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Current psychological theory and research affirm the positive affective and motivational consequences of having personal choice. These findings have led to the popular notion that the more choice, the better-that the human ability to manage, and the human desire for, choice is unlimited. Findings from 3 experimental studies starkly challenge this implicit assumption that having more choices is necessarily more intrinsically motivating than having fewer. These experiments, which were conducted in both field and laboratory settings, show that people are more likely to purchase gourmet jams or chocolates or to undertake optional class essay assignments when offered a limited array of 6 choices rather than a more extensive array of 24 or 30 choices. Moreover, participants actually reported greater subsequent satisfaction with their selections and wrote better essays when their original set of options had been limited. Implications for future research are discussed.
When Choice is Demotivating: Can One Desire Too Much
of a Good Thing?
Sheena S. Iyengar
Columbia UniversityMark R. Lepper
Stanford University
Current psychological theory and research affirm the positive affective and motivational consequences of
having personal choice. These findings have led to the popular notion that the more choice, the
better—that the human ability to manage, and the human desire for, choice is unlimited. Findings from 3
experimental studies starkly challenge this implicit assumption that having more choices is necessarily
more intrinsically motivating than having fewer. These experiments, which were conducted in both field
and laboratory settings, show that people are more likely to purchase gourmet jams or chocolates or to
undertake optional class essay assignments when offered a limited array of 6 choices rather than a more
extensive array of 24 or 30 choices. Moreover, participants actually reported greater subsequent
satisfaction with their selections and wrote better essays when their original set of options had been
limited. Implications for future research are discussed.
Ne quid nimis. (In all things moderation.)
—Publius Terentius Afer (Terence), c. 171 B.C.
It is a common supposition in modern society that the more
choices, the better—that the human ability to manage, and the
human desire for, choice is infinite. From classic economic theo-
ries of free enterprise, to mundane marketing practices that provide
customers with entire aisles devoted to potato chips or soft drinks,
to important life decisions in which people contemplate alternative
career options or multiple investment opportunities, this belief
pervades our institutions, norms, and customs. Ice cream parlors
compete to offer the most flavors; major fast-food chains urge us
to "Have it our way."
Sheena S. Iyengar, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University;
Mark R. Lepper, Department of Psychology, Stanford University.
We gratefully acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of Draeger's
Grocery Store located in Menlo Park, California, for generously offering
their store as a field site for conducting Study 1. Similarly, Study 2 could
not have occurred without the cooperation and support of Claude Steele at
Stanford University who generously allowed his introductory social psy-
chology course to be used as a forum for conducting this field experiment.
Further, we would like to thank the numerous graduate students in the
Department of Psychology at Stanford University and undergraduate re-
search assistants who generously dedicated their time and effort to help
conduct these studies.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sheena
S. Iyengar, Columbia University, Graduate School of Business, Uris Hall-
Room 714, 3022 Broadway, New York, New York 10027-6902, or to Mark
R. Lepper, Department of Psychology, Jordan Hall-Building 420, Stanford
University, Stanford, California 94305-2130. Electronic mail may be sent
to or
On the face of it, this supposition seems well supported by
decades of psychological theory and research that has repeatedly
demonstrated, across many domains, a link between the provision
of choice and increases in intrinsic motivation, perceived control,
task performance, and life satisfaction (Deci, 1975, 1981; Deci &
Ryan, 1985; Glass & Singer, 1972a, 1972b; Langer & Rodin,
Rotter, 1966; Schulz & Hanusa, 1978; Taylor, 1989; Taylor
& Brown, 1988). In a typical laboratory study, the intrinsic moti-
vation of participants is compared across two conditions: one in
which participants are given a choice among half a dozen possible
activities, and a second in which participants are told by an
experimenter which specific activity to undertake (Zuckerman,
Porac, Lathin, Smith & Deci, 1978). The recurring empirical
finding from these studies is that the provision of choice increases
intrinsic motivation and enhances performance on a variety of
Moreover, the positive consequences of choice are often appar-
ent even in contexts where the choice itself is trivial or incidental
(Cordova & Lepper, 1996; Dember, Galinsky, & Warm, 1992;
Swann & Pittman, 1977). Indeed, many important theories in
social psychology, including attribution theory (e.g., Kelley, 1967,
dissonance theory (e.g., Collins & Hoyt, 1972; Cooper &
Fazio, 1984; Linder, Cooper, & Jones, 1967), and reactance theory
(e.g., Brehm, 1966), all presume that even purely illusory percep-
tions of choice will have powerful effects (Langer, 1975; Lefcourt,
Lewin, 1952).
Although prior research has made a compelling case for the
psychological benefits of the provision of choice, there remain
some potential limitations to this literature. Consider one seem-
ingly trivial, yet potentially important, methodological character-
istic of prior studies: that the number of options presented in
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, Vol. 79, No. 6, 995-1006
Copyright 2000 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0O22-3514/00/$5.O0 DOI. 10.1037//0022-3514.79.6.995
previous experiments was characteristically small, typically be-
tween two and six alternatives. It would appear, then, that what
prior research has actually shown is that choice among relatively
limited alternatives is more beneficial than no choice at all. Pre-
sumably, of
constraints on the number of options offered in
past choice studies were imposed primarily for the sake of conve-
nience; however, real-world situations often provide more than a
limited selection, sometimes even an overwhelming number of
options. What happens when the range of alternatives becomes
larger and the differences among options become relatively small?
Certainly, there are cases when even a vast array of choices may
still have beneficial effects. Imagine a group of people who arrive
at a new restaurant, for example, all hoping to order their personal
favorite dishes. Obviously, the more items offered on the menu,
the more satisfied these customers will be, on average. More
generally, in preference-matching contexts, in which people enter
hoping to find some particular product or service they already
know themselves to prefer, larger numbers of options should
increase the likelihood that they will be successful in their search.
On the other hand, a growing body of research also suggests that
people can have difficulty managing complex choices. To begin
with, research has shown that as the attractiveness of alternatives
individuals experience conflict and as a result tend to defer
decision, search for new alternatives, choose the default option, or
simply opt not to choose (Dhar, 1997; Shafir, Simonson, & Tver-
sky, 1993; Shafir & Tversky, 1992). Furthermore, consumer re-
search suggests that as both the number of options and the infor-
mation about options increases, people tend to consider fewer
choices and to process a smaller fraction of the overall information
available regarding their choices (Hauser & Wernerfelt, 1990).
