ArticleLiterature Review

Health Promotion Programs, Modifiable Health Risks, and Employee Absenteeism

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  • HealthPartners Institute
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Abstract

This literature review demonstrates that the health risks and failure of employees to participate in fitness and health promotion programs are associated with higher rates of employee absenteeism. When determining how to manage absenteeism, employers should carefully consider the impact that health promotion programs can have on rates of absenteeism and other employee-related expenses.

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... Health factors are also taken into account when building quality management systems [13]. Health as a part of human capital, and health preservation as an element of the corporate social responsibility system is considered in [14][15][16][17]. Assessment of health care system effectiveness at the macroeconomic level, analysis of the effectiveness of health preservation investments and their impact on economic growth are given in [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
... Diseases that can be controlled but not completely cured 3,8,11,16,19,21,22,29 Feeling unwell An employee health state, which does not allow them to fully carry out his labor activity 1, 9,10,13,14,17,27 Self-reported health as weak and unsatisfactory An employee's overall assessment of his health 2,4,5,7,15,18,24,26,28 Bad habits Habits that negatively affect employee health 12,25,30 ...
... 14 Has it become more difficult for you to concentrate now than in past years? 15 Are you worried about the weakening of memory, forgetfulness? 16 ...
Article
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The article considers the challenge of labor productivity growth in a company using objective data about economic, demographic and social factors and subjective information about an employees’ health quality. We propose the technology for labor productivity management based on the phased data processing and modeling of quantitative and qualitative data relations, which intended to provide decision making when planning trajectories for labor productivity growth. The technology is supposed to use statistical analysis and machine learning, to support management decision on planning health-saving strategies directed to increase labor productivity. It is proved that to solve the problem of employees’ clustering and design their homogeneous groups, it is properly to use the k-means method, which is more relevant and reliable compared to the clustering method based on Kohonen neural networks. We also test different methods for employees’ classification and predicting of a new employee labor productivity profile and demonstrate that over problem with a lot of qualitative variables, such as gender, education, health self-estimation the support vector machines method has higher accuracy.
... Occupational health management (OHM) aims to create safe and healthy work environments, to prevent injuries and work-related illnesses, and finally to support employees in developing and maintaining resources and building resilience (Aldana and Pronk 2001;Sonntag and Michel 2009;Tetrick and Campbell Quick 2011). Healthy employees experience mental, physical and social well-being and are able to cope with work demands and stressors (Reese 2009;Sonntag et al. 2012). ...
... Typical EHMP components include smoking cessation, stress management, weight control, exercise and fitness, health risk appraisal, high blood pressure detection, nutrition education, prevention of back problems, and accident prevention activities" (Wolfe et al. 1994, p. 23). This health promotion activities should help participants to decrease health risks and prevent the start of diseases (Aldana and Pronk 2001). A recent literature review assessed the effectiveness of health promotion interventions (Kramer et al. 2009). ...
... Nine studies on the effects of health promotion program participation on absenteeism, including data from more than 68,000 employees, were reviewed by Aldana and Pronk (2001). The authors concluded that there was low-to-moderate association of program participation and absenteeism. ...
Book
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This book is designed to help practitioners and academics to assess the added value of HR practices. It provides hands-on recommendations for choosing effective means to manage HR and specific suggestions aimed at facilitating the measurement of HR practices’ impact on value creation. Evidence-based recommendations are made by drawing on thorough empirical research from various research traditions and academic disciplines. It covers a wide variety of tasks faced by the HR function and specifically addresses new challenges such as assessing the added value of work-life balance practices.
... In this context, the meal is a reason of conviviality and social relationship: food type and availability, associated to physical inactivity, can lead the employee to have a high caloric intake, not justified by energy consumption (4); furthermore, diets are often rich in fat, poor in fiber and do not respect the proper nutritional requirements necessary to workers (4). Some studies show how the majority of people working in the petrochemical industry is overweight or obese and have an increased cardiovascular risk and these problems affect worker quality of life and productivity (13)(14)(15)(16). ...
... Something similar has been found on employees cholesterol levels. Studies have demonstrated employees with cholesterol levels greater than 220 mg/dL spent 11% more time absent from work; while there are no significant differences between employees normo-and hypertensive (13,17). Finally, some articles have shown a directly proportional relationship between the number of risk factors for employees and absenteeism (13,17). ...
... Studies have demonstrated employees with cholesterol levels greater than 220 mg/dL spent 11% more time absent from work; while there are no significant differences between employees normo-and hypertensive (13,17). Finally, some articles have shown a directly proportional relationship between the number of risk factors for employees and absenteeism (13,17). ...
Article
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Objectives: The study aim was to examine the trend of major clinical biochemistry factors associated with cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia onset over a 10-year period (2000-2010) in Oil and Gas workers. Methods: The information extracted from "Computerized management of individual medical services database" regarding 439 Italian workers of an oil and gas company were analysed. Results: A constant and significant increase of the average Body Mass Index and serum cholesterol were found, and in particular in workers < 36 years: BMI was 24.4 (2000) and 25.8 (2010) with p < 0.001, and cholesterol was 188.3 mg/dL (2000) and 206.5 mg/dL (2010) with p < 0.001. Conclusion: Analysed variables are the most important risk factor for cardiovascular, neurological and neoplastic diseases, as well as they reduce life expectancy. Occupational medicine in particular in extreme working environmental conditions, such as for workers in oil and gas companies, monitoring health status and promoting healthy life style, has a strategic role to perform cost-effective strategies to reduce health risks, thus improving the workers lifestyle.
... Generally, health promotion programs are having some success in reducing employee health risks, but changing human lifestyles is really an arduous assignment [14,21]. ...
... PA and multidisciplinary interventions (e.g. diet and ergonomics) seem to have a positive effect on the prevention of some MSDs, and comprehensive treatment interventions seem have an effect on sick leave, costs and prevention of new episodes of pain and physical discomfort and consequently MSDs [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. It appears that there are advantages in adopting active lifestyles, both at individual and professional/employment [14,20]. ...
Article
Objectives: To review the effectiveness of Physical Activity (PA) interventions in the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal pain in employees. Methods: Four databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched for trials among employees for the period of January 1990 and March 2013, which included comparison groups that assessed physical activity programs, musculoskeletal pain. We examined articles with comparison groups that assessed Physical Activity programs and musculoskeletal pain. Results: We can see in the several studies a significant evidence of pain decrease in intervention groups in studies of general pain and in neck and shoulder pain. The few studies covering low back pain and arms, elbows, wrists, hands or fingers pain do not present sufficient statistical significant evidence. Conclusion: There is consistent evidence that workplace PA interventions significantly reduce general musculoskeletal pain and neck and shoulders pain. More studies are required to provide clarification of the effectiveness of work related PA interventions in musculoskeletal disorders and related pain.
... The abolition of the insurance changed firms' incentives. Firms can influence the level of sickness absences of their employees primarily by investing in health promotion (Aldana and Pronk, 2001) or by enforcing stricter monitoring (Heywood and Jirjahn, 2004). When firms are (partly) insured against the absences of their blue-collar workers, the insurance might lead to inefficient levels of monitoring and prevention. ...
... Different transmission mechanisms might explain this result. Firms might have reacted to the reform by investing in health promotion (Aldana and Pronk, 2001) or by enforcing stricter monitoring (Heywood and Jirjahn, 2004). They might also have changed their hiring policies to select a healthier workforce, but it is also possible that changes in workers' behaviour were the source of the observed reduction in absences. ...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the impact of a social security reform that changed the costs incurred by firms due to sickness absences. The reform abolished a compulsory insurance for firms which insured them against the wages paid to sick blue‐collar workers. During the first year after its introduction, we estimate that the reform resulted in about 6.3\% fewer sickness absences, and in about 8.6\% fewer absence days. We do not find evidence for changes in hiring or firing, and we find only limited workforce composition changes. We do not find spill‐over effects on the absences of white‐collar workers. Robustness checks confirm these results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Generally, health promotion programs are having some success in reducing employee health risks, but changing human lifestyles is really an arduous assignment [14,21]. ...
