DNA. The comparison of mtDNA of Andean Amerindians with that of people from other regions of South America in a total of 1,086 individuals demonstrates a geographical pattern, with a decreasing frequency of A and C haplotypes and increasing frequency of the D haplotype from the north of the Amazon River to the south of the Amazon River, reaching the lowest and the highest frequencies, respectively, in the more southern populations of Chile and Argentina. Conversely, the highest and lowest frequencies of the haplogroup B are found, respectively, in the Andean and the North Amazon regions, and it is absent from some southern populations, suggesting that haplotypes A, C and D, and haplotype B may have been dispersed by two different migratory routes within the continent.

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    The genetic consequences of the social policy of the past in relation to the formation of Afro-Brazilian societies are interesting and have been studied at various biological levels (classical polymorphisms and the mitochondrial and nuclear levels. These allow the estimation of the contribution of African genes and the participation of other ethnic groups in the formation of these communities. With this objective, uniparental systems of exclusively maternal (mtDNA) or paternal (Y-DNA) inheritance in the Curiaú community were analyzed. The results demonstrate a differential contribution of the maternal and paternal genetic systems. Thirty-three sequences were identified by mtDNA analysis; 53% showing an African and 47% an Amerindian origin. For the paternal system, 57% were of African, 37% of European, and 6% of Amerindian origin.
  • Article
    Genetic relationships between populations can be studied by comparing genotypic and allelic similarities. This investigation aims to demonstrate that selected autosomal microsatellite markers could be used to study the genetic structures of different populations living in northwest Venezuela, in Zulia State. Seven autosomal systems (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, vWA, D7S820, D13S317, and D5S818) were tested by PCR in a multiplex format on 688 different chromosomes from unrelated individuals living in Maracaibo, "Isla de Toas," and "San José de Heras," and from two Amerindian populations from the "Sierra de Perijá," Barí' and Yukpa. Allele frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibria, genetic distances, phylogenetic trees, and ethnic admixtures were estimated. The study shows the existence of a clear genetic difference among these populations in accordance with their historic evolution. The populations of Maracaibo and "Isla de Toas" showed a triracial origin, with a large European contribution, followed by an Amerindian component and a small African component. The indigenous groups, Barí' and Yukpa, showed exclusively an Amerindian component, and "San José de Heras" showed only an African component. These results indicate that microsatellite markers are useful for molecular anthropology in a regional and worldwide context and provide important genetic information about contemporary populations of Venezuela.
  • Article
    With the imminent availability of ultra-high-volume genotyping platforms (on the order of 100,000-1,000,000 genotypes per sample) at a manageable cost, there is growing interest in the possibility of conducting genomewide association studies for a variety of diseases but, so far, little consensus on methods to design and analyze them. In April 2005, an international group of >100 investigators convened at the University of Southern California over the course of 2 days to compare notes on planned or ongoing studies and to debate alternative technologies, study designs, and statistical methods. This report summarizes these discussions in the context of the relevant literature. A broad consensus emerged that the time was now ripe for launching such studies, and several common themes were identified--most notably the considerable efficiency gains of multistage sampling design, specifically those made by testing only a portion of the subjects with a high-density genomewide technology, followed by testing additional subjects and/or additional SNPs at regions identified by this initial scan.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Se evaluaron los loci Y-específicos DYS287, DYS199 y DYS390 en un total de 105 individuos, en cuatro poblaciones del norte del Perú. Sólo un individuo presentó el linaje YAP+/C, de probable origen africano. La frecuencia de cromosomas Y Amerindios, indicado por el linaje YAP-/T, fue mayor en la población Aguaruna de Yamayakat (97%), disminuyendo en mestizos de Moche (73%), Santiago de Chuco (53%) y Trujillo (33%); por otro lado, el grado de mestizaje fue mayor en las poblaciones nor-occidentales. Los haplótipos más frecuentes fueron YAP-/C/24 en Trujillo (47%) y YAP-/T/24 en Santiago de Chuco (23%). La diversidad haplotípica en Santiago de Chuco (0,881) fue mayor que en Trujillo (0,752). Es de resaltar la considerable proporción de cromosomas Y Amerindios en las poblaciones peruanas a pesar de más de 500 años de influencia hispánica y otras culturas.
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    La Genética Forense es una de las ramas de la biomedicina que ha mostrado un vertiginoso desarrollo científico. A raíz de este crecimiento, numerosas organizaciones internacionales oficiales han adoptado sistemas de análisis de ADN que pudieran ser transferidos y equiparados en distintos países, para favorecer el intercambio de información científica, técnica y pericial, sobre todo en la resolución de caso judiciales como estudios de paternidad y de criminalística forense. Dicho trabajo no podría ser ejecutado sin contar con Bases de Datos poblacionales amplias y adecuadamente estudiadas. En este trabajo se analizaró un total de 1438 muestras de 4 grupos étnicos de Ecuador, entre ellos mestizos, amerindios kichwas, amerindios waorani y negros afroamericanos; se analizó por técnicas manuales y electroforesis capilar 20 microsatélites autonómicos D3S1358, HumFGA, D21S11, Penta E, Penta D, HumVWA, D8S1179, D7S820, D13S317, D5S818, D16S539, HumTH01, HumCSF1PO, HumTPOX, HumF13A01, HumF13B, HumLPL, HumHPRTB, HumFES/FPS y amelogenina; se analizaron también por electroforesis capilar 12 microsatélites del cromosoma Y como DYS19, DYS385 a/b, DYS 389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 y DYS439. Todos los grupos étnicos analizados mostraron estar en equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg para todos los STRs autosómicos analizados. La utilización en forma conjunta de 15 STRs autosómicos (en formato multiplex) ha demostrado poseer una elevada variabilidad y ofrece un Poder de Discriminación (PD) conjunto superior a 0,99999999 y de Poder de Exclusión a priori (MEC) siempre por encima de 0,99999925, la Probabilidad de Matching combinado encontrado es de 1 en 1.27 x 1017 para mestizos. Se ha confirmado y cuantificado que mestizos y afroecuatorianos son poblaciones trihíbridas, con proporciones variables de contribución de amerindios, europeos y africanos. Como se observa a partir de cromosoma «Y», la contribución de los varones europeos (claramente los españoles en el caso de los mestizos) fue mucho mayor que cuando las estimaciones de mezcla se calcularon a partir de los STRs autosómicos. Se ha confirmado y cuantificado con los marcadores STRs autosómicos que mestizos y afroecuatorianos son poblaciones trihíbridas. Los mestizos contienen ~73% de cromosomas autosómicos de origen amerindio, un ~19% europeo putativo y ~8% origen africano. Los afroecuatorianos se pueden estimar en el ~57% africanos, ~28% europeos y ~15% nativos americanos. En mestizos, amerindios kichwas y negros afroamericanos, la diversidad haplotípica del cromosoma «Y» es alta y bastante próxima a uno; se debe observar que este parámetro, en los sistemas haploides como ADN mitocondial y el cromosoma «Y», es numéricamente idéntico a los parámetros forenses de información a priori como el poder de discriminación o el poder de exclusión en los casos de paternidad. Se confirma que los mestizos tienen una corta distancia genética con los españoles y con las poblaciones caucasoides de la península ibérica, mientras que los kichwas claramente nativos del nuevo continente se aproximan a la mayoría de poblaciones urbanas de centroamérica y del área andina, en aquellos sitios donde existe una clara presencia indígena. Siete haplotipos diferentes fueron compartidos entre kichwas y mestizos, uno entre mestizos y afroecuatorianos y uno entre kichwas, afroecuatorianos y mestizos. Este último resulta ser el haplotipo más frecuente en los europeos y, particularmente, en los españoles. El número total de haplotipos diferentes es 276 en toda la muestra analizada. Los mestizos muestran una distancia corta a los kickwas, pero su distancia a los españoles es claramente más corta que entre los kichwas y los españoles. También es este el caso para su respectiva distancia a los guineanos. Esto es consistente con un triple origen genético para los mestizo: amerindios, europeos y africanos, como se demuestra por los STRs en el cromosoma «Y» . Los afroecuatorianos son los más próximos a los guineanos pero están más próximos a los kichwas y a los españoles que lo que lo están los guineanos. Con diferentes proporciones de mezcla, el modelo de triple origen propuesto para los mestizos también aplica a los afroecuatorianos. La herencia haplotípica y la gran posibilidad de combinaciones que ofrecen estos marcadores advierte de la posible existencia de composiciones alélicas todavía sin analizar, y de aquellas en las que se desconoce la frecuencia real. La colaboración de todos los laboratorios forenses permitirá seguir ampliando la base de datos para el cromosoma Y, de este modo se podrá aumentar la precisión estadística a la hora de interpretar los resultados de la investigación de la individualidad biológica en la rutina forense. Los datos obtenidos son de enorma valor antropológico y permitirán trazar mejor la historia de Ecuador en busca de los orígnes de los actuales pobladores del Nuevo Mundo.