In fact, studies show that the selection, evaluation, and integra-
tion of information are all clearly affected by the available number
of options; this suggests that, as the complexity of making choices
rises, people tend to simplify their decision-making processes by
relying on simple heuristics (Payne, 1982; Payne, Bettman, &
Johnson, 1988, 1993; Timmermans, 1993; Wright, 1975). For
instance, a comparison of the decision strategies of people pre-
sented with three, six, or nine alternatives revealed that
an elimination strategy in the case of three options, 31% used an
elimination strategy in the case of six options, and 77% used an
elimination strategy when there were nine options (Timmermans,
The increase in the percentage of participants who used an
elimination strategy as the number of alternatives grew was also
accompanied by a decrease in the percentage of information used.
This sharp decrease in the number of attributes considered as
problem complexity increases suggests that information overload
may produce a change to a noncompensatory but more efficient
decision rule.
The three studies presented in this article, therefore, examine for
the first time the possibility that there may be differential motiva-
tional consequences of encountering contexts that offer a limited
psychologically manageable), versus an extensive (i.e., psy-
chologically excessive), number of choices. Specifically, the
choice overload hypothesis underlying these studies is that, al-
though the provision of extensive choices may sometimes still be
seen as initially desirable, it may also prove unexpectedly demo-
tivating in the end.
In these studies, limited-choice conditions were operationalized
as contexts that offered roughly the same number of options
(approximately six) as used in past research (e.g., Zuckerman et
1978). In comparison, extensive-choice conditions were opera-
tionalized as contexts in which participants would have some
reasonably large, but not ecologically unusual, number of options.
In addition, to provide a clear test of the choice overload
hypothesis, several additional methodological considerations
seemed important. On the one hand, to minimize the likelihood of
simple preference matching, care was taken to select contexts in
which most participants would not already have strong specific
preferences. On the other hand, to minimize the potential impor-
tance of effortful information search, care was also taken to select
tasks for which "right" and "wrong" choices would be subjective,
so that the effort involved in making a choice would be largely a
function of personal preferences. Finally, across experiments, we
sought to examine this hypothesis in both field and laboratory
settings. Using these criteria, then, the present studies tested the
hypothesis that having a limited and more manageable set of
choices may be more intrinsically motivating than having an
overly extensive set of choices.
Study 1
In this first field experiment, consumers shopping at an upscale
grocery store encountered a tasting booth that displayed either a
limited (6) or an extensive (24) selection of different flavors of
jam. The two dependent measures of customers' motivation were
their initial attraction to the tasting booth and their subsequent
purchasing behavior.
Participants and Experimental Site
Study 1 involved a field experiment that examined the motivational
consequences of limited versus extensive choice in an upscale grocery
store (Draeger's Supermarket) located in Menlo Park, California. This
grocery store is of particular interest because its salient distinguishing
feature is the extraordinary selection it offers, especially when compared
with large grocery chains. For instance, Draeger's offers roughly 250
different varieties of mustard, 75 different varieties of olive oil, and over
300 varieties of jam. In addition, because of the regular presence of tasting
booths at this store, shoppers are frequently offered sample tastes of the
enormous array of available products. As a result, this store provided a
particularly conducive environment in which a naturalistic experiment that
used tasting booths could be conducted.
On two consecutive Saturdays, neither of which fell on a long holiday
weekend, a tasting booth was set up inside the grocery store. Over the
course of these two 5-hr experimental periods, the behavior of approxi-
mately 754 shoppers was observed. Among the 386 customers present in
the store during the hours when the extensive-choice booth was displayed,
only 242 actually encountered the display. Among the 368 customers
present in the store during the hours when the limited-choice booth was
displayed, only 260 actually encountered the display. By observation, the
customers who stopped at the booth were typically middle-aged Cauca-
approximately 62% of these customers were women and 38% were
Product Selection
Exotic jams. Before the study, the number of brands and selections
within a number of product categories were carefully catalogued. On the
basis of the following criteria, the product selected as the experimental
stimulus was Wilkin
Sons (Purveyors
Her Majesty
Queen) jams.
To control
potential differences that might arise from different types
packaging or advertising,
was necessary to find one brand for which there
sufficiently large variety
constitute an extensive-choice condition.
(In total, Wilkin
has 28
addition, careful
product with which most consumers
yet not so
familiar that preferences would already
firmly established. Hence, to ensure that potential customers would not just
for the
more traditional flavors such
these common flavors were removed from
the set of
28, leaving
of 24
more exotic flavors. Finally, because
dependent measure
involved purchasing behavior,
relatively inexpensive product needed
be chosen.
Sons jams ranged from
4 to 6
Jam preferences survey. To ensure that the limited-choice set consisted
of neither the most preferred
the least preferred jam flavors,
inary survey
of 30
Stanford undergraduates examined individual prefer-
for the 24
jam. These students were provided
the 24 exotic jam flavors and were asked, "Please read the following list of
star next
the two best-sounding jams,
your opinion. Put
check mark next
to two
but not
excellent-sounding jams,
and an X
to the two
worst sounding jams."
On the
this preliminary
survey, kiwi
peach jams were selected
the two
preferred jams, black cherry
three-fruits marmalade were selected
moderately tasty jams,
lemon curd and red currant were
least preferred jams.
Two research assistants, dressed
store employees, invited passing
our Wilkin and Sons jams." Shoppers encountered
two displays.
On the
table were either
(limited-choice condition)
(extensive-choice condition) different jams.
two Satur-
displays were rotated hourly;
of the
displays were
counterbalanced across days
any day or
time-of-day effects.
Initial testing. Consumers were allowed
many jams
consumers who approached
table received
for a
the purchase
any Wilkin
Sons jam. Afterwards,
shoppers who wished
purchase the jam needed
go to the relevant jam
the jam of
their choice,
then purchase
at the
store's main cash registers.
As a
result, regardless
of the
display encountered
each customer,
potential buyers
Sons products necessarily encountered
entire display
An inconspicuous observer recorded
approached the table, as well as the number of passers-by who did not stop.
A second observer, also unobtrusive, made educated guesses about
age, and
each customer
who did
at the
In addition,
random sample
solicitations was tape-recorded and later
to two
independent raters, unaware
the study, who rated each solicitation
on a 1-5
Likert scale
of "friendliness" ranging from
not at
all friendly
very friendly. Overall,
the average friendliness score
(M = 4.5), and the
raters was high,
r =
p <
Subsequent analyses
these scores showed that
did not
vary according
to con-
F(l, 99) =
Subsequent purchasing.
On the
bottom left-hand corner
count coupon was
code indicating
condition assignment
of each consumer. Other numbers
letters surrounded these codes
lead customers
believe that the code represented
coupon scan number.
Coupons could
redeemed over
1 week.
The central aim of Study 1 was to examine whether the number
of options displayed affected consumers' initial attraction to or
subsequent purchase of the displayed product. As noted, more
women than men stopped at the booth; however, there were no
gender differences by condition, either for initial attraction or for
subsequent purchasing behavior.