... PA and multidisciplinary interventions (e.g. diet and ergonomics) seem to have a positive effect on the prevention of some MSDs, and comprehensive treatment interventions seem have an effect on sick leave, costs and prevention of new episodes of pain and physical discomfort and consequently MSDs [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. It appears that there are advantages in adopting active lifestyles, both at individual and professional/employment [14,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To review the effectiveness of Physical Activity (PA) interventions in the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal pain in employees.Methods: Four databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched for trials among employees for the period of January 1990 and March 2013, which included comparison groups that assessed physical activity programs, musculoskeletal pain. We examined articles with comparison groups that assessed Physical Activity programs and musculoskeletal pain.Results: We can see in the several studies a significant evidence of pain decrease in intervention groups in studies of general pain and in neck and shoulder pain. The few studies covering low back pain and arms, elbows, wrists, hands or fingers pain do not present sufficient statistical significant evidence.Conclusion: There is consistent evidence that workplace PA interventions significantly reduce general musculoskeletal pain and neck and shoulders pain. More studies are required to provide clarification of the effectiveness of work related PA interventions in musculoskeletal disorders and related pain.
... Therefore, people in a state of epidemic lockdown could adopt more physical activity to push them towards a more active lifestyle and frequently change their sitting and standing postures to increase physical energy expenditure [52]. In addition, in the future it could be recommended to monitor people's physical activity by remote means [53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People were isolated at home during the COVID-19 pandemic and were restricted from going outside, leaving them with the option of physical activity at home. The purpose of this paper is to examine how home isolation during an epidemic changes adult lifestyle and health behaviors and the role of physical activity during home isolation in improving adult dysphoria. Methods: Four major databases were searched and the 21 final included papers on home physical activity during the epidemic were evaluated. The literature was analyzed and evaluated using generalization, summarization, analysis, and evaluation methods. The findings revealed that home isolation during the epidemic changed the lifestyle and physical activity behavior of adults. Participation in physical activity varied among different levels of the population during home isolation for the epidemic. In addition, physical activity in home isolation during the epidemic helped improve adults’ poor mood. The negative impact of prolonged home isolation on the health of the global population cannot be ignored, and more encouragement should be given to diversified indoor physical activities to maintain physical and mental health. In addition, there is a need to develop more personalized technology tools for physical activity supervision regarding use.
... La división del trabajo en sectores y la consecuente obligación de los trabajadores a realizar tareas de forma repetitiva durante la jornada laboral o trabajar durante períodos prolongados de tiempo en una sola postura, genera varios tipos de trastornos a nivel general, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) caracterizó las lesiones relacionadas con el trabajo como enfermedades multifactoriales porque involucran una amplia gama de etiologías y factores de riesgo (por ejemplo, ergonómico, organización del trabajo, lugar de trabajo, medio ambiente, físico, psicológico y social. [1] Los trastornos musculoesqueléticos relacionados con el trabajo (TME) son lesiones o disfunciones que afectan a músculos, huesos, nervios, tendones, ligamentos, articulaciones, cartílagos y discos espinales, que incluyen esguinces, distensiones, desgarros y lesiones del tejido conectivo [2]. En este contexto, la salud musculo-esquelética no solo representa trastornos, sino también modificaciones fisiológicas repetidas asociadas con la edad en músculos, huesos y función articular, además del rendimiento relacionado con su capacidad de ejecución (por ejemplo, fuerza, movilidad y aumento de la masa muscular). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is related to the working day is one of the most important factors and with the greatest influence on our state of mind and well-being, illnesses caused by work activities are more frequent and closely linked to absenteeism in the day, a low mood as well as well as health, affecting in a general way, the worker’s lifestyle, which leads to a labor problem for the employer, for this reason this review article focused on the evaluation of the incorporation of physical activity in this exercise, the same that brings benefits to the employer and the employee, by guaranteeing and generating a better quality of life and improving the image of the company by focusing on raising awareness of the health of its staff, within this review evaluated case studies are presented in Ecuador, the same ones that confirm that the addition of physical activity brings positive effects on occupational health.
... How can managers then affect employee sickness absence? Earlier literature have discussed preventive work environment measures including both health promoting policies (Aldana and Pronk 2001) and efforts to monitor that employees do not overuse their right to report sick (Heywood and Jirjahn 2004). It is also possible that managers' attitudes to sickness absence could affect norms regarding absence at the workplace. ...
... 9 A different 2009 literature review on absenteeism focused on health risks (body mass index [BMI], cholesterol, stress, physical activity, and hypertension) and identified only 4 articles that reported estimates for hypertension. 12 Other economic reviews have focused on specific health risks and conditions, such as, obesity, 13,14 physical inactivity, 15,16 and diabetes. 17 The present study will be the first review to focus on hypertension-associated productivity loss aiming at determining the types and the extent of these productivity losses for U.S. adults. ...
Article
A literature review of peer-reviewed articles published 2000-2019 was conducted to determine the types and extent of hypertension-associated productivity loss among adults in the United States. All monetary outcomes were standardized to 2019 $ by using the Employment Cost Index. Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Nearly half of the articles (12 articles) presented monetary outcomes of productivity loss. Absenteeism (14 articles) and presenteeism (8 articles) were most frequently assessed. Annual absenteeism was estimated to cost more than $11 billion, nationally controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The annual additional costs per person were estimated at $63 for short-term disability, $72-$330 for absenteeism, and $53-$156 for presenteeism, controlling for participant characteristics; and may be as high as $2362 for absenteeism and presenteeism when considered in combination. The annual additional time loss per person was estimated as 1.3 days for absenteeism, controlling for common hypertension comorbidities, including stroke and diabetes; and 15.6 days for work and home productivity loss combined, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The loss from absenteeism alone might be more than 20% of the total medical expenditure of hypertension. Although the differences in estimation methods and study populations make it challenging to synthesize the costs across the studies, this review provides detailed information on the various types of productivity loss. In addition, the ways in which methods could be standardized for future research are discussed. Accounting for the costs from productivity loss can help public health officials, health insurers, employers, and researchers better understand the economic burden of hypertension.
... The results of our study reported an increase in sedentary time among home workers; it is well known that an increase in sedentary behaviors is among the most important public health factors due to their unfavorable physical and mental health impacts [29][30][31][32]. Employers should preserve employees' health, thus increasing work productivity and preventing sick days [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, human lifestyles and occupational settings have changed in the workplace. This survey explores associations of home working employment and related physical activity (PA-MET min/week). Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted between March 2020 and March 2021. A standardized method for assessing PA and sedentary time, the Italian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), was used through the Microsoft Forms® platform for self-administering the questionnaire. Baseline data were collected, and four follow-ups were performed; a full calendar year was observed. Results: In total, 310 home workers were recruited in this investigation. The average body mass index (BMI- kg/m2) was 21.4 ± 4.2 at baseline. The value increased at the first follow-up and fluctuated in the other recalls. The t-test of MET values of the four activities (Total PA, Vigorous-intensity activity, Moderate-intensity activity, Walking) show similar results; the total PA, at baseline 275.7 ± 138.6, decreased statistically significantly at the first (198.5 ± 84.6), third (174.9 ± 98.4), and fourth (188.7 ± 78.5) follow-ups, while it increased statistically significantly at the second follow-up (307.1 ± 106.1) compared to the baseline. Sedentary time was constant until the second follow-up, while it increased statistically significantly at the 3rd and 4th follow-up. Conclusion: workers involved reduced and reorganized their PA during this pandemic year. Each business company should intervene to improve the PA levels of workers and reduce sedentary behavior in the workplace.
... A direction for finding a possible solution stemmed from the fact that as much as 20% of the working-age population in the OECD countries suffers from common mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression disorders [3], and timely application of preventive measures is crucial in avoiding transition to long-term illness and disability [1]. Interventions in the form of health management or wellness programs have a long history and several meta-analytic studies have reported strong evidence of their effectiveness at reducing employee absenteeism [4][5][6]. Examples of such interventions can include individual fitness program, stress-management seminars, private or group therapy sessions, and work flexibility arrangements, to name a few. ...