  • Article
    New data were obtained on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Guahibo from Venezuela, a group so far not studied using molecular data. A population sample (n = 59) was analyzed for mtDNA variation in two control-region hypervariable segments (HV1 and HV2) by sequencing. The presence or absence of a 9-bp polymorphism in the COII/tRNA(Lys) region was studied by direct amplification and electrophoretic identification. Thirty-eight variable sites were detected in regions HV1 and HV2, defining 26 mtDNA lineages; 23.7% of these were present in a single individual. The 9-bp deletion was found in 3.39% of individuals. Nucleotide and haplotype diversities were relatively high compared with other New World populations. The identified sequence haplotypes were classified into four major haplogroups (A-D) according to previous studies, with high frequencies for A (47.46%) and C (49.15%), low frequency for B (3.39%), and an absence of D.
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    In May of 2010, two communities (Truenococha and Santa Marta) reported to be at risk of vampire bat depredation were surveyed in the Province Datem del Marañón in the Loreto Department of Perú. Risk factors for bat exposure included age less than or equal to 25 years and owning animals that had been bitten by bats. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNAs) were detected in 11% (7 of 63) of human sera tested. Rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were detected in the sera of three individuals, two of whom were also seropositive for rVNA. Rabies virus RNP IgM antibodies were detected in one respondent with no evidence of rVNA or RNP IgG antibodies. Because one respondent with positive rVNA results reported prior vaccination and 86% (six of seven) of rVNA-positive respondents reported being bitten by bats, these data suggest nonfatal exposure of persons to rabies virus, which is likely associated with vampire bat depredation.
  • Article
    Cardiovascular disease is emerging as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Population-based data regarding the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in Andean Hispanic populations are scarce. The authors performed a population-based study that included 1878 Peruvian Andean adults to determine: (1) the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension and (2) the relative frequency of hypertension subtypes (systolic vs. diastolic). The prevalence of hypertension was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0%-17.4%), did not differ by gender, and increased steeply with age, particularly in women. Awareness, treatment, and control rates were 47.9%, 39.5%, and 14%, respectively. Diastolic blood pressure increased until age 50 years and reached a plateau thereafter, whereas mean arterial pressure continued to increase with age even after age 50 years. Furthermore, in sharp contrast with the United States population, the predominant type of hypertension was systodiastolic (41.7%; 95% CI, 35.1%-48.5%). Isolated systolic hypertension accounted for only 29.3% of cases (95% CI, 23.9%-35.4%) and was responsible for a minority of cases in all age groups before age 70 years. Hypertension subtypes in this Andean population seem to differ significantly from those present in the United States population, with a much larger proportion of systodiastolic and diastolic hypertension even with advanced age. These differences result from interactions between hemodynamic and structural factors, and further studies aimed at characterizing their genetic and environmental determinants and implications in end-organ damage and prognosis in this population may contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension.
  • Article
    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group.
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    En el presente estudio, con el objetivo de develar la estructura genética y las proporciones de ancestralidad de las poblaciones peruanas, analizamos muestras de ADN de 551 individuos de 25 poblaciones de los Andes, Selva y de la Costa, usando 40 marcadores de ancestralidad de tipo inserción-deleción. Al comparar los genotipos con las de las poblaciones de referencia de los diferentes continentes, los resultados muestran una predominancia de la proporción de ancestralidad nativa americana en las 25 poblaciones peruanas. En las poblaciones de Taquile, Amantani, Anapia, Los Uros (islas en el Lago Titicaca) y Yanque (en la región Arequipa), localizadas en el sur, se detectan las más elevadas proporciones de ancestralidad autóctona, indicando que su perfil genómico deriva de los primeros pobladores de Sudamérica. En contraste, en las poblaciones de San Marcos, Cajamarca (Cajamarca), Characato (Arequipa), Chogo (Ancash), Lambayeque y Lima, se detecta una baja proporción, pero notoriamente significativa de ancestralidad europea. Asimismo, hay pequeñas proporciones, comparadas a las anteriores, de ancestralidad euroasiática (las de ancestralidad africana son pequeñísimas), principalmente europea, en las poblaciones de Pucallpa, Lamas, Chachapoyas, Ayacucho y Huancayo. Los resultados obtenidos a través del ADN son concordantes con las documentaciones sobre las inmigraciones poscolombinas al Perú, así como consistentes con los registros históricos que describen la continuidad de la alta densidad poblacional autóctona desde la formación de los imperios prehispánicos.
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    The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers.
  • Chapter
    Several cosmopolitan populations of Argentina have been studied to estimate the European, Amerindian, and African participation in their gene pool. In the city of Buenos Aires, these studies were first made using only blood group markers such as ABO and D factor of Rh system (a revision of these studies was performed by Avena 2003). In addition, Sergio Avena et al. (1999, 216) carried out a comparative analysis between the current data and those available at a historical level using the frequencies of ABO and Rh system, and they were able to find significant differences between the sample of the Hospital de Clínicas of the city of Buenos Aires (register of donors from 1994 to 1995) and the data registered in the city in 1938 and 1949 (see Etcheverry 1949, 167; Avena 2003, 48). In that study, they observed an increase in ABO*O and RH*D alleles due to the important contribution of Amerindian people to the gene pool of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (BAMA) population. Later, we determined ten blood group systems and gm/km immunoglobulins in two samples of the BAMA, and we obtained similar gene admixture values of 14–16 percent and 3.3–4.0 percent with Amerindians and Africans, respectively (Avena et al. 2001, 86; Avena et al. 2006, 115).
  • Article
    The objective of this article is to explore the interrelations between human population genomic research, the political strategies of indigenous movements and processes of identity formation. It will do so by analysing the collaboration between the Uros, an indigenous group living on artificial floating islands on Lake Titicaca (Peru), and researchers of the Genographic Project. Claiming descent from the ancient Urus, the islands’ inhabitants used their differentiated ethnic identity as a central resource in a territorial conflict with the Peruvian state. Their engagement with genetics was aimed at obtaining scientific support for their highly contested claims. In fact, the results of genomic research became a central element in the debate waged around the identity of the Uros. This article aims to contribute new insights into the incorporation of genetic research within the political debates waged over the identities of indigenous populations, as well as to the interaction of genetic knowledge with pre-existing discourses for defining ethnic identities. It also analyses the ways in which genetic research is turned into a political resource with the ability to generate significant social effects in the daily lives of studied populations.
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    Molecular-based characterizations of Andean peoples are traditionally conducted in the service of elucidating continent-level evolutionary processes in South America. Consequently, genetic variation among “western” Andean populations is often represented in relation to variation among “eastern” Amazon and Orinoco River Basin populations. This west-east contrast in patterns of population genetic variation is typically attributed to large-scale phenomena, such as dual founder colonization events or difffering long-term microevolutionary histories. However, alternative explanations that consider the nature and causes of population genetic diversity within the Andean region remain underexplored. Here we examine population genetic diversity in the Peruvian Central Andes using data from the mtDNA fijirst hypervariable region and Y-chromosome short tandem repeats among 17 newly sampled populations and 15 published samples. Using this geographically comprehensive data set, we fijirst reassessed the currently accepted pattern of western versus eastern population genetic structure, which our results ultimately reject: mtDNA population diversities were lower, rather than higher, within Andean versus eastern populations, and only highland Y-chromosomes exhibited signifijicantly higher within-population diversities.
