A consensus statement on critical thinking
The purpose of this study was to define critical thinking in nursing. A Delphi technique with 5 rounds of input was used to achieve this purpose. An international panel of expert nurses from nine countries: Brazil, Canada, England, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Thailand, and 23 states in the U.S. participated in this study between 1995 and 1998. A consensus definition (statement) of critical thinking in nursing was achieved. The panel also identified and defined 10 habits of the mind (affective components) and 7 skills (cognitive components) of critical thinking in nursing. The habits of the mind of critical thinking in nursing included: confidence, contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. Skills of critical thinking in nursing included: analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. These findings can be used by practitioners, educators and researchers to advance understanding of the essential role of critical thinking in nursing.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Background: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Design: Meta-ethnography. Data sources: Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Review methods: Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Results: Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. Conclusion: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources.0Comments 0Citations
- "They were doing their tasks the way others did by following their co-workers, preceptors and written documents without further reflection. Critical thinking is a reasoning process encompassed by habits of mind and cognitive skills (Scheffer & Rubenfeld 2000). It is a process, which evolves and refines with clinical experience (Benner 1984). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Well developed critical thinking skills are essential for nursing and midwifery practices. The development of students' higher-order cognitive abilities, such as critical thinking, is also well recognised in nursing and midwifery education. Measurement of critical thinking development is important to demonstrate change over time and effectiveness of teaching strategies. To evaluate tools designed to measure critical thinking in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students. The following six databases were searched and resulted in the retrieval of 1191 papers: CINAHL, Ovid Medline, ERIC, Informit, PsycINFO and Scopus. After screening for inclusion, each paper was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Tool. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and quality appraisal. Sixteen different tools that measure critical thinking were reviewed for reliability and validity and extent to which the domains of critical thinking were evident. Sixty percent of studies utilised one of four standardised commercially available measures of critical thinking. Reliability and validity were not consistently reported and there was a variation in reliability across studies that used the same measure. Of the remaining studies using different tools, there was also limited reporting of reliability making it difficult to assess internal consistency and potential applicability of measures across settings. Discipline specific instruments to measure critical thinking in nursing and midwifery are required, specifically tools that measure the application of critical thinking to practise. Given that critical thinking development occurs over an extended period, measurement needs to be repeated and multiple methods of measurement used over time. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.0Comments 4Citations
- "Relying on student self-report may be affected by recall bias and a socially desirable response set (Tiwari et al., 2006). The act of critical thinking involves both skills and habit of the mind (Scheffer & Rubenfeld, 2000). The CCTDI only measures the habits of the mind. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Developing a student's sense of capability, purpose, resourcefulness, identity and connectedness (five-senses of success) are key factors that may be important in predicting student satisfaction and progression within their university program. Aim The study aimed to examine the expectations and experiences of second and third year midwifery students enrolled in a Bachelor of Midwifery program and identify barriers and enablers to success. Method A descriptive exploratory qualitative design was used. Fifty-six students enrolled in either year 2 or 3 of the Bachelor of Midwifery program in SE Queensland participated in an anonymous survey using open-ended questions. In addition, 16 students participated in two year-level focus groups. Template analysis, using the Five Senses Framework, was used to analyse the data set. Findings Early exposure to “hands on” clinical midwifery practice as well as continuity of care experiences provided students with an opportunity to link theory to practice and increased their perception of capability as they transitioned through the program. Student's sense of identity, purpose, resourcefulness, and capability was strongly influenced by the programs embedded meta-values, including a ‘woman centred’ approach. In addition, a student's ability to form strong positive relationships with women, peers, lecturers and supportive clinicians was central to developing connections and ultimately a sense of success. A sense of connection not only fostered an ongoing belief that challenges could be overcome but that students’ themselves could initiate or influence change. Conclusions The five senses framework provided a useful lens through which to analyse the student experience. Key factors to student satisfaction and retention within a Bachelor of Midwifery program include; a clearly articulated midwifery philosophy, strategies to promote student connectedness including the use of social media, and further development of clinician's skills in preceptorship, clinical teaching and facilitation. Program delivery methods and student support systems should be designed to enable maximum flexibility to promote capability and resourcefulness and embed sense of purpose and identity early in the program.0Comments 6Citations
- "This item was designed to measure students' ability to critically examine practice and assess appropriateness. A students' ability to apply standards to practice is also recognised as an essential component of critical thinking (Scheffer and Rubenfeld, 2000). One of the lowest scoring items was 'identifies organisational/ service improvement opportunities'. "