Article
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This paper describes a decision support system designed for a Belgian Human Resource (HR) and Well-Being Service Provider. Their goal is to improve health and well-being in the workplace, and to this end, the task is to identify groups of employees at risk of sickness absence who can then be targeted with interventions aiming to reduce or prevent absences. To facilitate deployment, we apply a range of existing machine-learning methods to obtain predictions at monthly intervals using real HR and payroll data that contains no health-related predictors. We model employee absence as a binary classification problem with loss asymmetry and conceptualise a misclassification cost matrix of employee sickness absence. Model performance is evaluated using cost-based metrics, which have intuitive interpretation. We also demonstrate how this problem can be approached when costs are unknown. The proposed flexible evaluation procedure is not restricted to a specific model or domain and can be applied to address other HR analytics questions when deployed.
... A central objective of worksite health promotion (WHP) is to prevent health risk accumulation among the working age population. Earlier, mostly cross-sectional studies indicate that poor employee health (e.g., depression, high stress, high body mass index (BMI), musculoskeletal problems, heavy use of alcohol, sedentary lifestyle) is associated with increased medical and pharmacy claim costs [1][2][3][4], reduced productivity [5][6][7][8][9], and absenteeism [7,10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that workplace health promotion (WHP) efforts can positively affect employees' health risk accumulation. However, earlier literature has provided insights of health risk changes in the short-term. This prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental study investigated trends in health risks of a comprehensive, eight-year WHP program (n = 523-651). Health risk data were collected from health risk assessments in applying both a questionnaire and biometric screenings. Health risk changes were investigated for three different time-periods using descriptive analyses, t-tests, and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar's test, where appropriate. Overall health risk transitions were assessed according to low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories. Trend analyses observed 50-60% prevalence for low-, 30-35% for moderate-, and 9-11% high-risk levels across the eight years. In the overall health risk transitions of the three time-periods, 66-73% of participants stayed at the same risk level, 13-15% of participants improved, and 12-21% had deteriorated risk level across the three intervention periods. Our findings appear to indicate that the multiyear WHP program was effective in maintaining low and moderate risk levels, but fell short of reducing the total number of health risks at the population level.
... Increases in sedentary behavior are of major public health concern due to its known adverse effects on physical and mental health (2,3). Employers have a duty to preserve the health of their employees, which may also be associated with productivity and days lost to illness in the workplace (15). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, major changes to how, or even whether, we work have occurred. This study examines associations of changing COVID-19-related employment conditions with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods: Data from 2,303 US adults in employment prior to COVID-19 were collected April 3rd-7th, 2020. Participants reported whether their employment remained unchanged, they were working from home (WFH) when they had not been before, or they lost their job due to the pandemic. Validated questionnaires assessed physical activity, sitting time, and screen time. Linear regression quantified associations of COVID-19-related employment changes with physical activity, sitting time, and screen time, controlling for age, sex, race, BMI, smoking status, marital status, chronic conditions, household location, public health restrictions, and recalled physical activity, sitting time, and screen time prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Compared to those whose employment remained unchanged, participants whose employment changed (either WFH or lost their job) due to COVID-19 reported higher sitting time (WFH: g = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.095-0.210; lost job: g = 0.212, 0.113-0.311) and screen time (WFH: g = 0.158, 0.104-0.212; lost job: g = 0.193, 0.102-0.285). There were no significant group differences for physical activity (WFH: g = -0.030, -0.101 to 0.042; lost job: g=-0.070, -0.178 to 0.037). Conclusion: COVID-19 related employment changes were associated with greater sitting and screen time. As sedentary time is consistently negatively associated with current and future health and wellbeing, increased sedentary time due to employment changes is a public health concern.
... Background A central objective of worksite health promotion (WHP) is to prevent health risk accumulation among the working age population. Earlier, mostly cross-sectional studies indicate that poor employee health is associated with increased medical and pharmacy claim costs [1][2][3][4], reduced productivity [5][6][7][8][9] and absenteeism [7,10]. ...
Preprint
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Background This prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental study investigated trends in health risks of a multiyear comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) program. Methods A comprehensive, eight-year WHP program was implemented emphasizing lifestyle behaviors as key targets in 2010-2013 and environmental supports focused on stress management and mental health resources in 2014-2017. Health risk data was collected from health risk assessments, applying both a questionnaire and biometric screenings. Health risk trends were analyzed for the three time points 2010-2011, 2013-2014 and 2016-2017. Single health risk changes were investigated for three different cohorts using descriptive analyses, t-test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar´s test where appropriate. Overall health risk transitions were assessed according to low, moderate and high risk categories. Results Trend analyses observed 50-60% prevalence for low, 30-35% for moderate and 9-11% high risk levels across the eight years. In the overall health risk transitions of the three cohorts, 66-73% of participants stayed at the same risk level, 13-15% of participants improved, and 12-21% deteriorated their risk level across the three intervention periods. Conclusion Our findings appear to indicate that the multiyear WHP program was effective in slowing the accumulation of measured health risks but fell short of reducing the number of health risks at the population level. In context of expected age-related health risk changes over time, this comprehensive multi-year WHP program was able to generate modest but important shifts in population health risk profiles.
... One study identified an average saving of about $ 5 for every dollar spent on implementing a worker's wellness program. In addition, the same study observed a 14% reduction in days lost due to illness or disability following the implementation of the program (Aldana and Pronk, 2001). ...
... The study of mediation factors is important because it allows us to understand the mechanisms through which safety climate operates on workers' behaviour and reduces the risk of injury (Liu et al., 2015). Occupational health management desires to fulfil safe and healthy work environment by preventing work related illness and injuries and thereby supporting the employees to develop and maintain the resource (Aldana and Pronk, 2001;Sonntag and Michel, 2009;Tetrick and Campbell Quick, 2011). Combining the interventions related to health promotions and describe the principles to implement and organise occupational health management can result in the outcomes like employee well-being or absenteeism and other economic outcomes (Sonntag and Stegmaier, 2015). ...
... Algunos estudios específicamente centrados en intervenciones de AF en el ambiente de trabajo han mostrado que, en general, se reduce el absentismo laboral (10,11,12) , sin embargo otros estudios no lo han confirmado (13,14,15) o bien los efectos encontrados son discretos (16) . Por tanto, es necesario un análisis de información más detallado sobre el absentismo laboral relacionado con enfermedad y para determinar qué relación existe con el nivel de actividad física. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical Activity (PA) programs have been suggested to lower absenteeism due to illness in sedentary employees. This review examines available scientific literature in order to study PA effects in workplace absenteeism, considering the program design. Methods: A search through 4 databases (Medline, Sportdiscus, Web of Science and Embase), from inception to December 2017, was conducted to identify control intervention and observational studies about PA and absenteeism published in either English or Spanish language using PRISMA procedures. Results: A total of 10 published studies between 1981 and 2017 met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from the review suggests that PA is effective in reducing illness-related absence. Likelihood of being off from the workplace reported with sedentary workers reach more probabilities when compared with exercisers. Conclusions: General PA is considered paramount in order to lower employees’ absenteeism, which could be more related to vigorous training. However, there is a lack of rigorous and more specific studies about the issue. More focused on the PA effect on absenteeism, adjusted by intervention variables, research would be desirable.
... Keywords: best practices, health and well-being, health promotion, organizational and leadership support, scorecard E mployers are increasingly aware of the benefits that workplace health and well-being (HWB) initiatives bring to their employees and the organization, including improved physical, mental, and emotional health and productivity, 1-3 as well as reduced health care costs and absenteeism. 1,2 There are a number of well-established tools available that employers can use to measure the effectiveness of their workplace HWB initiatives and identify opportunities for improvement. [3][4][5][6][7][8] For research purposes, however, more concise tools may play a valuable role in advancing the science of workplace HWB programs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To explore the factor structure of the HERO Scorecard to develop a reduced version and examine the reliability and validity of that version. Methods: A reduced version of the HERO Scorecard was developed through formal statistical analyses on data collected from 845 organizations that completed the original HERO Scorecard. Results: The final factors in the reduced Scorecard represented content pertaining to Organizational & Leadership Support, Program Comprehensiveness, Program Integration, and Incentives. All four implemented practices were found to have a strong, statistically significant effect on Perceived Effectiveness. Organizational & Leadership Support had the strongest effect (β = 0.56), followed by Incentives (β = 0.23). Conclusion: The condensed version of the HERO Scorecard has the potential to be a promising tool for future research on the extent to which employers are adopting best practices in their HWB initiatives.
