Article

Periodization of pyschological skills training

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Abstract

The concept of periodization of training as developed by Bompa, meaning “structuring training phases to lead to the highest level of speed, strength, and endurance”, and “the division of the annual plan to ensure an optimal performance for the main competition” has been fully embraced by sport training in the past 10 years. This presentation will propose a model of periodization of psychological skills training. In order to optimize performance, a plan must be devised that will combine the specific needs of the athlete, the requirements of the sport and the concrete demands of the different training phases. A classification of psychological skills in terms of foundation skills, performance skills and facilitative skills will be discussed and the timing and order of teaching these skills will be suggested within the framework of the three main elements indicated above. An example, using long and triple jump as the sport activity will be used to illustrate in detail the proposed model.

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... De psykologiska färdigheter som PFT syftar till att träna upp går att dela in i tre kategorier. Nummer ett är grundläggande färdigheter där bland annat, vilja, motivation och självförtroende ryms (Balague, 2000). Nummer två är prestationsfärdigheter där bl. ...
... Genom att periodisera PFT så att olika färdigheter tränas upp vid olika tidpunkter på en säsong ska alltså maximal effekt uppnås. Som synes av exemplet (se Bilaga 1) gäller att först hitta en grund att jobba ifrån för att sedan styra in träning till att bli mer riktad mot själva tävlingen i fokus (Balague, 2000). En grund av motivation, följd av en god teknikutveckling ger bättre möjlighet att skapa en ultimat nivå av arousal där fokus alltid läggs på rätt saker. ...
... Att identifiera färdigheter som finns och upptäcka styrkor och svagheter hos idrottaren kan vara helt avgörande för hur ett program ska utvecklas. Faktorer som motivation, självkontroll och kommunikation är några av de färdigheter som bör ses över innan ett program tas fram (Weinberg & Gould, 2007;Balague, 2000). ...
... The integration of a PST program approach typically includes a combination of psychological skills training techniques with the specific needs of the athlete, taking into consideration factors such as age, gender, years and level of experience, the specific demands of the sport (technical, tactical, physical, and mental), and the environmental demands of the sport (Balague, 2000). Previous research in the area of periodization training leading to elite athletic performance through the utilization of quadrennial and yearly training plans (YTP) has made a contribution to the art and science of YTP's (Bompa, 1983;Smith, 2003). ...
... Previous research in the area of periodization training leading to elite athletic performance through the utilization of quadrennial and yearly training plans (YTP) has made a contribution to the art and science of YTP's (Bompa, 1983;Smith, 2003). Recently, several researchers have proposed an integrated periodized PST program over consecutive training cycles whereby education, skill acquisition, and implementation of skills allow for long-term development while directly reflecting individual needs and differences (Balague, 2000;Fournier, Calmels, Durand-Bush, & Salmela, 2005;Holliday et al., 2008;Lidor, Blumenstein, & Tenenbaum, 2007). ...
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As part of a larger training program, applying a new biofeedback protocol for improving reaction time (RT) performance among elite speed skaters at the Canadian Speedskating National Training Center in Montreal, Canada, provided an advantage at the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games, allowing athletes to assert themselves and claim the best starting position during the event. Each athlete participated in a twice-weekly biofeedback RT training for 5 weeks, for a total of 600 RT practice trials, simulating speed-skating activities such as reacting to commands of “go to the start,” “ready,” and the sound of a signal from a gun to start. There was an overall improvement in RT performance from the beginning to the end of the 5-week period, with the largest improvement occurring between Weeks 4 and 5 of the training, F(1, 9) = 679.2, p = .001. The results suggest that biofeedback protocols will become an essential part of a winning strategy for future interventions in speed skater training.
... The integration of a PST program approach typically includes a combination of psychological skills training techniques with the specific needs of the athlete, taking into consideration factors such as age, gender, years and level of experience, the specific demands of the sport (technical, tactical, physical, and mental), and the environmental demands of the sport (Balague, 2000). Previous research in the area of periodization training leading to elite athletic performance through the utilization of quadrennial and yearly training plans (YTP) has made a contribution to the art and science of YTP's (Bompa, 1983;Smith, 2003). ...
