Article

A consensus statement on critical thinking

Department of Nursing Education, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti 48197, USA.
Journal of Nursing Education (Impact Factor: 0.91). 12/2000; 39(8):352-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to define critical thinking in nursing. A Delphi technique with 5 rounds of input was used to achieve this purpose. An international panel of expert nurses from nine countries: Brazil, Canada, England, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Thailand, and 23 states in the U.S. participated in this study between 1995 and 1998. A consensus definition (statement) of critical thinking in nursing was achieved. The panel also identified and defined 10 habits of the mind (affective components) and 7 skills (cognitive components) of critical thinking in nursing. The habits of the mind of critical thinking in nursing included: confidence, contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. Skills of critical thinking in nursing included: analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. These findings can be used by practitioners, educators and researchers to advance understanding of the essential role of critical thinking in nursing.

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    • "Attributes are the dimensions of the concept appearing so much repeatedly in the definitions of the concept that the concept cannot survive without them. Scheffer and Rubenfeld (2000) categorized the attributes of the concept of CT in the following 17 dimensions: analyzing, applying the standards, confidence, contextual perspective, creativity , discriminating, flexibility, information seeking, inquisitiveness , intellectual integrity, intuition, logical reasoning, openmindedness , perseverance, predicting, self-reflection, and transforming knowledge. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Given the wide disagreement over the definition of critical thinking in different disciplines, defining and standardizing the concept according to the discipline of nursing is essential. Moreover, there is limited scientific evidence regarding critical thinking in the context of nursing in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze and clarify the concept of critical thinking in nursing education in Iran. Methods We employed the hybrid model to define the concept of critical thinking. The hybrid model has three interconnected phases—the theoretical phase, the fieldwork phase, and the final analytic phase. In the theoretical phase, we searched the online scientific databases (such as Elsevier, Wiley, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid, and Springer as well as Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, and Iranmedex). In the fieldwork phase, a purposive sample of 17 nursing faculties, PhD students, clinical instructors, and clinical nurses was recruited. Participants were interviewed by using an interview guide. In the analytical phase we compared the data from the theoretical and the fieldwork phases. Results The concept of critical thinking had many different antecedents, attributes, and consequences. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences of critical thinking concept identified in the theoretical phase were in some ways different and in some way similar to antecedents, attributes, and consequences identified in the fieldwork phase. Finally critical thinking in nursing education in Iran was clarified. Conclusion Critical thinking is a logical, situational, purposive, and outcome-oriented thinking process. It is an acquired and evolving ability which develops individually. Such thinking process could lead to the professional accountability, personal development, God’s consent, conscience appeasement, and personality development.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Asian Nursing Research
    • "Critical thinking is central to the understanding and application of knowledge. It is a complex process that is believed to involve cognitive skills and affective domains of reasoning and attitude (Scheffer & Rubenfeld 2000). To develop critical thinking skills students must engage in a purposeful process that involves self-regulation, analysis, evaluation, interpretation and assessment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Health care educators strive to train graduates who are socially responsive and can act as "change agents" for communities they serve. Service learning (SL) is increasingly being used to teach the social aspects of health care and develop students' social responsiveness. However, the effectiveness of SL as an educational intervention has not been established. Aim: To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of SL. Method: Seven electronic databases were searched up to 2012 and included all articles on SL for pre-professional health care students. Hand searching was also conducted. Results: A total of 1485 articles were identified, 53 fulfilled the search and quality appraisal criteria and were reviewed across six domains of potential SL effects: (i) personal and interpersonal development; (ii) understanding and applying knowledge; (iii) engagement, curiosity and reflective practice; (iv) critical thinking; (v) perspective transformation and (vi) citizenship. Conclusion: While SL experiences appear highly valued by educators and students the effectiveness of SL remains unclear. SL is different from other forms of experiential learning because it explicitly aims to establish reciprocity between all partners and increase students' social responsiveness. Impact studies based on the interpretative paradigm, aligned with the principles of social accountability and including all stakeholder perspectives are necessary.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Medical Teacher
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    • "To define critical thinking in the context of nursing, Schefer and Rubenfeld (2000) conducted a five-round Delphi study in which 55 nurse educators were involved. Based on their study, a consensus was made on 17 dimensions of critical thinking under two categories of thinking (cognitive) skills and habits of mind[7] [Box 1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancing nursing students' critical thinking is a challenge faced by nurse educators. This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental post-test only design, a convenient sample of 4(th) year nursing students (N = 32) participated. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind. They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The students' responses were evaluated based on identification of critical thinking, justification, and quality of the student's response. The mean score of both groups was compared by Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.5. The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the two groups' critical thinking regarding identification, justification, and quality of responses, and overall critical thinking scores, cognitive thinking skills, and habits of mind. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research
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