Initial Attractiveness
To what extent does having extensive choice initially seem
desirable? Of the 242 customers who passed the extensive-
selection display of
60% (145) actually stopped at the booth.
In contrast, of the 260 customers who passed the limited-selection
display of jams, only 40% (104) stopped. Thus, consumers who
encountered the extensive-choice condition were more attracted to
the booth than consumers exposed to the limited-choice condition,
suggesting that the variety provided in the extensive-choice con-
dition was initially more attractive, ^(1, N = 502) = 19.89, p <
One might imagine that consumers who encountered 24 differ-
ent jams would sample more flavors than would those who en-
countered 6 different varieties. In fact, however, there were no
significant differences, F(l, 245) = 0.83, ns; consumers in the
extensive-choice condition sampled an average of 1.50 jams
(range = 1-2), whereas consumers in the limited-choice condition
sampled an average of 1.38 jams (range = 1-2).
Subsequent Purchasing Behavior
Is the initial attractiveness of extensive choice also reflected in
subsequent purchasing behavior? Our findings suggest not: Nearly
(31) of the consumers in the limited-choice condition subse-
quently purchased ajar of Wilkin & Sons jam; in contrast, only 3%
(4) of the consumers in the extensive-choice condition did so, ^(1,
N = 249) = 32.34, p <
Thus, consumers initially exposed
to limited choices proved considerably more likely to purchase the
product than consumers who had initially encountered a much
larger set of options.
These findings are striking. Certainly, they appear to challenge
a fundamental assumption underlying classic psychological theo-
ries of human motivation and economic theories of rational-
choice—that having more, rather than fewer, choices is necessarily
more desirable and intrinsically motivating. The findings from this
study show that an extensive array of options can at first seem
highly appealing to consumers, yet can reduce their subsequent
motivation to purchase the product. Even though consumers pre-
sumably shop at this particular store in part because of the large
number of selections available, having "too much" choice seems
nonetheless to have hampered their later motivation to buy.
There are, however, several potential limitations to this initial
field experiment. To begin with, it is possible that consumers in the
limited-choice condition believed that there was something special
about the specific six jams displayed, especially after they became
keeping with current guidelines, because the cell sizes
the present
studies were substantial (Siegel, 1956) and because there were more than
many subjects
there were cells (Delucchi, 1983),
it was not
deemed necessary
aware of the multitude of other options available on the
a belief could have made the limited-choice consumers more prone
to purchase jam. Consequently, it is worth considering whether the
pattern of results would be altered if the limited-choice condition
were operationalized such that participants were not aware of the
multitude of other options potentially available.
In addition, the contrasting displays of jam may have invited
motivationally differing consumer groups. Although the display
of 24 jams may have aroused the curiosity of otherwise uninter-
ested passers-by, the display of 6 jams may have appealed to store
customers who were more serious about the purchasing of jam. To
rule out this possibility, it was necessary to examine the motiva-
tional consequences of limited versus extensive choices with a
sample of participants who were not given the opportunity to
self-select their condition assignment.
Finally, since consumers in both conditions sampled no more,
than two jam flavors, it is possible that the consumers in the
extensive-choice condition felt that they did not have sufficient
time to determine their preferences. Although consumers in both
conditions were allowed the freedom to peruse and to sample as
many of the displayed flavors as they wished, social pressure or
time constraints may have prevented them from taking full advan-
tage of this opportunity. Thus, one might question whether the
obtained differences in motivation would be eliminated if partic-
ipants in both conditions were given the opportunity to peruse their
options in an unconstrained, nonpublic context.
Study 2 endeavored to address these concerns and to generalize
the findings from Study 1 to an educational setting, in which
measures of actual performance, as well as choice, could be
observed. Thus, in Study 2, participants in the limited-choice
condition were not aware of any options beyond those in the
limited-choice set. Similarly, careful attention was given to choos-
ing a task that enabled participants to spend as much time as they
wished in perusing their choices. Moreover, unlike Study 1,
Study 2 employed a yoked design; the limited-choice set was
rotated such that for every item encountered by an extensive-
choice participant, there was a limited-choice participant who had
encountered the same item.
Study 2
In Study 2, students in an introductory social psychology class
were given the opportunity to write a two-page essay as an extra-
credit assignment. Students were given either 6 or 30 potential
essay topics on which they could choose to write. Intrinsic moti-
vation was assessed by comparing the percentage of students who
completed the assignment across the two conditions and the qual-
ity of the essays written in each condition.
One hundred ninety-seven students
an introductory social psychology
Stanford University served
as the
this study.
class included 116 women
81 men.
attending biweekly
students were required
attend smaller weekly discussion
sections led by five graduate student teaching assistants. The students were
divided into
discussion sections; each
of the
five teaching assistants
sections. Sections included anywhere from
8 to 26
students. Four
students ultimately dropped the class and were therefore excluded from the
As part
of the
students were required
"Twelve Angry Men." Related
this requirement,
extra-credit assign-
ment was offered,
and it
was the administration
this extra-credit oppor-
tunity that provided
for a
naturalistic experiment.
Before Thanksgiving week, extra-credit assignments were distributed
the students.
assignments included
following instructions:
having section next week,
students will
movie being shown
40 on
Monday, November 25,
between 7-9 PM. After watching the movie, you can obtain two extra
credit points on your next midterm examination by writing
to the
movie. The following
is a
possible questions
can write about. Papers should
one to two
typed, double spaced,
and are
due Tuesday, December
3, in
you choose
do this assignment, you must circle the paper topic
attach this page
your response paper.
After reading these instructions, students found themselves confronted
by either
different essay topics (limited-choice condition)
30 different
essay topics (extensive-choice condition).
essay questions dealt with
topics related
to the
material covered
in the
course. Careful attention
selecting essay topics that were comparable
performance revealed
as a
of the
specific topic chosen.
In all, there were six different versions
the extra-credit assignment.
addition to the 30-topic assignment, five versions of the 6-topic assignment
were created, such that
all of
the items from
of 30
were counter-
balanced across
five limited-choice assignments.
Students were first informed of the movie requirement during the weekly
section meeting before Thanksgiving week.
that students would notice the different versions, assignments were handed
in the
section meetings rather than
class lectures.
this time,
teaching assistants distributed these assignments, with
identical verbal
description, reinforcing the information about the opportunity
to gain
extra points
their next midterm.