... Previous research in the area of periodization training leading to elite athletic performance through the utilization of quadrennial and yearly training plans (YTP) has made a contribution to the art and science of YTP's (Bompa, 1983;Smith, 2003). Recently, several researchers have proposed an integrated periodized PST program over consecutive training cycles whereby education, skill acquisition, and implementation of skills allow for long-term development while directly reflecting individual needs and differences (Balague, 2000;Fournier, Calmels, Durand-Bush, & Salmela, 2005;Holliday et al., 2008;Lidor, Blumenstein, & Tenenbaum, 2007). ...
Article
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The present article outlines the development and implementation of a multifac-eted psychological skills training program for the Canadian National Short Track Speedskating team over a 3-year period leading up to the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games. A program approach was used emphasizing a seven-phase model in an effort to enhance sport performance (Thomas, 1990) in which psychological skills training was integrated with biofeedback training to optimize self-regulation for performance on demand and under pressure. The biofeedback training protocols were adapted from general guidelines described by Wilson, Peper, and Moss (2006) who built on the work of DeMichelis (2007) and the "Mind Room" program approach for enhancing athletic performance. The goal of the program was to prepare the athletes for their best performance under the pressure of the Olympic Games. While causation cannot be implied due to the lack of a control group, the team demonstrated success on both team and individual levels.
... Another apparent reason for the lack of SPST programmes is that such sessions are usually conducted on a "time availability" basis, which means that the SPS are predominantly trained during the pre-season when there are less demands on the athlete's time (Balague, 2000). ...
... The consequence of this line of reasoning is that consistency of control over performance might not be increased due to a lack of a consistent, systematic programme required if such skills are to be developed optimally (Balague, 2000). (Wheaton, 1998). ...
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There is a lack of information on sport psychological skills training programmes within South African netball. The purpose of this study was to report on the previous exposure, perceived importance of, and need for sport psychological skills training (SPST) sessions, as expressed by 314 South African provincial netball players (20.30 ± 3.88 years) who participated in the Inter-Provincial Netball tournaments hosted by NorthWest South Netball during 2004. Additionally, the sport psychological skill (SPS) levels (as measured with the Psychological Skills Inventory (PSI) of Wheaton (1998)) of players from different age groups were compared and reported. Results show that this subject group had limited prior exposure to sport psychologists and SPST. The SPST sessions to which these players had mostly been exposed, include self-confidence, positive self-talk, team cohesion/team spirit, goal-setting and concentration skills. More than two thirds (67.51%) of the total group tested perceived SPST as very important, while almost half (49.68%) of the subjects perceive themselves to be psychologically well prepared for matches. Unfortunately, more than a quarter (26.42%) of the players indicated average, below average or poor psychological preparation for competitions. The results of this study clearly shows that a netball-specific SPST program should be developed by sport psychologists in collaboration with top netball coaches and systematically implemented, especially when looking at the reported skill levels of the subjects in this study. This notion is confirmed by further results, which indicate that 26.75% of the subjects expressed a great need for SPST.
... Balague 37 emphasizes the importance of psychological periodization and the need to consider a series of implications in the training model that corroborates with what has been exposed so far: a) Different levels of sporting ability and experience may have a greater impact on the sequence of skills to be taught; b) Different sports have different requirements/demands. Particularly, collective sports require different elements than individual sports, both in timing and scheduling, and due to environmental differences; c) This model implies that psychological skill training should be performed in conjunction with physical training, in the gym, at the track and/or field, instead of at the psychologist's office. Co-operation between psychologist and coach is essential, and many of the interventions will be performed by the coach with the psychologist acting as a consultant. ...