... Se debe tener en cuenta que la edad no se relaciona con el ausentismo laboral, en cambio a mayor tiempo de servicio es mayor el ausentismo. Contrario a este 20 . Los trabajadores casados tienen mayor probabilidad de ausentarse que el resto de trabajadores, encontrando también diferencia con trabajadores que viven en unión libre, los cuales en esencia se deberían comportar de la misma forma que los trabajadores con estado civil casado. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Introducción Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen la primera causa de muerte en el mundo. Este fenómeno se atribuye a estilos de vida, tales como sedentarismo, ingesta de alimentos con elevado valor calórico, consumo de alcohol y tabaco, que traen como resultado el aumento en frecuencias de obesidad, dislipidemias e hipertensión, convirtiéndose así en factores de riesgo que inciden directamente sobre la prevalencia de enfermedad y muerte de origen cardiovascular, que, por ende, representan una carga importante para la salud en población trabajadora. Objetivo Determinar los factores asociados con la enfermedad cardiovascular y su relación con el ausentismo laboral de los trabajadores de una entidad oficial en la ciudad de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos Estudio descriptivo en el que se emplearon registros de 214 trabajadores, incluidas variables sociodemográficas, clínicas-cardiovasculares y laborales. Se efectuó un análisis de las variables independientes y el desenlace, y se planteó un modelo de regresión logística, teniendo como variable dependiente el ausentismo laboral. Resultados Las prevalencias de la muestra fueron: tabaquismo, 13.1%; consumo de alcohol, 35.1%; sedentarismo, 39.7%; trabajadores con sobrepeso u obesidad, 54.2% y colesterol total elevado, 43.9%. El 29.9% recibía tratamiento para la hipertensión, 4.7% para la diabetes y 21.5% para las dislipidemias. Conclusión La prevalencia de factores de riesgo asociados a la enfermedad cardiovascular es similar a la encontrada en otros estudios de población trabajadora. El modelo de regresión logística encontró que las variables estado civil casado, obesidad, tratamiento para la hipertensión, estadio de presión arterial diastólica y tiempo de servicio se comportan como variables predictoras del ausentismo laboral.
... Workers are absent from work for other reasons that include ill-health, accidents, injuries, family commitments such as caring for a sick family member, 'entitlement mentality' (where the worker assumes the employer owes them some time away from work), economic pressures necessitating keeping a second job and stress (Ian, 1995). Absenteeism is also influenced by the physical demands of the job such as standing or squatting to work, bending of the neck and back, carrying, lifting or pushing heavy loads and psychosocial factors such as job demands, excess workload, inability to cope, job dissatisfaction, social support, attitude of management and other conditions of the workplace such as level of pay, leave, holidays, access to training, regular performance reviews and allowances (Circadian Technologies, 2005;Luz and Green, 1997;Greiner et al., 1998;White et al., 2001;Frank, 1998;Aldana and Pronk, 2001;Andrea et al., 2003;Gimeno et al., 2004;Balfanz and Byrnes, 2019). ...
... 13 See e.g., Howard and Potter (2012) Aldana and Pronk (2001). 14 We concede that proxies for human capital accumulation may instead serve as a proxy for discrimination in promotion, and that measures of health may be endogenous to wages. ...
Article
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A substantial literature has established that obesity is negatively associated with wages, particularly among females. However, prior research has found limited evidence for the factors hypothesized to underlie the obesity wage penalty. We add to the literature using data from IT workers at a U.S. Fortune 500 firm that provides us with direct measures of employee income and BMI, and health measures that are unavailable in national-level datasets. Our estimates indicate that the wage-obesity penalty among females only occurs among obese mothers, and is not attributable to differences in health or human capital that may be caused by having children. Published: Online November 2018.
... Algunos estudios específicamente centrados en intervenciones de AF en el ambiente de trabajo han mostrado que, en general, se reduce el absentismo laboral (10,11,12) , sin embargo otros estudios no lo han confirmado (13,14,15) o bien los efectos encontrados son discretos (16) . Por tanto, es necesario un análisis de información más detallado sobre el absentismo laboral relacionado con enfermedad y para determinar qué relación existe con el nivel de actividad física. ...
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RESUMEN Fundamentos: Se ha sugerido que los programas de actividad física (AF) podrían reducir el absentismo laboral por motivos de enfermedad en trabajadores sedentarios. Esta revisión tuvo como objetivo examinar la evidencia científica disponible para estudiar los efectos de la AF sobre el absentismo laboral teniendo en consideración el diseño del programa de AF. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en 4 bases de datos (Medline, Sportdiscus, Web of Science y Embase) de ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales publicados sobre AF y absentismo laboral, en in-glés y en español, desde el inicio de indización hasta diciembre de 2017, utilizando la metodología PRISMA. Resultados: Un total de 10 estudios publicados cumplieron con los cri-terios de elegibilidad establecidos. Las evidencias encontradas en la revisión sugieren que la AF es efectiva como medida para reducir el absentismo la-boral por motivos de enfermedad. En general, los estudios señalaron que se observan mayores probabilidades de ausentarse del trabajo en trabajadores sedentarios que en los físicamente activos. Conclusiones: La AF en general parece disminuir el absentismo la-boral. En concreto, la AF vigorosa podría obtener mejores resultados que la realizada a intensidad moderada, aunque faltan estudios de intervención más rigurosos y específicos, con un mayor control sobre las variables de intervención. Palabras clave: Actividad física, Absentismo laboral, Trabajadores, Absentismo debido a enfermedad. ABSTRACT Physical activity as a tool to reduce disease-related work absenteeism in sedentary employees: A systematic review Background: Physical Activity (PA) programs have been suggested to lower absenteeism due to illness in sedentary employees. The aim of this review was to examine available scientific literature in order to study PA effects in workplace absenteeism taking the program design into consideration. Methods: A search through 4 databases (Medline, Sportdiscus, Web of Science and Embase), from inception to December 2017, was conducted to identify control intervention and observational studies about PA and absenteeism published in either English or Spanish language using PRISMA procedures. Results: A total of 10 published studies between 1981 and 2017 met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from the review suggested that PA is effective in reducing illness-related absence. Likelihood of being off from workplace reported with sedentary workers reach more probabilities when compared with exercisers. Conclusions: General PA is considered paramount in order to lower employees' absenteeism, which could be more related to vigorous training. However, there is a lack of rigorous and more specific studies about the issue. More focused on PA effect on absenteeism, adjusted by intervention variables, research would be desirable.
... Worksite physical activity interventions represent an attractive, cost-effective investment for employers through improved healthcare costs, rates of absenteeism, and worker productivity [8,9]. While eliminating many of the barriers that prevent adults from being physically active in the first place (e.g., lack of social support, limited access to resources) [10][11][12], a worksite physical activity intervention in the university setting-a traditionally underrepresented population [13]-also provides the unique environmental opportunity to minimize start-up costs through use of existing facilities and equipment (e.g., gymnasiums, health and physical education equipment) [14]. ...