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    Objectives: To advance in the knowledge of Peruvian populations’ origin in a phylogeographical context. Design: Population genetics study. Setting: Human Genetics Laboratory, Biological Sciences Faculty, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, and Genetics and Molecular Biology Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad San Martin de Porras, Lima, Peru. Participants: Seven Peruvian populations. Methods: Comparative analysis of mtDNA and MBL nuclear gene study results in seven Peruvian populations processed separately and then combined using PHYLYP 3.65 Program in order to obtain FST values of genetic differentiation; construction of distance trees by applying UPGMA algorithm and subsequent generated clusters’ analysis. Main outcome measures: Genetic trees. Results: Trees generated for each genetic marker had proper and distinct topologies among them. Combined processing resulted in a tree with higher values of genetic differentiation in Lago Titicaca Islands (Puno, Peru) Taquile, Amantani y Anapia, graded as very high because they showed 0.3113, 0.2949 y 0.3348 FST values with respect to the populations studied outside of Puno Department -like Chachapoyas, Pucallpa and Chiclayo-, as well as those of both Uro’s in same Puno and Lago Titicaca’s populations (0.2837). Out of Puno, the pair Chachapoyas-Pucallpa population was the least divergent with 0.0108 FST value between them, classifying as small. Conclusions: The tree obtained from markers by a combined matrix process determined that populations inhabiting in Taquile, Amantani y Anapia islands possess notable genetic divergence respect to the four remainders studied in Peru, including the Uro’s population geographically very close to them and within the same Lago Titicaca. Our next objective will be to explain these findings initially by increasing genetic markers and number of populations analyzed in Peru.
  • Article
    Before the arrival of the Spaniards in Nicaragua, diverse Native American groups inhabited the territory. In colonial times, Native Nicaraguan populations interacted with Europeans and slaves from Africa. To ascertain the extent of this genetic admixture and provide genetic evidence about the origin of the Nicaraguan ancestors, we analyzed the mitochondrial control region (HVSI and HVSII), 17 Y chromosome STRs, and 15 autosomal STRs in 165 Mestizo individuals from Nicaragua. To carry out interpopulation comparisons, HVSI sequences from 29 American populations were compiled from the literature. The results reveal a close relationship between Oto-manguean, Uto-Aztecan, Mayan groups from Mexico, and a Chibchan group to Nicaraguan lineages. The Native American contribution to present-day Nicaraguan Mestizos accounts for most of the maternal lineages, whereas the majority of Nicaraguan Y chromosome haplogroups can be traced back to a West Eurasian origin. Pairwise Fst distances based on Y-STRs between Nicaragua and European, African and Native American populations show that Nicaragua is much closer to Europeans than the other populations. Additionally, admixture proportions based on autosomal STRs indicate a predominantly Spanish contribution. Our study reveals that the Nicaraguan Mestizo population harbors a high proportion of European male and Native American female substrate. Finally, the amount of African ancestry is also interesting, probably because of the contribution of Spanish conquerors with North African genetic traces or that of West African slaves.
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    The objective of this paper is to explore the interrelations between genetic research with human populations, the political strategies of indigenous movements and processes of identity formation. In particular, it will analyse the social conditions that have resulted in the collaboration between the Uros, an indigenous group living on the floating islands of Lake Titicaca (Peru), and researchers of the Genographic project. The Uros, whose claims to a differentiated ethnic identity were highly contested within the local context, engaged with geneticists with the aim to obtain scientific support for this identity. This was part of their political strategies for their territorial rights. As such, this case offers new insights into the incorporation of genetic research within the conceptual politics waged around ethnic identities, as well as the articulation of genetic knowledge with pre-existing registers to define such identities.
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    We analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from 144 samples of islanders of the Taquile and Amantani (Quechua speakers) and Los Uros and Anapia (Aymara speakers) of the Lake Titicaca, Peru. We have found the highest frequency of B1 mtDNA haplotype ever reported: 100% in Taquile (n= 57); 88,6% in Amantani (n= 35); 87,5% in Anapia (n= 24) and 75% in Los Uros (n= 28). There are other haplotypes but in low frequencies: 11,4% of C1 in Amantani; 17,9% of A2 and 7,1% of D1 in Los Uros; 4,2% of C1, C2 and D1 haplotypes in Anapia. The high frequency of the B1 haplotype indicates that Taquile, Amantaní and Anapia islands have been populated by a reduced founder group. Although the genetic affinity between islanders of Anapia and Los Uros, the proportion of some alleles in the latter suggest the persistence of the Uru genetic background.
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    In order to investigate the underlying genetic structure and genomic ancestry proportions of Peruvian subpopulations, we analyzed 551 human samples of 25 localities from the Andean, Amazonian, and Coastal regions of Peru with a set of 40 ancestry informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Using genotypes of reference populations from different continents for comparison, our analysis indicated that populations from all 25 Peruvian locations had predominantly Amerindian genetic ancestry. Among populations from the Titicaca Lake islands of Taquile, Amantani, Anapia, and Uros, and the Yanque locality from the southern Peruvian Andes, there was no significant proportion of non-autochthonous genomes, indicating that their genetic background is effectively derived from the first settlers of South America. However, the Andean populations from San Marcos, Cajamarca, Characato and Chogo, and coastal populations from Lambayeque and Lima displayed a low but significant European ancestry proportion. Furthermore, Amazonian localities of Pucallpa, Lamas, Chachapoyas, and Andean localities of Ayacucho and Huancayo displayed intermediate levels of non-autochthonous ancestry, mostly from Europe. These results are in close agreement with the documented history of post-Columbian immigrations in Peru and with several reports suggesting a larger effective size of indigenous inhabitants during the formation of the current country's population.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 18 July 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.73.
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    En todas las sociedades se encuentran múltiples maneras de clasificar la ascendencia y descendencia de cada persona. Además de los vínculos establecidos desde el nacimiento y de los adquiridos, las relaciones de parentesco tienen un correlato biológico que permite definir linajes. Se emplearon técnicas de análisis molecular para caracterizar el perfil genético de la comunidad de Azampay, Catamarca. Los objetivos fueron establecer porcentajes y aportes diferenciales de componentes americanos y extra-americanos en esta población con mezcla génica, reconstruir su historia migratoria y cotejar los linajes moleculares con genealogías basadas en registros oficiales y relatos orales. Entre los haplogrupos masculinos, 88 % tuvieron procedencia foránea, mientras que 100% de los antepasados femeninos fueron amerindios. La migración laboral es una estrategia económica establecida, estando la crianza de nietos a cargo de sus abuelos. Es la vía de introducción de nuevos linajes moleculares, sin registrar siempre un correlato en la cantidad de apellidos.
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    Risk haplotypes have been described in celiac disease (CD), but the influence of native genes on CD in Hispanic Americans is unknown. The aim of the study was to measure the frequency of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (inherited by the maternal line) in mixed-blood patients with CD from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay, and to assess the relation between these and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes and clinical presentations. Clinical history, histological data, and genetic studies were conducted following 2 protocols: a case-control study of 72 Chilean patients with CD and controls, and an assessment of 43 (additional) samples of celiac patients from Chile, 96 from Argentina, and 57 from Uruguay, compared with the mtDNA frequency in the corresponding country. HLA typing was performed by a commercial kit, and mtDNA was determined by means of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis. A total of 73.6% of cases had typical presentations. The most frequent HLA alleles were HLA-DQB*201 and 202. No-DQ2/DQ8 HLA haplotypes were found in 7% of cases. mtDNA frequencies for typical Amerindian haplogroups were found in 71% of cases and 64% of controls (P χ2 = 0.016); in the comparative analysis, mtDNA distribution was not different from the figures reported for the respective general country population. No relation was found between haplotypes or haplogroups and clinical presentations. mtDNA haplogroups A/B/C/D were frequently found in celiac patients and controls, but no relations appeared between haplogroups, haplotypes, and clinical presentations.