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This article presents a critical review of how sporting context variables and participants may affect the validity evidence of measurement instruments. Despite the literature presenting, there is significant effect of gender, age, practice time, length of experience, sporting experience, stages, training loads, competition, as well as socioeconomic and educational level, among other psychological variables, little has been explored about such effects. Recurrent studies have basically reported age, gender and sport. The absence of control of this information in the sporting context and the participant can cause measurement inaccuracy, limitation in application, errors in interpretations and inappropriate interventions, loss of reproducibility and limitations in comparative studies. Furthermore, it prevents analysis of invariance, compromising their stability. Thus, it is urgent and mandatory to tighten the range of indicators that characterize the participants and the context of studies in sports
... In each of these periods the athlete's preparation (i.e., physical, technical, tactical, and psychological) is adjusted, based on the specifi c goals and demands of training and sport discipline. Only recently has this principle been used in regard to psychological preparation (Balague, 2000;Blumenstein, Lidor, & Tenenbaum, 2007;Holliday, Burton, Sun, Hammermeister, Naylor, & Freigang, 2008). Based on our experience, the use of the W5SA can be more eff ective when used in line with the Periodization principle (Blumenstein, & Orbach, 2012a, b, c; (see Figure 26.11). ...
... The higher RPE at the end of the on-sight climb reflects the greater physical commitment (Pérez-Landaluce et al., 2002;Rodríguez-Marroyo et al., 2012) and anxiety it elicits (Morgan, 1994;Garcin et al., 2006). Anxiety is the chief psychological factor that affects athlete performance (Balagué, 2000;Craft et al., 2003;Woodman and Hardy, 2003;Aras and Akalan, 2014). Pijpers et al. (2005) observed significant differences in performance associated with high anxiety levels in novice climbers, but also élite climbers reported anxiety to be detrimental to successful performance because it induces rigid posture and jerky movements (Ferrand et al., 2006). ...
Article
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AimIn lead climbing, the ascent of the route can be defined as on-sight or red-point. On-sight is the more challenging style since it demands greater physiological and psychological commitment. The differences between the two modes in advanced climbers have not been studied much. Two essential skills needed to optimize performance, in both on-sight and in red-point climbing, are route interpretation (RI) ability and movements sequence recall. Therefore, this study aimed to compare performance between on-sight and red-point ascent in advanced climbers and evaluate how a climber’s RI ability and movement sequences recall might change before and after on-sight and red-point climbing.Methods Eighteen advanced male climbers (age 29.2 ± 4.7 years, body mass 67.8 ± 3.6 kg, stature 175.2 ± 2.4 cm, best red-point and on-sight grades 7b+/8a and 7a+/7b+, respectively) were video-recorded during the route ascent in on-sight and red-point modes to evaluate performance and to measure static and dynamic action times. RI ability and movement sequence recall were assessed before and after each climb. Level of anxiety was evaluated via a self-report questionnaire. Heart rate (fH), lactate concentration, ([La–]), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were detected during and after each climb.ResultsCompared to on-sight, an improvement in performance was observed in a red-point climb: the ascent was faster (148.7 ± 13.6 s and 179.5 ± 12.5 s, respectively, P < 0.05), smoother (significant reduction in exploratory moves and in stops times, P < 0.05), less demanding physiologically (lower fHpeak and [La–]peak, P < 0.05), and psychologically (lower RPE, cognitive and somatic anxiety and higher self-confidence, P < 0.05). The RI ability was improved in red-point versus on-sight and, in the same mode, between pre and post ascent.Conclusion Red-point climbing was found to be less demanding than on-sight, both physiologically and psychologically, under the conditions investigated by this study. Our findings suggest that RI is a trainable skill and underscore the importance of including specific techniques in training programs designed to improve interaction between perceptual, psychological, and physiological factors.