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Background To determine the effectiveness of a low-cost 12-week worksite physical activity intervention targeting a goal of 10,000 steps per day on reducing anthropometric indices, blood pressure indices, and plasma biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among the employees of a major university. Methods Fifty university employees (n = 43 female, n = 7 male; mean age = 48 ± 10 years) participated in the 12-week physical activity intervention (60 min, 3 day/week). Each session included both aerobic (cardiorespiratory endurance) and muscle-strengthening (resistance) physical activity using existing university facilities and equipment. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure indices, and plasma biomarkers of CVD risk assessed included those for obesity (body mass index), hypertension (systolic blood pressure, SBP; diastolic blood pressure, DBP), dyslipidemia (high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; total serum cholesterol), and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, IFG). Steps per day were assessed using a wrist-worn activity monitor. Participants were given the goal of 10,000 steps per day and categorized as either compliers (≥ 10,000 steps per day on average) or non-compliers (< 10,000 steps per day on average) based on their ability to achieve this goal. ResultsOverall, 34% of participants at baseline were already at an elevated risk of CVD due to age. On average, 28% of participants adhered to the goal of 10,000 steps per day. After 12-weeks, participants in both groups (compliers and non-compliers) had lower BMI scores (p < 0.001), lower HDL scores (p < 0.034), and higher IFG scores (p < 0.001). The non-compliers had a greater reduction of BMI scores than the compliers (p = 0.003). Participants at risk for CVD had greater reductions than those not at risk for several risk factors, including SBP (p = 0.020), DBP (p = 0.028), IFG (p = 0.002), LDL (p = 0.006), and total serum cholesterol (p = 0.009). Conclusion While the physical activity intervention showed mixed results overall with both favorable changes in anthropometric indices yet unfavorable changes in plasma biomarkers, it was particularly beneficial in regards to both blood pressure indices and plasma biomarkers among those already at risk of CVD.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03385447; retrospectively registered
... These health states impair the working capacity of considerable employees and thus shrink the productivity (Stewart, Ricci, Chee & Morganstein, 2003). Employee productivity can be enhanced by promoting and encouraging quality healthcare plans by the enterprises along with cost reduction, decreased turnover and better image of the firm (Aldana & Pronk, 2001). ...
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The research is conducted with a view to bring into attention the current global concern of healthcare. This study draws the attention towards the contribution in healthcare of individuals employed in the firm from the perspective of board of directors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the modern healthcare strategies that are influenced by the board of directors in the corporation for attaining better productivity of workforce while controlling and monitoring the cost of wellness. The strategies reviewed and recommended aid the apprehension for rising healthcare cost and provision of employee health insurance coverage. The conclusions and recommendations are supportive for the board of directors, decision makers and corporations. However, the selection of strategy should be made with further investigation of organization structure, size and employee preferences.
... 6,7 Increased health insurance costs, medical claims, workers compensation claims, and disability benefit payments are also higher among those who are obese. 6,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Obese workers experience the greatest work-related limitations especially with time needed to complete tasks and physical job demands, 6 and are also more likely to have significantly more visits to their physician and emergency rooms, and higher hospitalizations than their normal-weight counterparts. 15,17,18 Specific industries and occupations are linked to risk of obesity among adults. ...
Article
Objective: This study evaluated the cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with weight status among hospital employees. Methods: A total of n = 924 employees across the six hospitals in Texas participated in this cross-sectional study, 2012 to 2013. Association between weight status and waist circumference, blood pressure, biomarkers, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial factors was assessed. Results: About 78.1% of employees were overweight/obese. Obese participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥30.0 kg/m²) had higher consumption of potatoes, fats, sugary beverages, and spent more time watching television, playing computer games, and sitting than those having normal weight. Being obese was positively associated with blood pressure, blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. Finally, 78.8% of workers were dissatisfied with their worksite wellness with dissatisfaction being higher among obese employees. Being overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m²) was positively associated with blood pressure, but not other variables. Conclusion: Understanding the risk profile of hospital workers is critical to developing effective interventions.
... Overweight individuals are perceived as being unhealthy and less energetic (Crandall, 1994;Hebl, King, & Lin, 2004), and receive fewer employment opportunities, fewer promotions, and lower salaries than average-weight individuals (Pingitore, Dugoni, Tindale, & Spring, 1994). Overweight employees also drive a disproportionate amount of health-care costs for organizations, such as higher rates of absenteeism (Aldana & Pronk, 2001;Leigh, 1991;Tucker & Friedman, 1998) and work-related injuries (Bhattacherjee et al., 2003). Organizations are taking steps to reward employees for adopting or maintaining a healthy lifestyle in order to minimize those costs. ...
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ABSTRACT The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of the state of diversity in management literature, including the most recent conceptualizations and measures developed for studying diversity among individuals within organizations. Background on the theoretical and empirical development of surface- level and deep-level diversity is provided. Turning then to separation, variety, and disparity, the chapter will discuss the meaning, form, and assumptions underlying each type of diversity, and offers guidelines for conceptualization, measurement, and theory testing of each. The authors summarize the findings and suggest ideas for future research to move the diverse diversity field forward. Key Words: diversity, surface-level diversity, deep-level diversity, organizational behavior
... Adopting active lifestyles has advantages for both individuals and their professional and employment statuses (Conn, Hafdahl, Cooper, Brown, & Lusk, 2009). Generally, health promotion programs successfully reduce employee health risks, but changing human lifestyles is arduous (Aldana & Pronk, 2001). ...
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This article reviews the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) interventions at the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal pain among employees and assesses the effect size of these programs using meta-analysis. Four databases (i.e., PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched for research trials, which included comparison groups of employees that assessed PA programs, musculoskeletal pain, and health-related behaviors, published between January 1990 and March 2013. The meta-analysis estimates of standardized mean differences (Hedges’ g) present significant evidence of less general pain (g = −.40 with a 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.78, −0.02]) and neck and shoulder pain (g = −.37 with a 95% CI = [−0.63, −0.12]) in intervention groups. The few studies of low back pain and arm, elbow, wrist, hand, or finger pain did not present sufficient statistically significant evidence. Consistent evidence demonstrates that workplace PA interventions significantly reduce general musculoskeletal pain and neck and shoulder pain. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of work-related PA interventions for arm, elbow, wrist, hand or finger, and low back pain.
... Several mechanisms may underlie the occupation-obesity relationship [11,12]. For instance, obesity may be directly related to occupation through job-related characteristics such as sedentary time (versus physical activity demands), the workplace food environment, work-related stress including job strain, rotating/night shift work, and chemical exposures [13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Individuals working under high-demand, low-control conditions with an effort-reward imbalance are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease [20], and obesity may be an important contributor. ...
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Background: Obesity is associated with increased morbidity, occupational injuries, and premature mortality. Obesity also disproportionately affects blacks and socioeconomically disadvantaged workers. However, few studies have evaluated national trends of obesity by employment industry overall and especially by race. Methods: To investigate national trends of obesity by employment industry overall and by race, we estimated the age-standardized obesity prevalence from 2004 to 2011. We used direct age-standardization with the 2000 US Census population as the standard among 136,923 adults in the US National Health Interview Survey. We also estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity in black women and men compared to their white counterparts for each employment industry using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Results: Obesity prevalence increased for men and women over the study period across all employment industry categories, and the healthcare industry had the highest overall age-standardized prevalence (30 %). Black women had a significantly higher obesity prevalence than white women across all employment industry categories, ranging from 33 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.16,1.52) in Professional/Management to 74 % in Education (95 % CI: 1.56,1.93). Obesity prevalence was higher among black than white men for Healthcare (PR = 1.39 [1.15,1.69]), Education (PR = 1.39 [1.17,1.67]), Public Administration (PR = 1.34 [1.20,1.49]), and Manufacturing (PR = 1.19 [1.11,1.27]). Differences in obesity prevalence by race were generally widest in professional/management occupations. Conclusions: Obesity trends varied substantially overall as well as within and between race-gender groups across employment industries. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigation of racial and sociocultural disparities in the work-obesity relationship to employ strategies designed to address these disparities while improving health among all US workers. Further research and interventions among workers in industries with an increasing or high prevalence of obesity should be prioritized.
... 3,4 Specific to the workplace, obesity rates among US workers have doubled over the past three decades 5 and the condition carries a significant financial burden due to both direct and indirect costs. 3,4,[6][7][8] Thus far, efforts designed to abate the obesity challenge have struggled to provide clear-cut answers for the workplace setting. In general, specific interventions have generated small effect sizes when considering outcomes at the population level and no single solution creates sufficient effect size to reverse trends in obesity among workers. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of the study was to address the need for explicit recognition that obesity is complex in its biological, social, psychological, and societal determinants and ramifications, and that applications of programs to address obesity at the workplace need to recognize this setting as a complex social environment. Efforts to address this complexity more meaningfully demand intentional application of systems science principles and approaches. Method: Along with several relevant examples, a description of systems sciences and the application of its principles to obesity and the workplace setting are presented. Conclusions: Systems science provides a method to explore large proportions of unexplored potential and unexplained variation in obesity research as applied to the workplace.