  • Article
    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu.
  • Article
    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 140 Africans, including Pygmies from Zaire and Central African Republic (C.A.R.) and Mandenkalu, Wolof, and Pular from Senegal. More than 76% of the African mtDNAs (100% of the Pygmies and 67.3% of the Senegalese) formed one major mtDNA cluster (haplogroup L) defined by an African-specific HpaI site gain at nucleotide pair (np) 3592. Additional mutations subdivided haplogroup L into two subhaplogroups, each encompassing both Pygmy and Senegalese mtDNAs. A novel 12-bp homoplasmic insertion in the intergenic region between tRNA(Tyr) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes was also observed in 17.6% of the Pygmies from C.A.R. This insertion is one of the largest observed in human mtDNAs. Another 25% of the Pygmy mtDNAs harbored a 9-bp deletion between the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and tRNA(Lys) genes, a length polymorphism previously reported in non-African populations. In addition to haplogroup L, other haplogroups were observed in the Senegalese. These haplogroups were more similar to those observed in Europeans and Asians than to haplogroup L mtDNAs, suggesting that the African mtDNAs without the HpaI np 3592 site could be the ancestral types from which European and Asian mtDNAs were derived. Comparison of the intrapopulation sequence divergence in African and non-African populations confirms that African populations exhibit the largest extent of mtDNA variation, a result that further supports the hypothesis that Africans represent the most ancient human group and that all modern humans have a common and recent African origin. The age of the total African variation was estimated to be 101,000-133,000 years before present (YBP), while the age of haplogroup L was estimated at 98,000-130,000 YBP. These values substantially exceed the ages of all Asian- and European-specific mtDNA haplogroups.
  • Article
    Human diversity in the New World deserves attention because of its paramount importance for the understanding of the peopling of the continent. In recent years, the study of this diversity has been directed to testing the 'Three Migration' hypothesis (Turner II, In: Early Man in the New World, Sage Publications, 1983; Greenberg et al., Curr. Anthrop. 27: 477-497, 1986). Since this approach seems very restrictive, the present work intends to explore the diversity of cranial morphology in South America with no particular model as point of departure. We used uni, bi and multivariate methods to compare craniometric data of 502 individuals sorted out from representative pre-historic and historic collections all over the subcontinent. The results suggest the existence of two distinct morphological patterns, one of which linked to Paleo-Indians and another to archaic and horticulturalist populations. Even if one considers that local evolutionary forces or functional responses of the skull to environmental stresses could have caused the detected differences, the pattern of differentiation in time leads us to suggest the entrance of more than one migratory wave into South America.
  • Article
    It is shown that for allele frequency data a useful measure of the extent of gene flow between a pair of populations is M = (1/F(ST) - 1)/4, which is the estimated level of gene flow in an island model at equilibrium. For DNA sequence data, the same formula can be used if F(ST) is replaced by N(ST). In a population with restricted dispersal, analytic theory shows that there is a simple relationship between M and geographic distance in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium populations and that this relationship is approximately independent of mutation rate when the mutation rate is small. Simulation results show that with reasonable sample sizes, isolation by distance can indeed be detected and that, at least in some cases, non-equilibrium patterns can be distinguished. This approach to analyzing isolation by distance is used for two allozyme data sets, one from gulls and one from pocket gophers.
  • Article
    Three methods for estimating the average level of gene flow in natural population are discussed and compared. The three methods are FST, rare alleles, and maximum likelihood. All three methods yield estimates of the combination of parameters (the number of migrants [Nm] in a demic model or the neighborhood size [4πDσ2] in a continuum model) that determines the relative importance of gene flow and genetic drift. We review the theory underlying these methods and derive new analytic results for the expectation of FST in stepping-stone and continuum models when small sets of samples are taken. We also compare the effectiveness of the different methods using a variety of simulated data. We found that the FST and rare-alleles methods yield comparable estimates under a wide variety of conditions when the population being sampled is demographically stable. They are roughly equally sensitive to selection and to variation in population structure, and they approach their equilibrium values at approximately the same rate. We found that two different maximum-likelihood methods tend to yield biased estimates when relatively small numbers of locations are sampled but more accurate estimates when larger numbers are sampled. Our conclusion is that, although FST and rare-alleles methods are expected to be equally effective in analyzing ideal data, practical problems in estimating the frequencies of rare alleles in electrophoretic studies suggest that FST is likely to be more useful under realistic conditions.
  • Article
    Five polymorphisms involving two paternally inherited loci were surveyed in 38 world populations (n = 1,631) to investigate the origins of Native Americans. One of the six Y chromosome combination haplotypes (1T) was found at relatively high frequencies (17.8–75.0%) in nine Native American populations (n = 206) representing the three major linguistic divisions in the New World. Overall, these data do not support the Greenberg et al. (1986) tripartite model for the early peopling of the Americas. The 1T haplotype was also discovered at a low frequency in Siberian Eskimos (3/22), Chukchi (1/6), and Evens (1/65) but was absent from 17 other Asian populations (n = 987). The perplexing presence of the 1T haplotype in northeastern Siberia may be due to back-migration from the New World to Asia. A. J. Phys. Anthropol. 102:301–314, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Article
    The distribution of the four founding lineage haplogroups in Native Americans from North, Central, and South America shows a north to south increase in the frequency of lineage B and a North to South decrease in the frequency of lineage A. All four founding lineage haplogroups were detected in North, Central, and South America, and in Greenberg et al.'s ([1986] Curr. Anthropol. 27:477–497) three major linguistic groups (Amerind, NaDene, and Eskaleut), with all four haplogroups often found within a single population. Lineage A was the most common lineage in North America, regardless of language group. This overall distribution is most parsimonious with a single wave of migration into the New World which included multiple variants of all four founding lineage types. Torroni et al.'s ([1993a] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 53:563–590) report that lineage B has a more recent divergence time than theother three lineages can best be explained by multiple variants of lineagesA, C, and D, and fewer variants of lineage B entering the New World. Alternatively, there could have been multiple waves of migration from a single parent population in Asia/Siberia which repeatedly reintroduced the same lineages to the New World. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Article
    Archeological, craniometrical, and genetic information is utilized to reconstruct possible migration routes used in the peopling of Andean South America. Special emphasis is given to the elaboration of craniometrical isoline maps and its application in testing models of population displacement based on archeological data. A genetic distance analysis among linguistic groupings complements the conclusions based on archeological and craniometrical information.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We have studied the allele frequency distribution of the microsatellite locus DYS19 in several populations with different geographical origins worldwide. Three new alleles were found. In addition, remarkable geographic and ethnic differences were observed in the allele frequency profiles and DNA marker (gene) diversity among populations and major ethnic groups. Amerindians showed an overwhelming predominance of the A allele, while in Caucasians the B allele was modal, and in Greater Asians and Africans allele C became predominant. Even within these geographic regions there were significant gradients, as exemplified by the decreasing frequency profile of the B allele from Great Britain over Germany to Slovakia. Thus, DYS19 emerges as a useful tool for studying the structure and dynamics of human populations.