On no
occasion were
led to
believe that their essays would be graded.
the contrary,
they were explicitly told that their performance
on the
to the
Because each
the five teaching assistants administered
one of
to the
the other was assigned
the extensive-choice condition.
five sections
students received
essay topics
students received thirty. Because
section varied,
was not possible
assign equal numbers
As a
students were assigned
to the
choice condition, whereas
students were assigned
to the
choice condition.
differences were found across
five teaching
assignment completion; students assigned
to one
teaching assistant were just
to do the
extra-credit assignment
students assigned
another teaching assistant.
Dependent Measures
Two measures assessed students' subsequent motivation
in the two
conditions. The first was the percentage
participants who chose
an essay.
second was
the essays produced.
As previously indicated, the students were told that their performance on
these extra-credit assignments would have no impact
their class grades.
it was of
determine whether
alternatives available might also affect performance quality. Accordingly,
two graduate students, unaware of both the participants' choice conditions
and the hypotheses of this experiment, graded each of the response papers
for both content and form using two 10-point scales, which ranged from
"extremely poor" to "excellent."2
When grading for content, two factors were taken into consideration.
The first was the accurate depiction and appropriate use of social-
psychological concepts. The second was the use of clear examples from the
film that related and mapped onto the different social-psychological pro-
cesses being discussed. The inter-rater correlation for content scores was
r =
p <
The form score similarly assessed students' facility on
two dimensions. First, each paper was judged on whether it had clear
structure (e.g., "Did the introductory paragraph define a hypothesis?").
Second, the papers were evaluated on technical proficiency—spelling,
grammar, and the like. The inter-rater correlation for form scores was r =
p <
Because there was considerable agreement across the two
graders on both content and form, their ratings were averaged, yielding one
content and one form score per student.
Preliminary Analyses
The central point of interest in Study 2 lay, once again, in the
comparison of participants' responses across the two experimental
conditions of limited versus extensive choice. Because preliminary
analyses showed no differences as a function of gender and no
interactions between gender and condition on either measure, the
data were collapsed across this factor.
Assignment Completion
Did the number of choices provided on the instruction sheet
actually influence the percentage of students who completed the
assignment? Overall, 65% (126) of the students chose to do the
assignment. There was, however, a significant effect of condition,
N = 193) =
p < .05. Of the 70 students assigned to the
limited-choice condition, 74% turned in the assignment. In con-
trast, of the 123 students assigned to the extensive-choice condi-
tion, only 60% chose to complete the assignment.
Quality of Essays
Were these differences in students' willingness to write an essay
also reflected in differences in the quality of these essays? For
content, there was a main effect for condition, F(l, 124) = 4.18,
p < .05. On average, students assigned to the limited-choice
condition performed slightly, although significantly, better
(M = 8.13, SD = 0.95) than those assigned to the extensive-choice
condition (M = 7.79, SD = 0.91). A similar main effect was found
for form, F(l, 124) = 4.64, p < .03. On average, students in the
limited-choice condition scored higher (M = 8.04, SD = 1.33)
than students in the extensive-choice condition (M = 7.59,
SD =
Because measures of content and form proved significantly
correlated (r =
p < .0001), content and form grades were also
averaged to give one overall grade. The condition effect was also
significant for this overall measure, F(l, 124) = 5.65, p < .02,
with students in the limited-choice condition receiving higher
grades (M = 8.09, SD = 1.05) than those in the extensive-choice
condition (M = 7.69, SD = 0.82).
One might ask whether the observed differences in motivation
or performance could somehow have been driven by differences in
students' prior performance in the class. There were, however, no
differences in class midterm performance by condition among the
students who completed the extra-credit assignments, nor were
there differences in midterm performance between those who
subsequently did or did not choose to do the assignment.
The findings from Study 2 both confirm and expand on the
findings from Study 1. The results from both studies suggest that
the provision of extensive choices does not necessarily lead to
enhanced motivation when compared with contexts that offer a
limited array of choices. Quite the opposite seems to be the case.
In both studies, people actually seemed to prefer to exercise their
opportunity to choose in contexts where their choices were limited,
and, in Study 2, they even performed better in such limited-choice
Particularly counterintuitive, from the perspective of traditional
models, is the finding that the same choice selected from a limited-
choice set can lead to better performance than if the same option
had been selected from an extensive-choice set. Interestingly, in
contrast to prior studies, the measure of performance in the present
experiment was designed to reflect intrinsic motivation. Because
none of the participants thought that their essays would be evalu-
ated, the quality of the paper they wrote should have been primar-
ily a function of their personal interest and motivation.
the results of Studies 1 and 2 support the hypothesis that
extensive-choice contexts may be initially more appealing but
are subsequently more likely to hamper people's intrinsic motiva-
tion. Although these field experiments provide compelling
empirical evidence to support this hypothesis, they shed little
light on the mediating mechanisms underlying choice overload.
What, then, are the processes that produce the decreases in sub-
sequent motivation exhibited in contexts that offer extensive
One possibility is that people encountering overly extensive
choices use a choice-making heuristic that necessarily leads them
to feel less committed to exercising their preferences. Previous
research has argued that limited-choice contexts invite people to
engage in rational optimization—to try to decide which option in
a set is the single best one for them. By contrast, choosers in
extensive-choice contexts may endeavor to balance the tradeoffs
between accuracy and effort, adopting simplifying heuristic strat-
egies that are much more selective in their use of available infor-
mation (Christensen-Szalanski, 1978, 1980; Payne et al., 1988,
Consequently, extensive-choice contexts may invite people
merely to "satisfice"—to stop when they find any choice that
seems acceptable (Mills, Meltzer, & Clark, 1977; Simon, 1955,
In other words, when people have "too many" options to
consider, they simply strive to end the choice-making ordeal by
finding a choice that is merely satisfactory, rather than optimal.
Doing otherwise would demand more effort than seems justified
by the prospective increase in utility or satisfaction. Hence, one
2 No actual grade proved lower than a
and grades were not restricted
to whole numbers.
might predict that people who encounter extensive choices should
report making a less informed decision and should be more likely
to opt for a default choice (Hauser & Wernerfelt, 1990; Payne,
Shafir et al., 1993; Shafir & Tversky, 1992). Similarly,
choosers opting to satisfice in extensive-choice contexts should
also report being less confident of their choices and less likely to
expect to be satisfied with their particular choices.