... 3,4 Furthermore, researchers established a relationship between increased health risk and poor physical health with reduced productivity in the form of absenteeism and more recently presenteeism. [5][6][7] Not only has more health risks been associated with higher absenteeism and presenteeism, but changes in health risk have shown to be associated with presenteeism change over time, making health risk a recognized opportunity for employers who wish to improve productivity. 8, 9 Presenteeism has previously been more narrowly defined as reduced productivity or performance at work because of illness or other medical conditions. ...
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Objective: To compare utility of employee well-being to health risk assessment (HRA) as predictors of productivity change. Methods: Panel data from 2189 employees who completed surveys 2 years apart were used in hierarchical models comparing the influence of well-being and health risk on longitudinal changes in presenteeism and job performance. Absenteeism change was evaluated in a nonexempt subsample. Results: Change in well-being was the most significant independent predictor of productivity change across all three measures. Comparing hierarchical models, well-being models performed significantly better than HRA models. The HRA added no incremental explanatory power over well-being in combined models. Alone, nonphysical health well-being components outperformed the HRA for all productivity measures. Conclusions: Well-being offers a more comprehensive measure of factors that influence productivity and can be considered preferential to HRA in understanding and addressing suboptimal productivity.
... For workplaces with elevated rates of overweight and obesity, the associated higher rates of presenters, absenteeism and low productivity, have a significant economic impact on employers [2]. Several studies have identified positive relationships between obesity, absenteeism [3,4] and low productivity [5]. Furthermore, there is a positive association between job characteristics in a high stress, low control workplace, such as exposure to unpredictable situations during work hours or having a lack of control over job routines, and BMI [6][7][8][9]. ...
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Obesity is a public health concern with significant economic costs affecting employers. Worksite wellness programs benefit from developing tailored interventions that consider employees' health-related knowledge and self-efficacy to change behavior. Correction is a high stress occupation with elevated rates of overweight and obesity. Poor stress management and barriers to achieve optimal health in the work environment increases the need for adequate knowledge and self-efficacy, or the level of confidence to eat healthy and be physically active. This cross-sectional pilot study used a sample of sixteen correctional employees who participated in a Nutrition and Physical Activity Questionnaire. This survey assesses knowledge and self-efficacy for nutrition and physical activity and current health behaviors, such as current dietary habits and level of physical activity. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected for statistical analyses. Participants were primarily male correction officers working first shift with a mean (±SE) BMI of 29 (±1.05) kg/m(2), classified as overweight. Multiple regression analyses revealed that knowledge and self-efficacy scores predicted variation in BMI when controlling for other scores in the model. Findings from this study may be applicable for future health promotion interventions in high-risk occupations. In high-risk occupations such as corrections, understanding environmental and organizational barriers to achieving good health and reducing chronic disease risk is important. However, in addition to reducing these barriers, increasing knowledge, improving skills and self-efficacy to achieve good health are also critical in order to develop effective interventions for this population.
... Although their study compared the marginal mean difference in costs for nine risk factors, it did not summarize the results into a total percentage of excess costs for the study population. Many other researchers have added to the excess cost literature by assessing other types of costs (productivityrelated, for example) with employee health risks, [30][31][32][33][34] and still others have examined the excess costs associated with individual risk factors, such as the study of sedentary lifestyles compared with the physically active, 35 or comparing overweight and obese employees with employees maintaining a lower body mass index (BMI). 36 The current study is built on the methods of the studies of health risk association with excess costs in the workplace over the past 30 years. ...
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Objective: This study estimates the percent of health care costs associated with employees' modifiable health risks. Methods: Cross-sectional multivariate analysis of 223,461 employees from seven industries who completed a health risk assessment during 2007 to 2012. Results: Modifiable health risks were associated with 26.0% of health care costs ($761/person) among employees with no self-reported medical conditions and 25.4% among employees with a medical condition ($2598/person). The prevalence and relative costs of each of the 10 risks were different for those without and with medical conditions, but high body mass index was the most prevalent risk for both groups (41.0% and 63.9%) and also contributed the largest percentage of excess costs (7.2% and 7.3%). Conclusions: This study, coupled with past work, gives an employer a sense of the magnitude that might be saved if modifiable health risks could be eliminated.
... By applying either one or both of these approaches and by determining the level of management being assessed, researchers can discover various positive outcomes of MCS. Among them are increased safety climate, reduced turnover, improved safety behaviour by 40 percent, reduced lost time injuries by 82.2 percent and minor injuries by 35 percent, more productive employees, decreased employers costs due to the reduction of health claims, lower inpatient and outpatient hospital costs, reduced worker absenteeism and life insurance costs, continuous improvement of safety program and eventually, greater overall success [27][28][29][30][31]13,[32][33][34][35][36] . These benefits are gained only by the organizations that are committed at various management levels in the safety endeavour which positively influence their safety performance. ...
Article
Due to the importance of management commitment to safety for influencing workplace safety performance, this paper aims to investigate the current literatures, prepare a compilation and gap related to the demonstrated management commitment to safety and its elements that mitigate workplace accident in the construction industry through a clearly structural methodological approach. Hundreds of articles were explored using article keyword identified from the literature reviews. The articles abstract were reviewed repeatedly resulted in 61 relevant articles for compilation of management safety commitment including related articles from other industry. The elements of management commitment to safety were identified using content analysis and inductive coding technique. Apart from that, critical analysis was conducted to identify gaps in the literatures. From the content analysis, a total of 19 elements reflected the management commitments to safety were identified. Additionally, it was found that lots of studies have been done on safety commitment in specific aspect but more comprehensive research regarding cause and effect of actual safety commitment is suggested.
Chapter
This chapter will deconstruct the value chain located within the active economy. This value chain includes community input resources (including human, economic, social/structural, built, and natural resources) which generate activities and outputs. The value of the active economy is defined by its impact on a community's economic, human, social, and environmental wellbeing. Herein, the literature associated with the impact of the active economy on the dimensions of community wellbeing is examined.
Chapter
Ergonomics is the science of properly balancing job demands with worker capabilities to prevent a mismatch in demands and capabilities. Mismatch between the capabilities and job demands can lead to cumulative trauma of the body. Using the traditional industrial hygiene methodology of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control, discussions will cover each area as it applies to the field of occupational ergonomics. Reflections of occupational ergonomics in the past, the current state of the field, and considerations for the future of the field will also be presented.
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O estudo teve por objetivo identificar os fatores extrínsecos que motivam o absenteísmo, justificado por atestado médico, dos colaboradores de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior (IES). É um estudo de caso em uma IES escolhida por acessibilidade, com 207 técnicos-administrativos ativos no período de 07/2015 à 08/2016 e 412 atestados médicos válidos para pesquisa. Por meio de análise das evidências e testes econométricos verificou-se que o absenteísmo é maior nos colaboradores do sexo feminino, nos colaboradores alocados nos setores da contabilidade e laboratórios biológicos, e sendo responsável por esses setores, o número de ausência por atestado aumenta. As ausências são maiores nos colaboradores que trabalham somente no turno da manhã ou em dois turnos seguidos. Os solteiros são os que menos apresentam atestado para justificar ausências. A pesquisa apresentou limitações por utilizar apenas dados primários disponíveis no setor de RH e não investigar o comportamento dos colaboradores.
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Nowadays, one of the biggest concerns of industries all over the world is situations regarding absenteeism, since it has a great impact on the productivity and economy of companies, as well as on the health of their employees. The major causes of absenteeism appear to be work accidents and sickness leaves, which lead to the attempt by companies of understanding how the workload is related to the health of their collaborators and, consequently, to absenteeism. Thus, this paper proposes the design and development of a Web Application based on Business Intelligence indicators in order to help the health and human resources professionals of a Portuguese company analyse the relation between absenteeism and the health and lifestyle of employees, with the intention of concluding whether the work executed on the company is harming workers’ health. Furthermore, it is intended to discover the principal motives for the numerous and more frequent absences in this company, so that it is possible to decrease the absenteeism rate and, hence, improve the decision-making process. This platform will also provide higher quality healthcare and the possibility to find patterns in the absence of collaborators, as well as reduce time-waste and errors.
