Performance of nasal prongs in sleep studies - Spectrum of flow-related events
Institut Clínic de Pneumologia i Cirurgia Toràcica , Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Chest
(Impact Factor: 7.48).
02/2001; 119(2):442-50. DOI: 10.1378/chest.119.2.442
The use of nasal prongs connected to a pressure transducer is a noninvasive, sensitive method to detect respiratory events, and can be easily implemented in routine sleep studies. Moreover, its good time response allows the detection of several flow-related phenomena of high interest, in addition to apnea and hypopnea. The aims of the study were to examine the quality and performance of the nasal prong flow signal, and to describe other flow-related events during full-night polysomnography studies.
Twenty-seven subjects were studied (16 male subjects; mean +/- SD age, 49 +/- 14 years; mean body mass index, 27 +/- 4 kg/m(2)): 15 subjects recruited from the general population and 12 consecutive patients with suspected sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS).
A blind analysis of the respiratory events detected both by nasal prongs and thermistor was done. The quality of the nasal prong signal recordings was considered optimal for scoring purposes in 78% of cases, and no recording was considered uninterpretable. The nasal prong signal detected additional flow-related events not observed by the thermistor: (1) short and long (> 2 min) periods of inspiratory flow limitation morphology without decrease in the amplitude of the signal; (2) periods of mouth expiration; and (3) snoring. The apnea/hypopnea index was significantly higher with the nasal prong scoring (18 vs 11 [p < 0.05] in the general population and 37 vs 27 [p < 0.001] in the group with suspected SAHS).
The incorporation of nasal prongs in routine full-night studies is an attainable technical option that provides adequate recordings in most cases. Additionally, relevant information not scored by thermistors is obtained on flow-related respiratory events, thus increasing diagnostic accuracy.
Available from: Mirja Liisa Tenhunen
- "With this study we aim to discover the prevalence of obstructive and central sleep apnea as well as prolonged partial obstruction, among mild stroke and TIA patients in Finland. Prolonged partial obstruction is associated with continuous increase in respiratory resistance without apneas or hypopneas   . It is easily detected by the SCSB and the Emfit sensors, and its prevalence in stroke patients has not been previously studied. "
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ABSTRACT: In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging) in sleep disordered breathing (SDB) diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%). Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8%) and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%). Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry.
Available from: Daniel Navajas
Available from: atsjournals.org
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ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) can be accurately assessed in real-time by measuring respiratory impedance (|Z|) with the forced oscillation technique (FOT). The aims of the present study were: (1) to determine the feasibility of identifying the optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with SAHS based on analysis of the |Z| signal during conventional polysomnographic CPAP titration studies; and (2) to evaluate practical issues involved in the application of FOT during CPAP titration. We performed CPAP titration in 28 patients with SAHS during polysomnography (PSG) (14 nap and 14 full overnight studies) using a FOT system applied continuously to obtain an on-line measurement of |Z|. FOT was easily implemented and was well-tolerated by the patients. Optimal CPAP levels were determined both in the conventional manner from the standard PSG titration record and during a separate blinded analysis using the FOT signal alone. The mean conventional versus FOT-based optimal CPAP values were similar for both nap studies (10.6 +/- 0.6 [mean +/- SEM] versus 11.1 +/- 0.6 cm H(2)O, respectively, p = 0. 054) and overnight studies (9.9 +/- 0.7 versus 9.9 +/- 0.6 cm H(2)O, respectively, p = 1.00). Subsequent analysis of the PSG record with the FOT signal incorporated demonstrated that artefacts in the |Z| tracing occurred during mask leak, mouth breathing, and movement during arousal. Such abnormalities were readily identified from the flow tracing. These results indicate that, for adequate interpretation, the tracing and values of respiratory impedance obtained by FOT should be evaluated in conjunction with the flow signal. Continuous FOT-guided CPAP titration is feasible and may be a useful adjunct during manual titration. FOT could also potentially serve as the basis for automated CPAP in SAHS.
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