Plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples 'Federico II', via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.66). 01/2001; 14(8):581-91. DOI: 10.1002/1099-1573(200012)14:83.0.CO;2-S
Source: PubMed


Phytogenic agents have traditionally been used by herbalists and indigenous healers for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer. This article reviews the anti-acid/anti-peptic, gastro-protective and/or anti-ulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. Botanical compounds with anti-ulcer activity include flavonoids (i.e. quercetin, naringin, silymarin, anthocyanosides, sophoradin derivatives) saponins (i.e. from Panax japonicus and Kochia scoparia), tannins (i.e. from Linderae umbellatae), gums and mucilages (i.e. gum guar and myrrh). Among herbal drugs, liquorice, aloe gel and capsicum (chilli) have been used extensively and their clinical efficacy documented. Also, ethnomedical systems employ several plant extracts for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Despite progress in conventional chemistry and pharmacology in producing effective drugs, the plant kingdom might provide a useful source of new anti-ulcer compounds for development as pharmaceutical entities or, alternatively, as simple dietary adjuncts to existing therapies.

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Available from: Francesca Borrelli, Dec 17, 2014
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    • "There are many experimental and clinical reports demonstrating the gastrointestinal injury induced by majority of NSAIDs; for this reason, some strategies have been adopted to diminish the gastrointestinal injury, these include reducing the NSAID dose, switching to NSAIDs that are perceived to be less toxic, as well as the concomitant use of gastroprotective agents. Regarding the last strategy, it has been demonstrated the gastroprotective effectiveness of the prostaglandin misoprostol, proton pump inhibitors, sucralfate and histamine H 2 -receptor antagonists [38]; in addition, there is evidence that phytogenic agents have traditionally been used by herbalists and indigenous healers for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers [39]. Our group recently found that the oral administration of citral (monoterpene that occurs naturally in herbs, plants and citrus fruits) to rats did not produce any gastric damage [16]; moreover, the oral administration of citral was able to decrease significantly the gastric damage produced by the NSAID naproxen. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant widely used as remedy for pain and gastric disorders. The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with medicinal plant extracts may increase its antinociceptive activity, permit the use of lower doses and limit side effects. The aim was to isolate and identify the main chemical constituents of Matricaria chamomilla ethanolic extract (MCE) as well as to explore their activity as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in silico; besides, to examine the interaction between MCE and diclofenac on nociception in the formalin test by isobolographic analysis, and to determine the level of gastric injury in rats. Three terpenoids, α-bisabolol, bisabolol oxide A, and guaiazulene, were isolated and identified by 1H NMR. Docking simulation predicted COX inhibitory activity for those terpenoids. Diclofenac, MCE, or their combinations produced an antinociceptive effect. The sole administration of diclofenac and the highest combined dose diclofenac-MCE produced significant a gastric damage, but that effect was not seen with MCE alone. An isobologram was constructed and the derived theoretical ED35 for the antinociceptive effect was significantly different from the experimental ED35; hence, the interaction between diclofenac and MCE that mediates the antinociceptive effect is synergist. The MCE contains three major terpenoids with plausible COX inhibitory activity in silico, but α-bisabolol showed the highest affinity. Data suggest that the diclofenac-MCE combination can interact at the systemic level in a synergic manner and may have therapeutic advantages for the clinical treatment of inflammatory pain.
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    • "Stem bark extract of N. latifolia has been shown to contain phytochemical constituents like saponins, tannins, alkaloids and terpenes which are capable of promoting gastric mucosal formation; reduce gastric acid secretion and inhibit pepsinogen production thereby reducing gastric lesions and ulcers[20,21]. Flavonoids, tannins and triterpenes are among the cytoprotective materials for which antiulcerogenic efficacy has been extensively confirmed[22,39]. It has been suggested that these compounds will be able to stimulate mucous, bicarbonate and the prostaglandin secretion. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "Green tea is prepared from unfermented leaves of C. sinensis, which are processed to inactivate enzymes responsible for the auto-oxidation (Engelhardt 2010; Sharangi 2009). Despite the pleasant flavor and aroma, green tea is also used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular problems, and dyspepsia (Borrelli and Izzo 2000; Ogle 2009). Actually, several studies showed different biological activities such as anticarcinogenic (Yang et al. 2011), antiobesity, antidiabetic and hypocholesterolemic (Sae-tan et al. 2011), antioxidant (Cooper et al. 2005a, 2005b), anti-inflammatory (de Mejia et al. 2009), and others. "
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    ABSTRACT: Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.
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