... Por otro lado, el trabajo profesional del psicólogo deportivo deberá adecuarse, además de otras, a estas consideraciones; no es lo mismo preparar psicológicamente a un deportista que practica deporte individual (atletismo, vela, boxeo, etc.), que preparar a un equipo deportivo (fútbol, baloncesto, balonmano, etc.), o preparar individualmente a un deportista que forma parte de un equipo. Además, en la actualidad el entrenamiento psicológico en el ámbito deportivo se realiza en un mayor número de deportes, ya sea a nivel individual, como por ejemplo tenis (Latinjak et al., 2009;Romero et al., 2012), natación (Cantón et al., 2009;Sheard y Golby, 2006), atletismo (Balagué, 2000;Buceta, López de la Llave, Pérez-Llantada, Vallejo y del Pino, 2002;Jaenes y Caracuel, 2005;Nieto y Olmedilla, 2001), golf (Neil, Hanton y Mellalieu, 2013) u otros deportes minoritarios (Beauchamp, Harvey y Beauchamp, 2012;Cantón y Checa, 2011;Renom, 2006), ya sea en deportes de equipo, como fútbol (Chicau et al., 2012;Junichi y Hajime, 2007;Munroe-Chandler, Murphy, Hall y Fishburne, 2007;Thelwell, Greenlees y Weston, 2006), baloncesto (Lorenzo, Gómez, Pujals y Lorenzo, 2012) u otros menos mediáticos, como remo, voleibol o cricket (Jaenes et al., 2012;Reyes et al., 2012;Turner y Barker, 2013); incluso en la preparación psicológica de los árbitros (Ramírez, Alonso-Arbiol, Falcó y López, 2006). ...
... technical, tactical, and physical), based on an individual's characteristics and the training phase. 18 Thus, the organization of the training process gains importance, and three of its aspects will be briefly explored. ...
Article
The People's Republic of China obtained at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games its best historical performance in the triple jump, thereby winning the silver medal. The objective of this case study was to present how evidence-based knowledge was applied to improve selected factors that may have contributed to this result. The factors included running speed, strength, muscle power, jumping technique, body composition, mental preparation, training organization, and recovery. Short training blocks, monitoring of training sessions and athlete's status, individualized tapering, use of activation sessions the day before competition, and postactivation performance enhancement strategies used in training and at the event were concepts followed during the preparation to the Games. Improved performance in field tests and power training was accompanied by positive changes in approach speed, run-up accuracy, and jumping technique, which, together with mental preparation, enabled two personal records to be set in the Olympic final. The results in the field tests were among the best ever reported and could constitute a benchmark for world-class triple jumpers.
... The implementation of a psychological program in the athlete's daily routine may result in the successful handling of pressure and anxiety which in turn enhance athletic performance. By establishing a psychological skills training (PST) program early, it may be possible for athletes to reach their potential more quickly by learning how to perform consistently through increased behavioral control (Balague, 2000 ). Psychological skills training programs have been shown to be effective for improving elite athletes' performances in golf putting (Cohen, Tenenbaum, & English, 2006; Thomas & Fogarty, 1997), tennis (Mamassis & Doganis, 2004) and football (Holm, Beckwith, Ehde, & Tinius, 1996). ...
... The implementation of a psychological program in the athlete's daily routine may result in the successful handling of pressure and anxiety which in turn enhance athletic performance. By establishing a psychological skills training (PST) program early, it may be possible for athletes to reach their potential more quickly by learning how to perform consistently through increased behavioral control (Balague, 2000 ). Psychological skills training programs have been shown to be effective for improving elite athletes' performances in golf putting (Cohen, Tenenbaum, & English, 2006; Thomas & Fogarty, 1997), tennis (Mamassis & Doganis, 2004) and football (Holm, Beckwith, Ehde, & Tinius, 1996). ...
... The team had extra challenges during that specific season because of changes of game schedule, but it is still noteworthy that such robust intervention may be better suited for the off-season period. Balague (2000) suggested that sport psychology could be planned similarly to physical conditioning, where there is a larger volume of work during the offseason and preseason. The intention of having in-season and off-season teams both in the intervention and control groups was to account for the variations in stress, anxiety, and depression they might feel at different parts of the year, but it seems as if it is a better idea to teach the mental skills for performance and mental health in the off-season period. ...