A contrasting possibility is that choosers in extensive-choice
contexts may actually feel more committed to the choice-making
process; that is, that they may feel more responsible for the choices
they make because of the multitude of options available. These
enhanced feelings of responsibility, in turn, may inhibit choosers
from exercising their choices, out of fear of later regret. In other
words, choice-makers in extensive-choice contexts might feel
more responsible for their choices given the potential opportunity
of finding the very best option, but their inability to invest the
requisite time and effort in seeking the so-called best option may
heighten their experience of regret with the options they have
chosen. If so, choosers in extensive-choice contexts should per-
ceive the choice-making process to be more enjoyable given
all the possibilities available. They should at the same time,
however, find it more difficult and frustrating given the potentially
overwhelming and confusing amount of information to be
Study 3, therefore, sought both to provide an instantiation of the
phenomenon of choice overload in a controlled laboratory setting
and to supplement the findings from the last two studies by
including a number of measures designed to test the two opposing
hypotheses outlined above. To test the first hypothesis—that peo-
ple encountering extensive choices tend to use a satisficing heu-
whereas people encountering limited choices tend to use an
optimizing heuristic—Study 3 examined choosers' expectations
regarding the choices they had made.
As before, after participants had encountered either a limited
array or an extensive array of options in this study, they were asked
to make a choice. Unlike the prior two studies, however, before
being given the opportunity to sample the selection they had made,
choosers' expectations about this choice were assessed. Partici-
pants provided predictions about how satisfied they would be with
their stated preference—whether they expected the choice they
made to be merely "satisfactory" or "among the best." Participants
also indicated whether they had chosen a default option and
reported how well-informed they felt about the choice they had
made. To test the second hypothesis—that people in extensive-
choice contexts feel more responsible for the choices they make
several affect items were added to Study 3. Specifically, after
making their choices, but before sampling their choices, partici-
pants were asked to provide ratings of their enjoyment, difficulty,
and frustration during the choice-making process. Later, after
sampling their choices, they provided ratings of satisfaction and
Finally, Study 3 also included a no-choice control condition.
Inclusion of this third group allowed us to examine whether
differences between the limited- and extensive-choice groups were
the result of increases in motivation among limited-choice partic-
ipants and/or decreases in motivation among extensive-choice
Study 3
In Study 3, participants initially made a selection from either a
limited array or an extensive array of chocolates. Subsequently,
participants in the experimental groups sampled the chocolate of
their choosing, whereas participants in the control group sampled
a chocolate that was chosen for them. Participants' initial satisfac-
tion with the choosing process, their expectations concerning the
choices they had made, their subsequent satisfaction with their
sampled chocolates, and their later purchasing behavior served as
the four main dependent measures in this study.
Conceptually, then, the design of Study 3 involved three groups:
limited choice, extensive choice, and a no-choice control condi-
tion. Because it seemed important to control for the number of
alternatives presented across the choice and no-choice conditions,
half of the participants in the no-choice conditions were shown the
same 6 choices as participants in the limited-choice condition,
whereas the other half were shown the full array of 30 choices, as
were participants in the extensive-choice condition.
Because the choice-condition participants and their no-choice
counterparts were treated identically up through the administration
of the first set of dependent measures, analyses of these measures
will involve only comparisons of those exposed to limited displays
versus those exposed to extensive displays. Once participants had
been given either their own selection or an arbitrarily assigned
chocolate to taste, however, comparisons of limited-choice and
extensive-choice participants to those in the no-choice control
condition then became relevant.
One hundred thirty-four students from Columbia University were ran-
domly assigned to one of three conditions. There were 33 participants in
the limited-choice condition, 34 participants in the extensive-choice con-
dition, and 67 participants in the no-choice condition. This sample included
women and 37% men. The ethnic distribution of the participants was
Caucasian, 25% Asian, 5% Latino, 4% African American, and 11%
To eliminate any participant who might have an aversion to chocolate,
all potential participants were prescreened on the basis of two questions.
First, all potential participants were asked, "Do you like chocolate?" Only
those who responded "yes" to this item were then recruited to be partici-
pants in this study. Second, participants were asked, "How often do you eat
Godiva chocolates?" Responses were coded as "never," "occasionally," or
"frequently." Because it was believed that high familiarity with Godiva
flavors and varieties might confound a participant's behavior within this
study, only those participants who responded "never" or "occasionally"
were recruited for this study. Approximately 92% of all potential partici-
pants met these two criteria and were invited to be part of the study.
Decision-making measures. A questionnaire was designed to examine
participants' affective responses to the choice-making process and their
expectations after making a choice. To prevent participants' responses
from being biased by the outcome of their choice, we asked them to
complete the questionnaire after they had chosen which chocolates they
wished to sample, but before they had been given the opportunity to sample
their choice. All items called for ratings on a Likert scale ranging from 1
(not at all) to 7 (extremely).
To test the hypothesis that people encountering extensive choices can
experience the choice-making process as both enjoyable and overwhelm-
ing, the questionnaire examined participants' perceptions of the choice-
making process. Specifically, participants were asked about the extent to
which they felt the choice-making process had been enjoyable ("How
much did you enjoy making the choice?"), difficult ("Did you find it
difficult to make your decision of which chocolate to pick?"), or frustrating
("How frustrated did you feel when making the choice?"). They also
predicted how satisfied they would be if they had the opportunity to sample
their chosen chocolate ("How satisfied do you think you will be if you
sample this chocolate?").
To evaluate whether people encountering limited choices are more likely
to optimize (i.e., to seek the very best option) whereas people encountering
extensive choices are more likely to satisfice (i.e., to accept any satisfactory
option), two items were created to examine participants' expectations
regarding their choices. To measure perceived satisficing, we asked par-
ticipants to provide ratings for, "How confident are you that this chocolate
will satisfy you?" To examine perceived optimizing, we asked "How
confident are you that this chocolate will be among the best you've ever
Similarly, to evaluate whether people in an extensive-choice context
feel less informed and are therefore more prone to choose a default option,
we also asked participants, "Do you feel that you made a well-informed
decision on the chocolate you picked?" and, "Is this a chocolate that you
would normally pick?"
Sample-satisfaction measures. The satisfaction measures were de-
signed to inquire about participants' overall satisfaction with their sampled
chocolates. Specifically, these questions assessed participants' actual sat-
isfaction with the chocolate they had consumed, their regrets about the
chocolate they had tasted, and their satisfaction with the number of choices
they had been given. Experimental participants reported their satisfaction
with their chosen samples, of course, whereas control participants reported
their satisfaction with a chocolate that had been chosen for them.
To test the hypothesis that participants exposed to extensive choices
would be less satisfied with their choices than participants exposed to
limited choices, three items examined participants' satisfaction with their
sampled chocolates: "How satisfied were you with the chocolate you
tasted?", "How much did you enjoy the sample you tasted?", and, "How
tasty was the chocolate you sampled?" All responses were given on Likert
scales, ranging from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely).