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Objective: To determine the relationship between nutritional status and the levels of absenteeism in the workplace. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The information was collected from the medical records after the occupational medical check-up and by reviewing all absences in the workplace during 2013. Descriptive statistics were used for calculating the rates and logistic regression for obtaining the associated factors. Results: Five hundred and forty-five workers were included in the study. The rates of being overweight and obese increased with age. Complications associated with weight gain were: high blood pressure (48.8%), type 2 diabetes (57.1%), dyslipidemia (54.5%) and skeletal muscle disorders (61.9%), which occur more often in overweight workers. The value of 28 Kg/ m2 had the highest statistical significance for explaining the relationship between an increased BMI and the rates of absenteeism in the workplace (p= 0.01). Conclusions: Being overweight is linked to higher rates of absenteeism, specifically in the medium term. A 28- Kg/m2 BMI is associated with a significant increase in absenteeism in the workplace, and musculoskeletal disorders substantially modify the relationship between absenteeism and weight gain
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Background Dual practice, whereby health workers hold two or more jobs, is a common phenomenon globally. In resource constrained low‐ and middle‐income countries dual practice poses an ongoing threat to the efficiency, quality and equity of health services, especially in the public sector. Identifying effective interventions to manage dual practice is important. Objectives To assess the effects of regulations implemented to manage dual practice. Search methods Databases searched included: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2011, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE In‐Process & Other Non‐Indexed Citations May 24, 2011 (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE, Ovid (1948 to May week 2 2011) (searched 26 May 2011); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to 2011 week 20) (searched 26 May 2011); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (1975 to present) (searched 04 December 2009); LILACS (searched January 2010); and AIM (December 2009) (searched 18 December 2009). Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials, non‐randomized controlled trials, controlled before‐and‐after studies and interrupted‐time‐series studies. Dual practice was defined as holding more than one job. Studies for inclusion were those focusing on interventions to manage dual practice among health professionals employed in the public health sector. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently applied the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies when scanning the identified titles and abstracts. The same two review authors independently screened full reports of selected citations. At each stage, results were compared and discrepancies settled through discussion. Main results No studies were found which were eligible for inclusion in this review. Authors' conclusions There is a need to rigorously evaluate the effects of interventions implemented to manage dual practice among health workers. However, there is still much that is unknown about dual practice itself. The designing of studies to evaluate the effects of interventions to manage dual practice could benefit from prior studies to assess the various manifestations of dual practice, their prevalence and their likely impacts on health services delivery. These findings would then inform the design of studies to evaluate interventions to manage dual practice. Go to: Plain language summary Interventions to manage health worker dual practice (holding more than one job) Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration set out to conduct a review of studies on the effect of interventions to stop or to regulate the practice among health workers of having more than one job (dual practice). However, after searching for all relevant studies, they were unable to find any studies that met their requirements for inclusion in the systematic review. Interventions to regulate dual practice Many health professionals have two or more jobs. This is referred to as dual practice. In many low‐ and middle‐income countries, low pay and difficult working conditions lead many health workers in the public health sector to add to their income by taking on private patients who pay for the services that they receive. In addition to this extra income, work in the private sector may also offer advantages such as higher status, more control over working hours and better professional opportunities. By allowing public sector health workers to supplement their income, it may be easier for the public sector to keep their skilled health workers. This type of dual practice may also lead health workers to spend less time in their public sector job, and may also encourage some health workers to be inefficient and corrupt. For instance, they may take time off without permission to go and work in their private positions; they may lower the quality of their services in the public sector in order to drive patients to their private practice; or they may take resources such as transport and drugs from their public sector workplace to use in their private sector jobs. In some countries, governments have imposed a ban on dual practice, or have attempted to regulate how many hours their health workers are allowed to conduct a private practice or how much they are allowed to earn from this practice by imposing mandatory licenses and private sector price ceilings. In other countries, health workers are given special incentives such as higher salaries and promotions if they agree to only work in the public sector, while other countries have allowed limited private practice (health workers seeing private patients) within public facilities. What happens when efforts are made to regulate dual practice? These efforts to regulate health worker dual practice have not been properly evaluated, therefore the review authors were not able to find any studies that met their stated requirements for types of study designs. The review shows that there is a huge gap in our knowledge about the effectiveness of policy interventions that attempt to regulate health worker dual practice.
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This protocol is out of date and has been withdrawn because the current review team was not able to complete the review.
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Background: A systematic review was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms aimed at mitigating health care worker absenteeism, to describe where and how they have been implemented as well as their possible effects. The goal was to propose potential policy options for managing the problem of absenteeism among human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries. Mechanisms described in this review are at the local workplace and broader national policy level. Methods: A comprehensive online search was conducted on EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Social Science Citation Index using MEDLINE search terms. Retrieved studies were uploaded onto reference manager and screened by two independent reviewers. Only publications in English were included. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the objectives of the review. Results: Twenty six of the 4,975 published articles retrieved were included. All were from high-income countries and covered all cadres of health workers. The regulatory mechanisms and possible effects include 1) organizational-level mechanisms being reported as effective in curbing absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); 2) prohibition of private sector activities in LMICs offering benefits but presenting a challenge for the government to monitor the health workforce; 3) contractual changes from temporary to fixed posts having been associated with no reduction in absenteeism and not being appropriate for LMICs; 4) multifaceted work interventions being implemented in most settings; 5) the possibility of using financial and incentive regulatory mechanisms in LMICs; 6) health intervention mechanisms reducing absenteeism when integrated with exercise programs; and 7) attendance by legislation during emergencies being criticized for violating human rights in the United States and not being effective in curbing absenteeism. Conclusion: Most countries have applied multiple strategies to mitigate health care worker absenteeism. The success of these interventions is heavily influenced by the context within which they are applied.
Chapter
In this paper we want to review and discuss research on the effects of occupational health management activities and services on different outcomes like employee health and well-being or absenteeism and other economic outcomes. In part I we outline goals and functions of occupational health management (OHM), then characterize typical occupational health promotion interventions and describe principles for implementing and organizing OHM. Part II focuses on different OHM activities and services such as creating healthy and safe workplace, reducing work-family conflicts, providing counselling via employee assistance programs and implementing health circles or stress management interventions. We will also discuss intervention design and sample studies as well as meta-analytic data relating to the effectiveness of these interventions. Finally, part III is about the economic impact of OHM. Findings from a management evaluation approach for OHM will be discussed. Then we will concentrate especially on data linking health promotion interventions to absenteeism and financial outcomes expressed as cost savings or cost-benefit ratios. The concluding part summarizes key findings of this paper.
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Potentially, there is a vital connection between employees' physical and mental health problems and impairment of work productivity. Although an injured or ill employee might be physically present at work, he or she might be exhibiting decreased productivity as a result of work limitations caused by physical or mental health problems. The study reported here employed a self-report work-limitation-assessment tool, combined with objective productivity data, to assess the impact health problems have on worker productivity.
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The health of the population is a major priority for American society and it is also a major priority for America's corporations, since they are often the primary payer of health care costs. Each individual exists on a continuum of health ranging from optimum health on one extreme to morbidity and death on the other extreme. To a great extent, where an individual falls on the continuum is a result of his or her number and combination of health risk factors. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is one particular combination of health risks that is receiving significant attention in the medical and health management communities. Much of the literature on MetS to date is focused on the prevalence of the condition. Depending upon the demographics of a workforce, the prevalence of MetS may range from 20% to 35%. Typically manufacturing companies employee workforces on the higher end of that range. The medical costs of employees with versus without MetS are typically two to three times greater. Corporations have a vested interest in understanding the burden of MetS in their employee populations and in determining the financial burden posed by MetS.
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To determine whether a relationship exists between elevated levels of body mass index (BMI) and workers' compensation measures. This was a retrospective analysis of 3951 workers' compensation claimants between 1981 and 2009 representing municipal workplaces. A BMI scale composed of seven levels, including two overweight tiers, was used. Higher BMI levels were related to more lost workdays, indemnity costs, and total costs. Medical care costs were virtually the same in overweight and obese claimants and moderately higher than claimants with recommended BMIs. Males were more likely to incur workers' compensation claims than females across all BMI tiers; yet, obese females incurred twice as many lost workdays and indemnity costs, and nearly 50% higher medical costs and total costs than obese men. Elevated levels of BMI negatively influence several workers' compensation outcome measures.