Article
College student-athletes face various stressors that, if not well managed, could become a source of mental health issues. The transactional model of stress and coping proposes that effective coping and social support are important variables to buffer the negative effects of stressors on mental health. The present study aimed to teach college student-athletes coping skills to improve both performance and mental health and increase their social support from coaches and captains. Participants were 88 (M age = 19.8 years, SD = 1.1 years) college student-athletes who played 5 sports at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university (51% female, 83% White). Participants were divided into intervention and waitlist control groups and completed the Demographic, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaires before and after the 8-week intervention period. The intervention included 5 sessions of mental skills training for performance and coping with life stressors, 2 sessions with coaches for social support, and 4 sessions with captains for social support. Analyses of covariance for each dependent variable were used to compare means between intervention and control groups, using their preintervention values as covariates. Athletic coping skills, F(1, 70) = 9.069, p = .004, and anxiety, F(1, 79) = 5.017, p = .028, significantly improved for the intervention group, compared to the control group. An intervention that teaches student-athletes how to use mental skills both during performance and in other life domains has the potential to improve both athletic coping skills and mental health-related outcomes. Lay summary: This study combined an intervention to improve college student-athletes’ mental health outcomes with an intervention to improve performance. The intervention included teaching coping skills to student-athletes and increasing their social support within the team. Results showed an improvement in athletic coping skills and anxiety.
... So, while our coaches considered that it was possible to superimpose physical and technical planning to the process, they viewed the psychological aspects as non-predictable, falling outside the scope of planning. This transpired despite planning of psychological factors of training being considered paramount for successful training processes (Balague, 2000;Lidor, Blumenstein, & Tenenbaum, 2007). How this impacts the coaches' sense of control over the coaching process should be explored in future researches. ...
... Whereas the influence of psychological variables upon competitive sport performance has been well documented (Vealey, 1994;Balague´, 2000), this type of research into non-traditional sport competition is lacking. Psychological differences have been reported between high risk and non-high risk sports participants; e.g., the former scoring higher in extroversion, search for thrill and adventure, self-esteem and sensation seeking (Cronin, 1991;Goma`-i-Freixanet, 1991;Zuckerman, 1994;Egan & Stelmack, 2003). ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between pre-performance psychological states and expert performance in non-traditional sport competition. Nineteen elite male sport climbers (M=24.6, SD=4.0 years of age) completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before an international rock climbing competition. Climbing performances were video-recorded to calculate movement fluency (entropy) and obtain ascent times. Official route scores were also obtained. Successful climbers reported higher pre-performance levels of somatic anxiety and climbed the most difficult part of the route more slowly than their unsuccessful counterparts. The psychological states preceding elite climbing competition appeared to be an important factor in determining success, even when differences in baseline ability were taken into account.
Article
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Sports periodization has traditionally focused on the exercise aspect of athletic preparation, while neglecting the integration of other elements that can impact an athlete's readiness for peak competition performances. Integrated periodization allows the coordinated inclusion of multiple training components best suited for a given training phase into an athlete's program. The aim of this article is to review the available evidence underpinning integrated periodization, focusing on exercise training, recovery, nutrition, psychological skills, and skill acquisition as key factors by which athletic preparation can be periodized. The periodization of heat and altitude adaptation, body composition, and physical therapy is also considered. Despite recent criticism, various methods of exercise training periodization can contribute to performance enhancement in a variety of elite individual and team sports, such as soccer. In the latter, both physical and strategic periodization are useful tools for managing the heavy travel schedule, fatigue, and injuries that occur throughout a competitive season. Recovery interventions should be periodized (ie, withheld or emphasized) to influence acute and chronic training adaptation and performance. Nutrient intake and timing in relation to exercise and as part of the periodization of an athlete's training and competition calendar can also promote physiological adaptations and performance capacity. Psychological skills are a central component of athletic performance, and their periodization should cater to each athlete's individual needs and the needs of the team. Skill acquisition can also be integrated into an athlete's periodized training program to make a significant contribution to competition performance.
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The mental skills required to excel on the athletic field transfer to the skills used on the battlefield, within a classroom, and in various professional settings. In December 2011, a concept plan was developed between the 307th Engineer Battalion and the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Program (CSF2). This 12-month plan utilized a periodization methodology that educated and applied mental skills within the Sapper-Athlete-Warrior Program. CSF2 tailored the delivery of training to meet the goals of the battalion and their route clearance mission. The applied intervention identified specific mental skills, training methodologies and lessons learned during implementation.