  • Article
    mtDNA was successfully extracted from 108 individuals from the Norris Farms Oneota, a prehistoric Native American population, to compare the mtDNA diversity from a pre-Columbian population with contemporary Native American and Asian mtDNA lineages and to examine hypotheses about the peopling of the New World. Haplogroup and hypervariable region I sequence data indicate that the lineages from haplogroups A, B, C, and D are the most common among Native Americans but that they were not the only lineages brought into the New World from Asia. The mtDNA evidence does not support the three-wave hypothesis of migration into the New World but rather suggests a single "wave" of people with considerable mtDNA diversity that exhibits a signature of expansion 23,000-37,000 years ago.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 167 American Indians including 87 Amerind-speakers (Amerinds) and 80 Nadene-speakers (Nadene) were surveyed for sequence variation by detailed restriction analysis. All Native American mtDNAs clustered into one of four distinct lineages, defined by the restriction site variants: HincII site loss at np 13,259, AluI site loss at np 5,176, 9-base pair (9-bp) COII-tRNA(Lys) intergenic deletion and HaeIII site gain at np 663. The HincII np 13,259 and AluI np 5,176 lineages were observed exclusively in Amerinds and were shared by all such tribal groups analyzed, thus demonstrating that North, Central and South American Amerinds originated from a common ancestral genetic stock. The 9-bp deletion and HaeIII np 663 lineages were found in both the Amerinds and Nadene but the Nadene HaeIII np 663 lineage had a unique sublineage defined by an RsaI site loss at np 16,329. The amount of sequence variation accumulated in the Amerind HincII np 13,259 and AluI np 5,176 lineages and that in the Amerind portion of the HaeIII np 663 lineage all gave divergence times in the order of 20,000 years before present. The divergence time for the Nadene portion of the HaeIII np 663 lineage was about 6,000-10,000 years. Hence, the ancestral Nadene migrated from Asia independently and considerably more recently than the progenitors of the Amerinds. The divergence times of both the Amerind and Nadene branches of the COII-tRNA(Lys) deletion lineage were intermediate between the Amerind and Nadene specific lineages, raising the possibility of a third source of mtDNA in American Indians.
  • Article
    Human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 153 independent samples encompassing seven Asian populations were surveyed for sequence variation using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction endonuclease analysis and oligonucleotide hybridization. All Asian populations were found to share two ancient AluI/DdeI polymorphisms at nps 10394 and 10397 and to be genetically similar indicating that they share a common ancestry. The greatest mtDNA diversity and the highest frequency of mtDNAs with HpaI/HincII morph 1 were observed in the Vietnamese suggesting a Southern Mongoloid origin of Asians. Remnants of the founding populations of Papua New Guinea (PNG) were found in Malaysia, and a marked frequency cline for the COII/tRNA(Lys) intergenic deletion was observed along coastal Asia. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that both insertion and deletion mutations in the COII/tRNA(Lys) region have occurred more than once.
  • Article
    Gene frequencies for 13 marker systems are used to construct synthetic gene frequency maps of South America. The surfaces generated using the first three principal components exhibit clines which validate models of population displacement based on archeological data and a previous analysis of craniometrical variation.
  • Article
    Allele frequencies from seven polymorphic red cell antigen loci (ABO, Rh, MN, S, P, Duffy, and Diego) were examined in 144 Native American populations. Mean genetic distances (Nei's D) and the fixation index FST are approximately equal for the North and South American samples but are reduced in the Central American geographic area. The relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance differs markedly across geographic areas. The correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance for the North and Central American data is twice as large as that observed for the South American samples. This geographic difference is confirmed in spatial autocorrelation analyses; no geographic structure is apparent in the South American data but geographic structure is prominent in North and Central American samples. These results confirm earlier observations regarding differences between North and South American gene frequency patterns.
  • Article
    Sequencing of a 360-nucleotide segment of the mitochondrial control region for 63 individuals from an Amerindian tribe, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest, revealed the existence of 28 lineages defined by 26 variable positions. This represents a substantial level of mitochondrial diversity for a small local population. Furthermore, the sequence diversity among these Nuu-Chah-Nulth lineages is greater than 60% of the mitochondrial sequence diversity observed in major ethnic groups such as Japanese or sub-Saharan Africans. It was also observed that the majority of the mitochondrial lineages of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth fell into phylogenetic clusters. The magnitude of the sequence difference between the lineage clusters suggests that their origin predates the entry of humans into the Americas. Since a single Amerindian tribe can contain such extensive molecular diversity, it is unnecessary to presume that substantial genetic bottlenecks occurred during the formation of contemporary ethnic groups. In particular, these data do not support the concept of a dramatic founder effect during the peopling of the Americas.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    High resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction maps, consisting of an average of 370 sites per mtDNA map, were constructed for 119 people from 25 localities in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Comparison of these PNG restriction maps to published maps from Australian, Caucasian, Asian and African mtDNAs reveals that PNG has the lowest amount of mtDNA variation, and that PNG mtDNA lineages originated from Southeast Asia. The statistical significance of geographic structuring of populations with respect to mtDNA was assessed by comparing observed GST values to a distribution of GST values generated by random resampling of the data. These analyses show that there is significant structuring of mtDNA variation among worldwide populations, between highland and coastal PNG populations, and even between two highland PNG populations located approximately 200 km apart. However, coastal PNG populations are essentially panmictic, despite being spread over several hundred kilometers. Highland PNG populations also have more mtDNA variability and more mtDNA types represented per founding lineage than coastal PNG populations. All of these observations are consistent with a more ancient, restricted origin of highland PNG populations, internal isolation of highland PNG populations from one another and from coastal populations, and more recent and extensive population movements through coastal PNG. An apparent linguistic effect on PNG mtDNA variation disappeared when geography was taken into account. The high resolution technique for examining mtDNA variation, coupled with extensive geographic sampling within a single defined area, leads to an enhanced understanding of the influence of geography on mtDNA variation in human populations.
  • Article
    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation of the South American Ticuna, the Central American Maya, and the North American Pima was analyzed by restriction-endonuclease digestion and oligonucleotide hybridization. The analysis revealed that Amerindian populations have high frequencies of mtDNAs containing the rare Asian RFLP HincII morph 6, a rare HaeIII site gain, and a unique AluI site gain. In addition, the Asian-specific deletion between the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and tRNA(Lys) genes was also prevalent in both the Pima and the Maya. These data suggest that Amerindian mtDNAs derived from at least four primary maternal lineages, that new tribal-specific variants accumulated as these mtDNAs became distributed throughout the Americas, and that some genetic variation may have been lost when the progenitors of the Ticuna separated from the North and Central American populations.
  • Article
    The bottleneck effect (or extended period of reduced population size) is known to increase genetic distance (D) substantially, and this can be a serious factor that disturbs the phylogenetic relationships of populations inferred from genetic distance estimates. The bottleneck effect is also known to be a factor that disturbs the hierarchial relationships of the fixation indices (FST) or the coefficients of gene differentiation (GST) in subdivided populations. To examine the extent of the bottleneck effect on D and GST in human populations, the D and GST values were computed for various groups of populations from around the world, and their relationships with within-population heterozygosities were examined by using gene frequency data for protein and immunological loci. The results obtained indicate that the D value between a pair of populations is negatively correlated with the average within-population heterozygosity. This suggests that genetic distance estimates for small populations are seriously affected by the bottleneck effect, and that phylogenetic trees should be studied by taking into account this factor. The bottleneck effect on GST was also revealed from examination of the total gene diversity HT and its components, interpopulational genetic variation (DST) and intrapopulational genetic variation (HS). That is, a large value of GST in small populations was sometimes associated with the decrease of HS rather than the increase of DST. Generally speaking, however, GST was larger when geographically distant populations were considered than when closely located populations were considered. When there is any trace of bottleneck effects, phylogenetic trees should be constructed by a method in which the rate of evoluationary change is allowed to vary from branch to branch.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A method for estimating the average level of gene flow among populations is introduced. The method provides an estimate of Nm, where N is the size of each local population in an island model and m is the migration rate. This method depends on knowing the phylogeny of the nonrecombining segments of DNA that are sampled. Given the phylogeny, the geographic location from which each sample is drawn is treated as multistate character with one state for each geographic location. A parsimony criterion applied to the evolution of this character on the phylogeny provides the minimum number of migration events consistent with the phylogeny. Extensive simulations show that the distribution of this minimum number is a simple function of Nm. Assuming the phylogeny is accurately estimated, this method provides an estimate of Nm that is as nearly as accurate as estimates obtained using FST and other statistics when Nm is moderate. Two examples of the use of this method with mitochondrial DNA data are presented.
