Article

The hindlimb in walking horses: 2. Net joint moments and joint powers

Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48854, USA.
Equine Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 2.37). 02/2001; 33(1):44-8. DOI: 10.2746/042516401776767359
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to describe net joint moments and joint powers in the equine hindlimb during walking. The subjects were 5 sound horses. Kinematic and force data were collected synchronously and combined with morphometric information to determine net joint moments at each hindlimb joint throughout stance and swing. The results showed that the net joint moment was on the caudal/plantar side of all hindlimb joints at the start of stance when the limb was being actively retracted. It moved to the cranial/dorsal side around 24% stride at the hip and stifle and in terminal stance at the more distal joints. It remained on the cranial/dorsal side of all joints during the first half of swing to provide active limb protraction, then moved to the caudal/plantar aspect to reverse the direction of limb motion prior to ground contact. The hip joint was the main source of energy generation throughout the stride. It was assisted by the tarsal joint in both stance and swing phases and by the fetlock joint during the stance phase. The coffin joint acted as an energy damper during stance, whereas the stifle joint absorbed almost equal amounts of energy in the stance and swing phases. The coffin and fetlock joints absorbed energy as the limb was protracted and retracted during the swing phase, suggesting that their movements were driven by inertial forces. Future studies will apply these findings to detect changes in the energy profiles due to specific soft tissue injuries.

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    • "One study used five ponies with mass 165– 240 kg (van den Bogert, 1989), while Buchner et al. (1997) published data for six Dutch Warmblood horses ranging from 470 to 620 kg. Both datasets have been used to determine regression models to allow the prediction of inertial parameters from measurements in live animals (Minetti et al. 1999; Clayton et al. 2001; Dutto et al. 2004) but the validity of extrapolating these estimates to horses of different breeds and sizes has not been tested. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    • "One study used five ponies with mass 165– 240 kg (van den Bogert, 1989), while Buchner et al. (1997) published data for six Dutch Warmblood horses ranging from 470 to 620 kg. Both datasets have been used to determine regression models to allow the prediction of inertial parameters from measurements in live animals (Minetti et al. 1999; Clayton et al. 2001; Dutto et al. 2004) but the validity of extrapolating these estimates to horses of different breeds and sizes has not been tested. "
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    ABSTRACT: Quantifying the dynamics of limb movements requires knowledge of the mass distribution between and within limb segments. We measured segment masses, positions of segmental center of mass and moments of inertia of the fore and hind limb segments for 38 horses of different breeds and sizes. After disarticulation by dissections, segments were weighed and the position of the center of mass was determined by suspension. Moment of inertia was measured using a trifilar pendulum. We found that mass distribution does not change with size for animals under 600 kg and report ratios of segmental masses to total body mass. For all segments, the scaling relationship between segmental mass and moment of inertia was predicted equally well or better by a 5/3 power fit than by the more classic mass multiplied by segmental length squared fit. Average values taken from previous studies generally confirmed our data but scaling relationships often needed to be revised. We did not detect an effect of morphotype on segment inertial properties. Differences in segmental inertial properties between published studies may depend more on segmental segmentation techniques than on size or body type of the horse.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Anatomy
    • "Equine research in biomechanics is evolving. Research in normal locomotion has included biomechanics of the hoof (Eliashar et al. 2002;van Heel et al. 2006), back (Haussler et al. 2001;Faber et al. 2001) and limbs (Clayton et al. 2000;Hodson et al. 2000;Clayton et al. 2001;Hodson et al. 2001). Equine research also encompasses muscle recruitment during locomotion using electromyography (Robert et al. 2002;Hoyt et al. 2005;Wickler et al. 2005). "

    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Equine Veterinary Journal
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