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An optimal psychologic state for peak athletic performance is strongly documented in the sport psychology literature. A wealth of peer-reviewed studies also strongly supports the role that mental skills training (MST) plays in the development of this state. However, some disagreement exists in the sport psychology community over how best to deliver the MST tools and skills necessary for optimal sport performance. Mental training consultants and intervention researchers have recently suggested that periodization of mental training may be the next major leap forward in applied sport psychology program delivery. This new method of “training the mind” is presented and discussed.
Article
1. INTRODUCCION Las ciencias del deporte han avanzado mucho en los últimos años y su impacto se ha traducido en grandes avances en el entrenamiento deportivo. La fisiología del esfuerzo, la biomecánica, las técnicas de entrenamiento se han traducido en cambios específicos en el entrenamiento. En esta presentación quiero examinar el concepto de periodizacion (Bompa, 1999) y su aplicación al entrenamiento de las aptitudes psicológicas. Según Bompa (1999) Periodizacion quiere decir "estructurar las fases del entrenamiento para conseguir los máximos niveles de velocidad, fuerza y resistencia". También se usa el termino para indicar "la división del plan anual para asegurar un rendimiento optimo en la competición mas importante" (Bompa 1999, p. 194). Lamentablemente, la psicología del deporte no ha seguido el mismo proceso evolutivo que las demás ciencias del deporte. Por lo general, el entrenamiento de las aptitudes psicológicas en deporte se ha venido realizando en función del tiempo disponible o en presencia de una crisis concreta. (Gordin, 1995). En muchos casos se solicita que todo el entrenamiento psicológico se realice cuando los deportistas suelen tener mas tiempo disponible, es decir, a principio de temporada. En otras ocasiones se solicita una intervención psicológica cuando surge un problema, a menudo antes de una competición importante. En esta presentación querríamos presentar un modelo de entrenamiento psicológico para el deporte siguiendo la noción de periodizacion. Para ello empezaremos por describir el rol de las aptitudes psicológicas en deporte y a continuación se describirá un ejemplo de periodizacion de su entrenamiento en deporte individual y se sugerirá un modelo para deportes colectivos.
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Over the past two decades, mental skills training (MST) has experienced a tremendous surge in popularity, yet MST is not without its critics, including some athletes and coaches. Additionally, a number of concerns have arisen about mental training effectiveness, and its ability to maximize athlete development, performance, and peaking. Periodization is a systematic program development and implementation strategy that holds promise for enhancing mental training effectiveness and combating some of the problems currently limiting MST interventions. Thus, the purpose of this conceptual paper was threefold. First, periodization concepts are introduced by demonstrating how they are utilized to systematically guide physical training. Second, strategies to adapt periodization concepts to enhance mental training programs are examined, along with techniques to integrate physical and mental training, including: mental training tool and skill periodization plans and mental training drill menus. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate how an integrated approach to periodized training that targets both physical and mental skill development can enhance the effectiveness of MST while minimizing implementation problems.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether elite long jumpers make use of a visual control strategy during the final four strides of their approach. Analysis of existing film records revealed that all subjects adopted a visual control strategy at some point during their final strides. Data for the last four strides were insufficient to permit the actual point to be identified in most cases. A second study was undertaken to determine the location of this point and whether it is a function of the error accumulated during the preceding phase of the approach. The performances of 19 subjects were recorded over the last 8–10 strides of the approach. On average, the subjects adopted a visual control strategy on the 5th-last stride. The point at which this strategy was adopted was apparently unrelated to the error in the accuracy of striding up to that point.
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A content analysis of psychological skills training (PST) approaches published between 1980 and 1988 with regard to target populations, content areas, and format characteristics outlined 6 needs representing viable future directions for PST: (1) targeting youth and coaches in addition to elite athletes, (2) moving beyond basic education into specific implementation procedures, (3) differentiating between psychological skills and methods, (4) adopting a holistic approach based on the interactional paradigm and a personal development model, (5) defining the practice of sport psychology based on the personal development of sport consumers, and (6) facilitating the theory–practice relationship through research-based PST programming and evaluation research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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