  • Article
    The method of coalescents is used to find the probability that none of the ancestors of alleles sampled from a population are immigrants. If that is the case for samples from two or more populations, then there would be concordance between the phylogenies of those alleles and the geographic locations from which they are drawn. This type of concordance has been found in several studies of mitochondrial DNA from natural populations. It is shown that if the number of sequences sampled from each population is reasonably large (10 or more), then this type of concordance suggests that the average number of individuals migrating between populations is likely to be relatively small (Nm less than 1) but the possibility of occasional migrants cannot be excluded. The method is applied to the data of E. Bermingham and J. C. Avise on mtDNA from the bowfin, Amia calva.
  • Article
    Gene frequency data from six polymorphic blood group systems in 70 South American Indian populations are used to derive synthetic gene frequency maps that document the geographical pattern of genetic variation. Additional analyses are directed toward the elucidation of mechanisms that give rise to or maintain the observed distributions. Variables of local ecology do not appear to explain gene frequency distributions in South America. Instead, local isolation and the action of stochastic forces appears to be the most parsimonious explanation of the observed geographical patterns. This is distinctly different from the geographical patterns of genetic variation seen in other continents.
  • Article
    For assessing the degree of population subdivision, and therefore the extent to which group selection might favor an altruistic trait, an appropriate measure is Nei's GST, defined by (F0-F)/(1-F). F0 is the probability that two alleles drawn from the same group are identical in state and F is the probability for two alleles drawn at random from the entire population. These probabilities can be assessed from molecular polymorphisms. GST has a number of properties that make it useful for empirical studies. When the mutation rate is small relative to the migration rate and the reciprocal of the group size, GST depends mainly on the absolute number of migrants per generation, moves rapidly to near equilibrium, and is independent of the number of alleles. The relative homogenizing effect of migration in the island and stepping-stone models is not as different as might be expected; one immigrant chosen randomly from the rest of the population is only one to two times as effective as one from a neighboring group, appreciably exceeding 2 only when there are 1000 or more groups. The use of molecular data to estimate the degree of population subdivision may permit testable predictions of the extent of altruistic behavior.
  • Article
    GM haplotype frequencies were examined in 49 Amerindian tribes (from North, Central, and South America) to investigate the congruence of genetic variation with that observed in language and geography. We used two approaches: (1) the mobile site method, which allows a two-dimensional representation of genetic variation where the distances between reference points (i.e., the locations of the populations in the geographic map after displacements) are close to the genetic distances, and (2) a multivariate analysis (factorial correspondence analysis), which permits a visual interpretation of the geographic distribution of GM haplotypes on a map, completed by a cluster analysis. The results show a strong gradient from the Bering Strait to South America. The Eskimo and Na-Dene are genetically different from all other Amerindians, reflecting their more recent migrations. The orientation of most trajectories of the tribes from Central and South America can be interpreted as earlier migrations along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. We conclude that geographic and linguistic factors played a part in the genetic diversity of Amerindian tribes.
  • Article
    MtDNA has been extensively employed to trace the origins and migration patterns of Amerindians. The advantage of mtDNA over nuclear DNA is that it accumulates base changes at an average rate 5-10 times faster than single-copy nuclear DNA does, which makes it suitable for the analysis of DNA differences among human populations. Moreover, its maternal inheritance and lack of recombination allow determination of phylogenetic divergence among lineages, without the ambiguities caused by the meiotic shuffling and mixing undergone by nuclear genes. Thus far, the most useful mtDNA traits for Amerindian population studies have been the polymorphism of restriction sites, the variation in length of a region V non-coding segment containing a short repeat, and the base substitutions occurring in the D-loop region. By analyzing mtDNA polymorphisms, several groups came to the conclusion that Amerindians could be clustered into four founder mitochondrial haplotypes. We reanalyzed the published data and studied a total of 673 Amerindians belonging to 23 different South American tubes. Our results showed that the four haplotypes proposed can be subdivided into several subsets to give rise to no less than 13 possible founder haplotypes. The number of founder Amerindian haplotypes is a problem at the center of an unsolved dispute. Some investigators support the idea that the colonization from Asia into the American continent was accompanied by a severe bottleneck that markedly restricted the number of maternal lineages entering the New World. Other groups hold an opposite view. Our findings of at least 13 founder haplotypes in Amerindians lend support to the latter position. Estimations of the earliest date of colonization of the American continent are based on the construction of parsimonious trees. However, the trees so far reported have too many taxa and relatively too few phylogenetically informative sites to allow complete resolution of the phylogeny by parsimony. Additional uncertainties result from the inaccuracies in the estimated rate of mtDNA mutation used to calibrate the trees which varies from 2.2%/MYR (million years) to 33%/MYR according to different authors. Due to the above difficulties, the proposed dates of the New World colonization range between 14,000 and 29,000 years before present. Studies of mtDNA have provided interesting, but preliminary, responses to some of the questions regarding the origin and evolution of Amerindians. Further clarification of these questions will require an understanding of the exact rates of mutation in different regions of the mitochondrial molecule, and to bear in mind that the answering of anthropological questions will always require a multidisciplinary approach in which the contribution of mtDNA analysis will be equivalent to the contribution provided by other methodologies.
  • Article
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 63 Chibcha-speaking Kuna Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in eastern Panamá. The Kuna data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two neighboring Chibchan groups, the Ngöbé and the Huetar; two Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche; and with a single Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Kuna exhibited low levels of mitochondrial diversity as had been reported for the other two Chibchan groups and, furthermore, carried only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first reported by Schurr and coworkers (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1990; 46: 613-623). We posit that speakers of modern Chibchan languages (henceforth referred to as the Chibcha) passed through a population bottleneck caused either by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or subsequent European conquest and colonization. Using the approach of Harpending et al. (Curr. Anthropol. 1993; 34: 483-496), we estimated a Chibchan population bottleneck and subsequent expansion approximately 10,000 years before present, a date consistent with a bottleneck at the time of Chibchan ethnogenesis. The low mtDNA diversity of Kuna Amerinds, as opposed to the generally high levels of mtDNA variation detected in other Amerind groups, demonstrates the need for adequate sampling of cultural or racial groups when attempting to genetically characterize human populations.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 46 Ngöbé Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in western Panamá. The Ngöbé data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two additional Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche and from one Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Ngöbé exhibit the lowest mtDNA control region sequence diversity yet reported for an Amerind group. Moreover, they carry only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first described by Wallace and coworkers. We posit that the Ngöbé passed through a population bottleneck caused by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or European conquest and colonization. Dating of the Ngöbé population expansion using the Harpending et al. approach to the analysis of pairwise genetic differences indicates a Ngöbé expansion at roughly 6800 years before present (range: 1850-14,000 years before present), a date more consistent with a bottleneck at Chibcha ethnogenesis than a conquest-based event.
  • Article
    The haplotypes of the alpha-globin gene cluster were determined for 99 Indians from the Brazilian Amazon region who belong to 5 tribes: Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, Kayapó, Arára, and Yanomámi. Three predominant haplotypes were identified: Ia (present in 38.9% of chromosomes), IIIa (25.8%), and IIe (22.1%). The only alpha-globin gene rearrangement detected was alpha alpha alpha 3.7 I gene triplication associated with haplotype IIIa, found in high frequencies (5.6% and 10.6%) in two tribes and absent in the others. alpha-Globin gene deletions that cause alpha-thalassemia were not seen, supporting the argument that malaria was absent in these populations until recently. The heterogeneous distribution of alpha-globin gene haplotypes and rearrangements among the different tribes differs markedly from the homogeneous distribution of beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and reflects the action of various genetic mechanisms (genetic drift, founder effect, consanguinity) on small isolated population groups with a complicated history of divergence-fusion events. The alpha-globin gene haplotype distribution has some similarities to distributions observed in Southeast Asian and Pacific Island populations, indicating that these populations have considerable genetic affinities. However, the absence of several features of the alpha-globin gene cluster that are consistently present among the Pacific Islanders suggests that the similarity of haplotypes between Brazilian Indians and people from Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia is more likely to result of ancient common ancestry rather than the consequence of recent direct genetic contribution through immigration.