Similarly, to test whether any potential decrease in satisfaction among
people encountering overly extensive choices would be accompanied by an
increase in regret, two items were included to measure regret: "How much
do you regret eating the chocolate you tasted?" and "Do you think that
there were chocolates on the table that tasted much better?" Both items
were answered on 7-point Likert scales, ranging from 1 (no, not at alt) to 7
Because one can only infer through behavioral measures in Studies 1
and 2 whether 30 or 24 choices actually constituted an overly extensive
choice set, Study 3 included a manipulation check in which participants
were asked their perceptions about the number of choices provided. Spe-
cifically, participants were asked: "When initially given the task to pick a
chocolate from the display, do you think the selection should have included
more kinds of chocolates?" Responses were given on a 7-point Likert scale,
with 1 being, I felt that I had too few to choose from, 4 being, / had the
right number of choices to choose
and 7 being, No, I had too many
to choose from.
Demographic measures. At the conclusion of the experiment, all par-
ticipants completed a brief demographics questionnaire. This questionnaire
inquired about participants' age, ethnicity, gender, and affiliation with
Columbia University.
Experimental Procedures
As participants entered the laboratory, the experimenter directed them to
sit at a round table on which there was one of two different displays of
chocolates. In the limited-choice display, participants encountered one row
different flavors of Godiva chocolates; in the extensive-choice display,
participants encountered 30 different chocolates, arranged in five rows
of 6. Next to each chocolate was a label indicating its "official," Godiva
name (e.g., "Grand Marnier Truffle"). When designating the composition
of the five rows, careful attention was given to ensuring that similar flavors
were not in the same row (e.g., a Strawberry Cordial would not be assigned
to the same group as the Raspberry Cordial). In those conditions in which
participants encountered only six chocolates, the five groups were rotated
such that for every chocolate encountered in the extensive-choice display
there was a possibility of the same chocolate being encountered in the
limited-choice display.
The experimenter gave participants the following cover story for the
study: "We're doing a marketing research study that examines how people
select chocolates. What I would like you to do is take a look at the names
of the chocolates and the chocolates themselves, and tell me which one you
would buy for
All participants then proceeded to choose the
chocolate they would wish to have.
Because prior research suggests that people making a choice among four
alternatives sometimes take less time than people making a selection
between two (Hendrick, Mills, & Kiesler, 1968; Kiesler, 1966), the amount
of time spent deciding which chocolate to sample was also recorded in this
study. Once the participants pointed to a chocolate, they were asked to
complete the decision-making measures described above.
Next, participants encountered the manipulation of choice. In the two
choice conditions, the experimenter offered the participants the opportunity
to sample the chocolate they had chosen. In contrast, in the no-choice
condition, the participants were not permitted to sample the chocolate they
had chosen but were instead told, "We have some sample chocolates that
have been chosen for you at random. These are [e.g.,] 'Milk Chocolate
Truffles'." The experimenter then opened a box containing eight identical
chocolates, which were not of the participants' choosing, and asked the
participants to take one. As in prior studies (Zuckerman et al., 1978), we
used a yoked design, so that the same chocolates chosen by participants in
the choice conditions were the ones offered to participants in the no-choice
After sampling the chocolate, participants completed the sample satis-
faction measures and the demographics questionnaire described above.
Next, the experimenter led the participant to believe that the experiment
had concluded, saying, "Thanks. We appreciate your time. You can go see
the manager for your compensation in room three."
In the payment room, a second experimenter, unaware of the condition
assignments, greeted the participants. This experimenter offered the subject
a choice of receiving a payment of either 5 dollars or a box containing four
Godiva chocolates ordinarily priced at 5 dollars: "As you know, your
compensation is five dollars for being in the study. You can choose
between getting five dollars in cash or a box of Godiva chocolates that is
worth five dollars. Which one would you like for participating in the
survey?" Boxes bearing the emblem of Godiva were visible to the partic-
ipants as they walked into the room. The number of participants who opted
for the box of chocolates constituted the final dependent measure.
One potential problem with these experimental procedures is that al-
though the first experimenters were unaware of the hypotheses underlying
the study, they were necessarily aware of the experimental manipulations.
As a result, one might reasonably wonder whether the experimenters might
vary their behavior across conditions. Therefore, all experimental sessions
were videotaped, and 40 sessions (10 from each choice condition and 20
from the no-choice condition) were randomly selected for coding by
external raters. Two raters unaware of the hypotheses and the experimental
manipulations rated the friendliness of the two experimenters across the
forty sessions on a 5-point Likert scale. There was considerable agreement
across the two raters (r = .69, p < .0001), and their responses were
therefore averaged. This average friendliness score (M = 2.86, SD = 0.78)
did not vary by condition, F(2,36) =
ns, and there were no interactions
between condition and experimenter, F(2, 36) = .22, ns.
Preliminary Analyses
Our primary aim in Study 3 was to examine differences in
satisfaction, purchasing behavior, and related measures across
limited-choice, extensive-choice, and no-choice conditions. Before
turning to these central issues, however, we first examined the
effects of gender and ethnicity on these various measures. No
significant differences were observed on any of the dependent
variables as a function of these factors. Nor were there any sig-
nificant interactions between these two factors and experimental
conditions. Hence, the data were collapsed across these demo-
graphic variables.3
Finally, preliminary analyses also provided an empirical exam-
ination of two key presumptions underlying our main analyses. As
should be expected, for those measures obtained before the intro-
duction of the choice manipulation, there were no significant
interactions between the size of the choice set and participants'
later receipt of their own selection or an arbitrary alternative.
Similarly, as predicted, there were no significant differences on
measures obtained after the choice manipulation between no-
choice participants previously exposed to a limited versus an
extensive set of available alternatives. Data for the relevant mea-
sures were therefore collapsed, as appropriate, across these factors.
Manipulation Checks
Choosing time. As one might assume, the amount of time
spent deciding which chocolate to sample varied significantly by
condition, F(l, 131) = 77.02, p <
Contrary to some prior
findings (Hendrick et al., 1968; Kiesler, 1966), participants spent
significantly more time (in seconds) deciding which chocolate to
sample when there were 30 chocolates (M = 24.36, SD = 12.99)
than they did when there were only six {M = 8.91, SD = 6.02).
However, it should be noted that, unlike this study, previous
studies only compared choosing times across much smaller choice
sets of two versus four alternatives.
Perception of choices. Similarly, we examined participants'
responses to the question concerning whether they felt the number
of choices available was too few, just right, or too many. Here
again, there was a significant effect for the number of options
presented, F(l, 132) = 43.68, p <
Participants who en-
countered 30 chocolates reported feeling that they had been given
"too many" (M = 4.88, SD =
whereas participants who
encountered 6 chocolates reported feeling that the number of
alternatives was "about right" (M = 3.61, SD =
These data
provide direct evidence for our assumption that 30 chocolates
would seem an overly extensive choice set.
