Article

Small GTP-binding proteins. Physiol Rev

Department of Molecular Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine/Faculty of Medicine, Suita, Japan.
Physiological Reviews (Impact Factor: 27.32). 02/2001; 81(1):153-208.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) exist in eukaryotes from yeast to human and constitute a superfamily consisting of more than 100 members. This superfamily is structurally classified into at least five families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Sar1/Arf, and Ran families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions as biological timers (biotimers) that initiate and terminate specific cell functions and determine the periods of time for the continuation of the specific cell functions. They furthermore play key roles in not only temporal but also spatial determination of specific cell functions. The Ras family regulates gene expression, the Rho family regulates cytoskeletal reorganization and gene expression, the Rab and Sar1/Arf families regulate vesicle trafficking, and the Ran family regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization. Many upstream regulators and downstream effectors of small G proteins have been isolated, and their modes of activation and action have gradually been elucidated. Cascades and cross-talks of small G proteins have also been clarified. In this review, functions of small G proteins and their modes of activation and action are described.

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    • "The members of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPases), RhoA and Rac1, play crucial roles in a range of cellular functions, including the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton , cell polarity and migration, gene expression, and cell proliferation (Jaffe and Hall, 2005;Takai et al., 2001). Rho GTPases function as molecular switches, cycling between inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound (''off'') and active GTP-bound (''on'') states. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamic interactions between RhoA and Rac1, members of the Rho small GTPase family, play a vital role in the control of cell migration. Using predictive mathematical modeling, mass spectrometry-based quantitation of network components, and experimental validation in MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal breast cancer cells, we show that a network containing Rac1, RhoA, and PAK family kinases can produce bistable, switch-like responses to a graded PAK inhibition. Using a small chemical inhibitor of PAK, we demonstrate that cellular RhoA and Rac1 activation levels respond in a history-dependent, bistable manner to PAK inhibition. Consequently, we show that downstream signaling, actin dynamics, and cell migration also behave in a bistable fashion, displaying switches and hysteresis in response to PAK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that PAK is a critical component in the Rac1-RhoA inhibitory crosstalk that governs bistable GTPase activity, cell morphology, and cell migration switches.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "While stimulation of the RhoA/mDia1/c-SRC-axis leads to actin polymerization, the stimulation of the RhoA/ROCKaxis leads to actomyosin contractility and inhibits actin depolymerization (Takai et al., 2001; Quack et al., 2009). In migration and contraction of activated HSCs the signaling via RhoA/ROCK is well-investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In liver fibrosis activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) comprises phenotypical change into profibrotic and myofibroplastic cells with increased contraction and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The small GTPase RhoA orchestrates cytoskeleton formation, migration, and mobility via non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase c-SRC (cellular sarcoma) in different cells. Furthermore, RhoA and its downstream effector Rho-kinase also play a crucial role in hepatic stellate cells and hepatic fibrogenesis. Matrix stiffness promotes HSC activation via cytoskeleton modulation. This study investigated the interaction of c-SRC and RhoA under different matrix stiffness conditions. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats using bile duct ligation (BDL), thioacetamide (TAA) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) models. mRNA levels of albumin, PDGF-R, RHOA, COL1A1, and αSMA were analyzed via qRT-PCR. Western Blots using phospho-specific antibodies against p-c-SRC418 and p-c-SRC530 analyzed the levels of activating and inactivating c-SRC, respectively. LX2 cells and hepatocytes were cultured on acrylamide gels of 1 and 12 kPa or on plastic to mimic non-fibrotic, fibrotic, or cirrhotic environments then exposed to SRC-inhibitor PP2. Overexpression of RhoA was performed by transfection using RhoA-plasmids. Additionally, samples from cirrhotic patients and controls were collected at liver transplantations and tumor resections were analyzed for RhoA and c-SRC protein expression by Western Blot. Results: Transcription of albumin and RhoA was decreased, whereas transcription and activation of c-SRC was increased in hepatocytes cultured on 12 kPa compared to 1 kPa gels. LX2 cells cultured on 12 kPa gels showed upregulation of RHOA, COL1A1, and αSMA mRNA levels. Inhibition of c-SRC by PP2 in LX2 cells led to an increase in COL1A1 and αSMA most prominently in 12 kPa gels. In LX2 cells with RhoA overexpression, c-SRC inhibition by PP2 failed to improve fibrosis. RhoA expression was significantly elevated in human and experimental liver fibrosis, while c-SRC was inactivated. Conclusions: This study shows that c-SRC is inactive in activated myofibroblast-like HSC in liver cirrhosis. Inactivation of c-SRC is mediated by a crosstalk with RhoA upon hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrosis progression.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Frontiers in Physiology
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    • "The reciprocal NMR studies of effector binding to RAS and its oncogenic mutants, where RAS is isotopically enriched, established a hierarchy of effector binding to HRAS in which BRAF RBD displayed the highest-affinity binding, and provide an elegant approach for directly monitoring the complex RAS signaling network (Smith and Ikura, 2014; Smith et al., 2013). The RAS subfamily of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), comprising three major isoforms in humans (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS), are small monomeric GTPases that play a critical role in numerous signal transduction pathways associated with cell growth and differentiation, and many human cancers (Stephen et al., 2014; Takai et al., 2001). RAS proteins function as molecular switches, oscillating between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states; the latter can bind and activate a variety of effector proteins and signaling pathways . "
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    ABSTRACT: RAS binding is a critical step in the activation of BRAF protein serine/threonine kinase and stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Mutations in both RAS and BRAF are associated with many human cancers. Here, we report the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystal structures of the RAS-binding domain (RBD) from human BRAF. We further studied the complex between BRAF RBD and the GppNHp bound form of HRAS in solution. Backbone, side-chain, and (19)F NMR chemical shift perturbations reveal unexpected changes distal to the RAS-binding face that extend through the core of the RBD structure. Moreover, backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange NMR data demonstrate conformational ensemble changes in the RBD core structure upon complex formation. These changes in BRAF RBD reveal a basis for allosteric regulation of BRAF structure and function, and suggest a mechanism by which RAS binding can signal the drastic domain rearrangements required for activation of BRAF kinase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Structure
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