  • Article
    To test hypotheses about the origin of modern humans, we analyzed mtDNA sequences, 30 nuclear restriction-site polymorphisms (RSPs), and 30 tetranucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in 243 Africans, Asians, and Europeans. An evolutionary tree based on mtDNA displays deep African branches, indicating greater genetic diversity for African populations. This finding, which is consistent with previous mtDNA analyses, has been interpreted as evidence for an African origin of modern humans. Both sets of nuclear polymorphisms, as well as a third set of trinucleotide polymorphisms, are highly consistent with one another but fail to show deep branches for African populations. These results, which represent the first direct comparison of mtDNA and nuclear genetic data in major continental populations, undermine the genetic evidence for an African origin of modern humans.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the major noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA from various races was extended with 72 Native Americans from 16 different local populations (nine populations from Chile, four from Colombia, and one each from Brazil and from Maya and Apache Indians). The sequences were determined directly from the polymerase chain reaction products. On the basis of a comparison of the 482-bp sequences in the 72 Native Americans, 43 different types of mitochondrial DNA sequences were observed. The nucleotide diversity within the Native Americans was estimated to be 1.29%, which is slightly less than the value of 1.44% from the total human population including Africans, Europeans, and Asians. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most Native American lineages are classified into four major distinct clusters. Individuals belonging to each cluster share at least two specific polymorphic sites that are nearly absent in other human populations, indicating a unique phylogenetic position of Native Americans. A phylogenetic tree of 193 individuals including Africans, Europeans, Asians, and Native Americans indicated that the four Native American clusters are distinct and dispersed in the tree. These clusters almost exclusively consist of Native Americans--with only a few Asians, if any. We postulate that four ancestral populations gave rise to different waves of migration to the New World. From the estimated coalescence time of the Asian and Native American lineages, we infer that the first migration across the Bering landbridge took place approximately 14,000-21,000 years ago. Furthermore, sequence differences in all pairwise comparisons of Native Americans showed a bimodal distribution that is significantly different from Poisson. These results suggest that the ancestral Native American population underwent neither a severe bottleneck nor rapid expansion in population size, during the migration of people into the Americas.
  • Article
    A review is made of the Gm haplotype distribution in 60 groups of Eskimos, North, Central and South American Indians, totaling 22,808 individuals. Differences were observed in the shapes of the distribution of Gm*ag and the other markers. Nearly identical values for FST and average heterozygosities were obtained in the North+Central/South comparisons. North-South and Southwest/Northeast clinal differences were observed in the Americas using correspondence factorial analysis. The two haplotypes mainly responsible for these differences are Gm*axg and Gm*abOst. When the populations are classified by language groups, besides the recognized differences between Eskimos and Athabaskan (Na-Dene) speakers compared with Amerinds, others are found. For instance, Uto-Aztecan speakers of the United States and Mexico differ in Gm frequencies from the Nuclear Chibchan, Macro-Arawak, and Carib speakers of Central and South America. The notion of a homogeneous Amerind genetic pool does not conform with these and other results.
  • Article
    The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analyses and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. Our findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present.
  • Article
    The mtDNA variation of 321 individuals from 17 Native American populations was examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. All mtDNAs were amplified from a variety of sources by using PCR. The mtDNA of a subset of 38 of these individuals was also analyzed by D-loop sequencing. The resulting data were combined with previous mtDNA data from five other Native American tribes, as well as with data from a variety of Asian populations, and were used to deduce the phylogenetic relationships between mtDNAs and to estimate sequence divergences. This analysis revealed the presence of four haplotype groups (haplogroups A, B, C, and D) in the Amerind, but only one haplogroup (A) in the Na-Dene, and confirmed the independent origins of the Amerinds and the Na-Dene. Further, each haplogroup appeared to have been founded by a single mtDNA haplotype, a result which is consistent with a hypothesized founder effect. Most of the variation within haplogroups was tribal specific, that is, it occurred as tribal private polymorphisms. These observations suggest that the process of tribalization began early in the history of the Amerinds, with relatively little intertribal genetic exchange occurring subsequently. The sequencing of 341 nucleotides in the mtDNA D-loop revealed that the D-loop sequence variation correlated strongly with the four haplogroups defined by restriction analysis, and it indicated that the D-loop variation, like the haplotype variation, arose predominantly after the migration of the ancestral Amerinds across the Bering land bridge.
  • Article
    Four loci mapping to the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome were genotyped in Japanese populations from Okinawa, the southernmost island of Japan; Shizuoka and Aomori on the main island of Honshu; and a small sample of Taiwanese. The Y Alu polymorphic (YAP) element is present in 42% of the Japanese and absent in the Taiwanese, confirming the irregular distribution of this polymorphism in Asia. Data from the four loci were used to determine genetic distances among populations, construct Y chromosome haplotypes, and estimate the degree of genetic diversity in each population and on different Y chromosome haplotypes. Evolutionary analysis of Y haplotypes suggests that polymorphisms at the YAP (DYS287) and DXYS5Y loci originated a single time, whereas restriction patterns at the DYS1 locus and microsatellite alleles at the DYS19 locus arose more than once. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the Okinawans are differentiated from Japanese living on Honshu. The data support the hypotheses that modern Japanese populations have resulted from distinctive genetic contributions involving the ancient Jomon people and Yayoi immigrants from Korea or mainland China, with Okinawans experiencing the least amount of admixture with the Yayoi. It is suggested that YAP+ chromosomes migrated to Japan with the Jomon people > 10,000 years ago and that a large infusion of YAP- chromosomes entered Japan with the Yayoi migration starting 2,300 years ago. Different degrees of genetic diversity carried by these two ancient chromosomal lineages may be explained by the different life-styles (hunter-gatherer versus agriculturalist). of the migrant groups, the size of the founding populations, and the antiquities of the founding events.
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    We searched for the East Asian mtDNA 9-bp deletion in the intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) region in a sample of 107 Tharus (50 from central Terai and 57 from eastern Terai), a population whose anthropological origin has yet to be completely clarified. The deletion, detected by electrophoresis of the PCR-amplified nt 7392-8628 mtDNA fragment after digestion with HaeIII, was found in about 8% of both Tharu groups but was found in none of the 76 Hindus who were examined as a non-Oriental neighboring control population. A complete triplication of the 9-bp unit, the second case so far reported, was also observed in one eastern Tharu. All the mtDNAs with the deletion, and that with the triplication, were further characterized (by PCR amplification of the relevant mtDNA fragments and their digestion with the appropriate enzymes) to locate them in the Ballinger et al. phylogeny of East Asian mtDNA haplotypes. The deletion was found to be associated with four different haplotypes, two of which are reported for the first time. One of the deletions and especially the triplication could be best explained by the assumption of novel length-change events. Ballinger's classification of East Asian mtDNA haplotypes is mainly based on the phenotypes for the DdeI site at nt 10394 and the AluI site at nt 10397. Analysis of the entire Tharu sample revealed that more than 70% of the Tharus have both sites, the association of which has been suggested as an ancient East Asian peculiarity. These results conclusively indicate that the Tharus have a predominantly maternal Oriental ancestry. Moreover, they show at least one and perhaps two further distinct length mutations, and this suggests that the examined region is a hot spot of rearrangements.
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    The relationship between linguistic differentiation and evolutionary affinities was evaluated in three tribes of the Pacific Northwest. Two tribes (Nuu-Chah-Nulth and Bella Coola) speak Amerind languages, while the language of the third (Haida) belongs to a different linguistic phylum--Na-Dene. Construction of a molecular phylogeny gave no evidence of clustering by linguistic affiliation, suggesting a relatively recent ancestry of these linguistically divergent populations. When the evolutionary affinities of the tribes were evaluated in terms of mitochondrial sequence diversity, the Na-Dene-speaking Haida had a reduced amount of diversity compared to the two Amerind tribes and thus appear to be a biologically younger population. Further, since the sequence diversity between the two Amerind-speaking tribes is comparable to the diversity between the Amerind tribes and the Na-Dene Haida, the evolutionary divergence within the Amerind linguistic phylum may be as great as the evolutionary divergence between the Amerind and Na-Dene phyla. Hence, in the New World, rates of linguistic differentiation appear to be markedly faster than rates of biological differentiation, with little congruence between linguistic hierarchy and the pattern of evolutionary relationships.