Decision-Making Measures
Satisficing versus optimizing. Were participants in the
extensive-choice condition more apt to satisfice, and were partic-
ipants in the limited-choice condition more apt to optimize? We
find no empirical evidence to support such a hypothesis. Contrary
to prior predictions (Mills et al., 1977), participants' confidence
that they had chosen a satisfactory chocolate versus one of the very
best chocolates did not vary as a function of the number of
chocolates displayed. The results revealed no differences by con-
dition for questions regarding goals of either satisficing, F(l,
94) = 0.15, ns, or optimizing, F(l, 94) = 0.09, ns. Instead, a
within-subject analysis of variance (ANOVA) suggested that both
the limited- and extensive-choice participants were predictably
more confident that their chocolate selection would satisfy them
(M = 5.67, SD = 1.21) than that it would be among the best they
had ever had (M = 4.16, SD =
F(l, 190) = 54.75, p <
Nor were there any differences in anticipated satisfaction. Re-
sults indicate that baseline predictions of likely satisfaction did not
vary by condition, F(l, 132) = 0.61, ns, suggesting that partici-
pants did not perceive the number of available alternatives to be an
important variable in their expected satisfaction with their choices.
In addition, we observed no differences by condition in partic-
ipants' reports of how informed they felt about their choices or in
their tendency to choose default options. Both extensive-choice
and limited-choice participants reported being moderately well
informed (M = 4.55, SD =
F(l, 132) = 0.14, ns. Likewise,
there were no differences in participants' responses to the question
of whether they chose a chocolate that they would normally pick,
132) = 0.24, ns.
Desirability of choosing. Is it possible for people to experience
extensive choices as being both more enjoyable and more over-
whelming? Consistent with the findings of Study 1, participants
encountering the extensive options (M = 6.02, SD = 0.75) re-
ported enjoying the decision-making process significantly more
than participants who encountered limited options (M = 4.72,
SD =
F(l, 132) =
p <
Yet, participants
offered extensive choices (M = 4.45, SD = 1.79) also reported
finding the decision-making process to be more difficult than did
participants offered more limited choices (M = 3.30, SD =
132) = 16.38, p <
Likewise, extensive-choice partic-
ipants (M = 3.10, SD = 1.77) also reported finding the decision-
making process to be more frustrating than did limited-choice
participants (M = 2.24, SD =
F(l, 123) =
p < .007.
Interestingly, there was no significant correlation between the
extent to which participants reported enjoying decision-making
and the extent to which they found the decision process to be
difficult (r = .11, ns) or frustrating (r = .11, ns). How difficult
participants found the decision-making process, however, was
correlated with the extent to which they found the process to be
frustrating (r = .36, p < .0001). Thus, it appears that people can
indeed find choosing among too many alternatives to be both
enjoyable and overwhelming.
Subsequent Satisfaction
Five questions assessed participants' actual subsequent satisfac-
tion with the particular sample chocolate they were given to taste.
3 Preliminary analyses also asked whether certain chocolates were more
preferred than the rest. While no chocolate was universally chosen, there
were four chocolates that were never selected. An examination of the
frequency distribution reveals that none of the thirty chocolates was se-
lected more than 12.7% of the time and that the specific choices did not
differ by condition.
Three of these items (i.e., tastiness, enjoyment, and satisfaction)
assessed subjective enjoyment directly. Because these questions
proved significantly correlated with one another (average r
p < .0001) and the pattern of results was similar across the three,
a composite enjoyment measure was derived by averaging across
these three items for each participant. Two other items assessed
participants' feelings of regret about the chocolate they had tasted.
These two items also proved significantly correlated (r
p <
.0001) and were combined into a composite regret measure. Fi-
nally, because these two composite measures (i.e., "enjoyment"
and "regret") proved to be highly related (r =
p < .0001),
a single overall sample-satisfaction score was created for each
participant by averaging these components (with regret scores, of
course, being coded negatively). It should be noted that the three
items that constitute the satisfaction measure were converted into
z scores before averaging, as were the two items constituting the
regret measure.
A one-way ANOVA on these overall satisfaction scores yielded
significant differences among conditions, as in the prior studies,
122) =
p <
Tukey comparisons further showed
that, in keeping with the results from Studies 1 and 2, participants
in the limited-choice condition were significantly more satisfied
(M = 6.28, SD = 0.54) with their sampled chocolates than were
participants in the extensive-choice condition (M = 5.46,
SD = 0.82). Tukey comparisons further revealed that on this
measure, participants in both choice groups reported themselves to
be more satisfied with their chosen chocolates than did no-choice
participants (M = 4.92, SD = 0.98), who had been given samples
of chocolates they had not selected.
Purchasing Behavior
Finally, as in the previous studies, we also examined the effects
of limited versus extensive choices on participants' ultimate pur-
chasing behavior. Once again, the results demonstrated the
icant advantages of a relatively small choice set, ^(2, N =
134) = 21.84, p <
In particular, participants in the limited-
choice condition (48%) were significantly more likely to choose
chocolates as compensation, as compared with participants in both
the extensive-choice condition (12%),
N = 67) =
p <
and the no-choice condition (10%),
N = 100) = 18.06,
p <
which, on this behavioral measure, clearly did not
differ from one another.
General Discussion
In 1830, Alexis de Tocqueville commented that, "In America I
have seen the freest and best educated of men in circumstances the
happiest to be found in the world; yet it seemed to me that a cloud
habitually hung on their brow, and they seemed serious and almost
sad even in their pleasures" (p. 536). More than 100 years later, we
are confronted by an empirical instantiation of what some have
referred to as "the tyranny of choice" (Schwartz, 2000).
The three studies described in this report demonstrate for the
first time the possibility that, although having more choices might
appear desirable, it may sometimes have detrimental consequences
for human motivation. Studies 1, 2, and 3 provide compelling
empirical evidence that the provision of extensive choices, though
initially appealing to choice-makers, may nonetheless undermine
choosers' subsequent satisfaction and motivation. Study 1 showed
that although more consumers were attracted to a tasting booth
when the display included 24 flavors of jam rather than 6, con-
sumers were subsequently much more likely to purchase jam if
they had encountered the display of only 6
Study 2 revealed
that students in an introductory college level course were more
likely to write an essay for extra credit when they were provided
a list of only 6, rather than 30, potential essay topics. Moreover,
even after having chosen to write an essay, students wrote higher
quality essays if their essay topic had been picked from a smaller
rather than a larger choice set. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that
people reported enjoying the process of choosing a chocolate more
from a display of 30 than from a display of 6. However, despite
their greater initial enjoyment in the extensive-display condition,
participants proved more dissatisfied and regretful of the choices
they made and were subsequently considerably less likely to
choose chocolates rather than money as compensation for their
But, what are the mediating mechanisms underlying this phe-
nomenon of choice overload? Contrary to the predictions of our
first hypothesis, we found no empirical support in Study 3 for the
theory that choosers in extensive-choice contexts are more likely
to use a satisficing heuristic, whereas choosers in a limited-choice
context are more likely to use an optimizing heuristic. Instead, at
least in this study, choosers in both extensive-choice contexts and
limited-choice contexts tended to report using a satisficing heuris-
Nor were there any differences in participants' reports of their
anticipated satisfaction with the selections they had made, their
feelings of having made an informed choice, or their tendency to
opt for a default choice.
Consistent with our second hypothesis, however, we did find
considerable empirical support for the theory that choosers in
extensive-choice contexts enjoy the choice-making process
more—presumably because of the opportunities it affords—but
also feel more responsible for the choices they make, resulting in
frustration with the choice-making process and dissatisfaction with
their choices. Indeed, participants in the extensive-choice condi-
tion reported experiencing the decision-making process as being
simultaneously more enjoyable, more difficult, and more frustrat-
ing. Later, after actually sampling their chocolates, extensive-
choice participants reported being more dissatisfied and having
more regret about the choices they had made than did limited-
choice participants. This greater dissatisfaction and regret exhib-
ited by extensive-choice participants may be the consequence of an
initial greater tendency to disengage from the choice-making pro-
which later results in the choosers' inability to use the
psychological processes for the enhancement of the attractiveness
of their own choices (see Gilovich & Medvec, 1995). Even more
compelling, participants in the extensive-choice condition were
actually less likely to opt for chocolates rather than money as their
compensation than were their limited-choice counterparts, and
they did not differ in this respect from participants in the no-choice
control condition.
How can there be so much dissatisfaction in the face of so much
opportunity? More than providing a conclusive answer to this
question, the present findings raise a number of questions of both
theoretical and practical relevance that are worth considering in
future research.
Perhaps it is not that people are made unhappy by the decisions
they make in the face of abundant options but that they are instead
unsure—that they are burdened by the responsibility of distin-
guishing good from bad decisions. Interviews with several hundred
citizens suggest that modern Americans are uneasy about
their current life decisions—that they do not seem to know
whether they are doing the right things with their lives, or even
what those "right things" are (Bellah, Madsen, Sullivan, Swindler
& Tipton, 1985). Our findings demonstrate that the offer of overly
extensive choices in relatively trivial choice-making contexts can
have significant demotivating effects, but perhaps the phenomenon
of choice overload may be further exacerbated in contexts (such as
decisions about major stock purchases or alternative medical treat-
ments) in which (a) the costs associated with making the "wrong"
choice, or even beliefs that there are truly "wrong" choices, are
much more prominent, and/or (b) substantial time and effort would
be required for choosers to make truly informed comparisons
among alternatives. In the present studies, care was taken to select
tasks for which "right" and "wrong" choices would be subjective
and for which the effort involved in making a choice would be
largely a function of personal preferences. If one were to compare
the present contexts to those in which the choosers perceived there
to be significantly "better" and "worse" choices, in domains of
personal significance, we might expect even more substantial
choice overload effects.
Indeed, whether choosers perceive their choice-making task to
be a search for the "objectively best" option, or a search for the one
option most reflective of their personal preferences, may funda-
mentally influence their very preference for choosing. Although
prior research has indicated that people will necessarily be intrin-
sically motivated to make their own choices, the more choosers
perceive their choice-making task to necessitate expert informa-
tion, the more they may be inclined not to choose, and further, they
may even surrender the choice to someone else—presumably more
expert (e.g., de Charms, 1968; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Langer &
Rodin, 1976; Lepper, 1983; Malone & Lepper, 1987; Schulz,
Taylor, 1989; Zuckerman et al., 1978). In Schwartz's (1994)
one important paradox confronting the modern world is that
as the freedom of individuals expands, so too does their depen-
dence on institutions and other people.
Similarly, if the identity of the choice recipient were varied, we
might observe variation in the experience of choice overload
among the choosers. Prior research has shown that, when con-
fronted by choices that are anticipated to result in regret, choosers
experience decision aversion more so when making choices for
others—even when the others exhibit no preferences—than when
making choices for themselves (Beattie, Baron, Hershey, &
Spranca, 1994). In the three present studies, we did not systemat-
ically vary the identity of the choice recipients. Consistent with the
results of Beattie and his colleagues, we might expect that if we
were to compare choosers making choices for themselves with
choosers making choices for others, the latter would show greater
choice overload effects in extensive-choice contexts.
Perhaps the experience of choice overload is accompanied by
the use of more decision rules, which are affective rather than
cognitive. Contrary to recent findings by Dhar and Nowlis (1999),
the results from our studies suggest that even when a choice-
making situation involves an approach-approach conflict, the pro-
vision of choices with uniquely good features does not appear to
minimize decision aversion. Being confronted by a plethora of
options, each possessing unique attributes, may instead simulta-
neously attract and repel choice-makers. One wonders then: Do
people use affective experiences aroused by choosing as a heuristic
for deciding how they ultimately feel about the product? If not
such an affective "bleedover," then what else might be accounting
for these effects?
Moreover, even when choices are self-generated, it is possible
that overly extensive choices may have demotivating conse-
quences. Because people seem to enjoy extensive-choice contexts
more than limited-choice contexts, they may sometimes prefer to
make available to themselves many more choices than they can
possibly handle. Hence, it would be of considerable theoretical
interest to examine the effects of extensive-choice contexts that are
self-generated, rather than externally generated as in the present
Finally, it is worth considering attributes of contexts in which
the provision of extensive choices does not lead to choice over-
To minimize the likelihood of simple preference-matching in
the present studies, we selected specific choice-making tasks and
prescreened our participant population to ensure that they would
not already have strong specific preferences. We all know people
when confronted by an extraordinary variety of options,
know exactly what they want. Is this certainty in preference the
result of arduously developed and maintained expertise? The ulti-
mate paradox might be that the only circumstance in which choos-
ers are truly comfortable with extensive choices is when, because
of the chooser's previous experience, these choices are perceived
as limited in number. Therefore, the precise number of options that
would be considered reasonable, as opposed to excessive, may
vary as a function of both the chooser's perception of their choice-
making goals and their prior expertise with the subject of choice.
Having unlimited options, then, can lead people to be more
dissatisfied with the choices they make. Although such a finding
may seem counterintuitive to social psychologists long schooled in
research on the benefits of choice, the commercial world seems
already to know what experimental psychologists are just now
discovering. Several major manufacturers of a variety of consumer
products have been streamlining the number of options they pro-
vide customers. Proctor &