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    Students of the time of entry of the ancestors of the Amerinds into the New World are divided into two camps, one favoring an "early" entry [more than approximately 30,000 years before the present (YBP)], the other favoring a "late" entry (less than approximately 13,000 YBP). An "intermediate" date is unlikely for geological reasons. The correlation of the appropriate data on mtDNA variation in Amerinds with linguistic, archaeological, and genetic data offers the possibility of establishing a time frame for mtDNA evolution in Amerinds. In this paper, we estimate that the separation of the Chibcha-speaking tribes of Central America from other linguistic groups/nascent tribes began approximately 8000-10,000 YBP. Characterization of the mtDNA of 110 Chibcha speakers with 14 restriction enzymes leads on the basis of their time depth to an estimated mtDNA nucleotide substitution rate for Amerinds of 0.022-0.029% per 10,000 years. As a first application of this rate, we consider the mtDNA variation observed in 18 Amerind tribes widely dispersed throughout the Americas and studied by ourselves with the same techniques, and we estimate that if the Amerinds entered the New World as a single group, that entry occurred approximately 22,000-29,000 YBP. This estimate carries a large but indeterminate error. The mtDNA data are thus at present equivocal with respect to the most likely times of entry of the Amerind into the New World mentioned above but favor the "early" entry hypothesis.
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    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 60 Native Americans (Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe) from southern Mexico by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. Four groups of mtDNA haplotypes (haplogroups A, B, C, and D) characterize Amerind populations, but only three (haplogroups A, B, and C) were observed in these Mexican populations. The comparison of their mtDNA variation with that observed in other populations from Mexico and Central America permits a clear distinction among the different Middle American tribes and raises questions about some of their linguistic affiliations. The males of these population samples were also analyzed for Y-chromosome RFLPs with the probes 49a, 49f, and 12f2. This analysis suggests that certain Y-chromosome haplotypes were brought from Asia during the colonization of the Americas, and a differential gene flow was introduced into Native American populations from European males and females.
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    A polymorphic C-->T transition located on the human Y chromosome was found by the systematic comparative sequencing of Y-specific sequence-tagged sites by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of genotyping representative global indigenous populations indicate that the locus is polymorphic exclusively within the Western Hemisphere. The pre-Columbian T allele occurs at > 90% frequency within the native South and Central American populations examined, while its occurrence in North America is approximately 50%. Concomitant genotyping at the polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite DYS19 locus revealed that the C-->T mutation displayed significant linkage disequilibrium with the 186-bp allele. The data suggest a single origin of linguistically diverse native Americans with subsequent haplotype differentiation within radiating indigenous populations as well as post-Columbian European and African gene flow. The mutation may have originated either in North America at a very early time during the expansion or before it, in the ancestral population(s) from which all Americans may have originated. The analysis of linkage of the DYS199 and the DYS19 tetranucleotide loci suggests that the C-->T mutation may have occurred around 30,000 years ago. We estimate the nucleotide diversity over 4.2 kb of the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome to be 0.00014. compared to autosomes, the majority of variation is due to the smaller effective population size of the Y chromosome rather than selective sweeps. There begins to emerge a pattern of pronounced geographical localization of Y-specific nucleotide substitution polymorphisms.
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    It should be possible to use Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms to trace paternal lineages for evolutionary and other studies, but progress in these areas has been slow because it has been difficult to find suitable markers. However, it is now possible to use selected, slowly evolving polymorphisms to draw a rudimentary Y chromosome tree, while more rapidly evolving polymorphisms allow most independent Y chromosomes to be distinguished. Different populations often have characteristically different Y chromosomes, and Y chromosome studies are soon likely to make a major contribution to our understanding of the origins of modern humans.
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    Native Americans have been classified into four founding haplogroups with as many as seven founding lineages based on mtDNA RFLPs and DNA sequence data. mtDNA analysis was completed for 83 Yanomami from eight villages in the Surucucu and Catrimani Plateau regions of Roraima in northwestern Brazil. Samples were typed for 15 polymorphic mtDNA sites (14 RFLP sites and 1 deletion site), and a subset was sequenced for both hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial D-loop. Substantial mitochondrial diversity was detected among the Yanomami, five of seven accepted founding haplotypes and three others were observed. Of the 83 samples, 4 (4.8%) were lineage B1, 1 (1.2%) was lineage B2, 31 (37.4%) were lineage C1, 29 (34.9%) were lineage C2, 2 (2.4%) were lineage D1, 6 (7.2%) were lineage D2, 7 (8.4%) were a haplotype we designated "X6," and 3 (3.6%) were a haplotype we designated "X7." Sequence analysis found 43 haplotypes in 50 samples. B2, X6, and X7 are previously unrecognized mitochondrial founding lineage types of Native Americans. The widespread distribution of these haplotypes in the New World and Asia provides support for declaring these lineages to be New World founding types.
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    mtDNA RFLP variation was analyzed in 42 Mongolians from Ulan Bator. All four founding lineage types (A [4.76%], B [2.38%], C [11.9%], and D [19.04%]) identified by Torroni and colleagues were detected. Seven of the nine founding lineage types proposed by Bailliet and colleagues and Merriwether and Ferrell were detected (A2 [4.76%], B [2.38%], C1 [11.9%], D1 [7.14%], D2 [11.9%], X6 [16.7%], and X7 [9.5%]). Sixty-four percent of these 42 individuals had "Amerindian founding lineage" haplotypes. A survey of 24 restriction sites yielded 16 polymorphic sites and 21 different haplotypes. The presence of all four of the founding lineages identified by the Torroni group (and seven of Merriwether and Ferrell's nine founding lineages), combined with Mongolia's location with respect to the Bering Strait, indicates that Mongolia is a potential location for the origin of the founders of the New World. Since lineage B, which is widely distributed in the New World, is absent in Siberia, we conclude that Mongolia or a geographic location common to both contemporary Mongolians and American aboriginals is the more likely origin of the founders of the New World.
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    The timing and number of prehistoric migrations involved in the settlement of the American continent is subject to intense debate. Here, we reanalyze Native American control region mtDNA data and demonstrate that only an appropriate phylogenetic analysis accompanied by an appreciation of demographic factors allows us to discern different migrations and to estimate their ages. Reappraising 574 mtDNA control region sequences from aboriginal Siberians and Native Americans, we confirm in agreement with linguistic, archaeological and climatic evidence that (i) the major wave of migration brought one population, ancestral to the Amerinds, from northeastern Siberia to America 20,000-25,000 years ago and (ii) a rapid expansion of a Beringian source population took place at the end of the Younger Dryas glacial phase approximately 11,300 years ago, ancestral to present Eskimo and Na-Dene populations.
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    High levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity were determined for Mongolian populations, represented by the Mongol-speaking Khalkha and Dariganga. Although 103 samples were collected across Mongolia, low levels of genetic substructuring were detected, reflecting the nomadic lifestyle and relatively recent ethnic differentiation of Mongolian populations. mtDNA control region I sequence and seven additional mtDNA polymorphisms were assayed to allow extensive comparison with previous human population studies. Based on a comparative analysis, we propose that indigenous populations in east Central Asia represent the closest genetic link between Old and New World populations. Utilizing restriction/deletion polymorphisms, Mongolian populations were found to carry all four New World founding haplogroups as defined by WALLACE and coworkers. The ubiquitous presence of the four New World haplogroups in the Americas but narrow distribution across Asia weakens support for GREENBERG and coworkers' theory of New World colonization via three independent migrations. The statistical and geographic scarcity of New World haplogroups in Asia makes it improbable that the same four haplotypes would be drawn from one geographic region three independent times. Instead, it is likely that founder effects manifest throughout Asia and the Americas are responsible for differences in mtDNA haplotype frequencies observed in these regions.