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A total of 60 police officers from seven suburban police departments were given a questionnaire twice over a six-month period. The results of four time-lagged hierarchical regression analyses showed that high levels of police stress and life stress (measured at Time 1) were significantly related to illness (measured at Time 2). Police stress (Time 1) was significantly associated with absenteeism (Time 2). Further, hardy police officers with a high level of police stress tended to have a high level of absenteeism than hardy officers with a low level of police stress, whereas nonhardy officers experienced a high level of absenteeism regardless of their level of police stress. Implications concerning the results of this study are discussed.
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An analysis of the benefit-to-cost ratio of a major health promotion program was conducted for the years 1986 through 1990, with projections to the year 2000. Program costs for personnel, capital expenses, materials, and rent were determined and compared with program benefits (discounted to account for increasing pension liability) for heath care cost savings, increased productivity, decreased absenteeism, decreased life insurance claims, and program-generated income. After adjusting future monies to net present value, a benefit-to-cost ratio of 3.4 was estimated for the program. Despite the limitations of the study design, the authors concluded that the program realizes a positive return on its investment. Several program recommendations are presented to increase the probability of achieving positive benefit-to-cost ratios in future program offerings.
Article
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Multivariate regression models were developed to predict the employer's economic costs (medical claims payments and loss from employees' absenteeism) from selected health-related measures among 1284 hourly employees. Twelve health-related measures, mainly from a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) completed in 1985, were selected as predictors. Regression models were developed according to the economic measures for the three subgroups (men under 35, men 35 or older, and women). All the regression models significantly predicted economic costs from selected health-related measures with a multiple R2 range of .23 to .13 (P less than .001).
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Previous research has shown an inverse relationship between cardiovascular fitness and both absenteeism and health care costs. The documentation of these relationships with law enforcement officers will support the usefulness of providing health promotion programs for this population. Data were collected over a one-year period to examine the relationship of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness to absenteeism and medical care claims among law enforcement officers (N = 734). Analysis of covariance indicated that sedentary officers were absent significantly more often than active officers; also, female officers were absent significantly more than male officers. Although proportionally more female officers than males scored above the 50th percentile on fitness (based on Cooper's norms), increased fitness for females was not related to decreased absenteeism. Increased fitness for male officers was related to decreased absenteeism. Medical care claims for a sub-sample of male officers (N = 363) were lower for more fit and more active officers, although this relationship was nonsignificant. These observational data strengthen the hypothesis that absenteeism levels of physically active officers are lower than those of sedentary officers. For females, the relationship of absenteeism to family issues associated with child care and pregnancy leave in the workplace appears worthy of examination.
Article
This study examined the effects of work-site health promotion on employee absenteeism. Thirty-two work sites were randomized to programs for weight control and smoking cessation or to no treatment for 2 years. The prevalence of self-reported absences from work was assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results using work site as the unit of analysis showed a net reduction in the percent of workers reporting a sick day in the last month in treatment versus control work sites of 3.7% (P = .04) and 3.4% (P = .06) in cross-sectional and cohort analysis, respectively. Further analyses found that the rate of participation in smoking (P = .09) but not weight programs (P = .72) was positively associated with change in sick day prevalence and that this effect was strongest in baseline smokers (P = .002). It is concluded that work-site smoking cessation programs may yield important short-term economic benefits by reducing employee absenteeism.
Article
The costs attributed to employee health problems are usually measured by employers in terms of direct health care costs, such as medical plan claims. Although it has been understood that employee health problems also produce indirect costs for employers, their measurement has been far less frequent. At best, studies have recorded one component of indirect health costs: the time lost to employee absenteeism and disability. The study presented here includes a measure of the actual decrease in the productivity of employees while they are on the job, in addition to measures of absenteeism and disability. These three measurements were combined to produce a Worker Productivity Index (WPI). The WPIs of 564 telephone customer-service agents were correlated with the employees' number and type of health risks, as measured by a Health Risk Appraisal. Additionally, the WPI was also examined across different disease states in the same population of employees. As the number of health risks increased, an employee's productivity decreased. The nature of the health risk may also differentially affect the pattern of the decrease. Finally, disease states were also associated with different patterns of productivity reduction.
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Excess stress is often identified as a leading cause of health related problems and health related costs. Yet there are few methods that link directly stress to excess costs. This study of 7264 adult males showed a direct link between objective and subjective measures of stress and absenteeism.
Article
The purpose of this article is to compare health risk factors and rates of absenteeism of employees at General Mills, Inc. after participating for two years in a voluntary, self-directed health promotion program, called the “TriHealthalon.” Twelve hundred field sales employees were initially targeted to participate in this program, which focused on improving participants' physical, mental, and social well-being. Participants were asked to fill out a computerized lifestyle appraisal form before they started the program in 1985, and again in 1986. The rates of absenteeism were monitored for each individual in the participant and nonparticipant groups for the years 1984 (before the program started), 1985, and 1986. T-tests were performed to compare the rate of absenteeism between the two groups. Observations show that after two years in the TriHealthalon program, there was an increase in healthy lifestyle behaviors in the participant group, with a five percent decrease in the number of smokers, a 37 percent increase in the number of people who use their seat belts, and a 23 percent increase in the number of people who exercise three times a week. There was no significant difference in absenteeism between the groups in 1984, before the program began. Absenteeism was significantly (p < .05) less in the participant group during 1985 and 1986 after the initiation of the program.
Article
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and absenteeism in the workplace. A total of 8,301 adult males and females who were employed by corporations which participated in a health screening program were used in the study. Absenteeism due to illness, demographic variables, and smoking status were assessed using a written questionnaire, while body fat was measured using skinfold calipers and cardiovascular fitness was assessed using a step test. Results indicated that high levels of cardiovascular fitness were associated significantly with low levels of absenteeism. The relationship remained strong after adjusting for differences in age, gender, income, cigarette smoking, and percent body fat. The association was stronger in females than males.
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--School of Education. University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1988. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 140-165).
Article
Police officers (n = 514) were studied to determine the relationship between physical fitness capacity and annual absenteeism rate. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that for officers aged 34 years and younger, only 5% of the variability in absenteeism could be accounted for by age, sex, and physical fitness variables. For officers 35 years old and older, 7% of the variability was explained by these variables, and a bicycle ergometer score was a significant predictor of absenteeism. Each individual test and an overall physical fitness score were classified into five levels. ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between overall fitness levels and absenteeism. However, men 35 and over who were most fit on the bicycle ergometer test had fewer absences, and women 34 and under who were thinnest had more absences. In conclusion, at least among police officers, the extent to which physical fitness capacity can predict absenteeism is low.
Article
The impact of behavioral risk factors on absenteeism and health-care costs was analyzed among 45,976 employees in a large, diversified industrial work force. A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate health risk appraisal and physical-examination data collected from 1984 through 1988. Employees with any of six behavioral risks had significantly higher absenteeism (range = 10% to 32%) compared with those without risks. These differences led to significantly higher illness costs (defined as compensation, health care, and non-health care benefits) for those with risks compared with those without risks. Annual excess illness costs per person at risk were smoking, $960; overweight, $401; excess alcohol, $389; elevated cholesterol, $370; high blood pressure, $343; inadequate seatbelt use, $272; and lack of exercise, $130. Only one factor, lack of exercise, was not significant after adjusting for age, education, pay category, and the six other behavioral risks. The total cost to the company of excess illness was conservatively estimated at $70.8 million annually. These findings suggest that the cost of key behavioral risks provides an opportunity to manage health-care cost increases through health promotion, financial incentives for healthy lifestyle, and environmental changes that affect health behaviors.
Article
Screening participants are frequently informed that they are hypercholesterolaemic. This study aimed at analysing whether such information induces a feeling of ill health, reflected in increased work absenteeism. A total of 1594 male construction workers aged from 20 to 59 years participated in an occupational health based screening programme. Men with plasma cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.9 mmol.l-1 (n = 184) were informed that they were hypercholesterolaemic and that they were at increased risk for heart attack. Comparison of health insurance data for the calendar year before and after screening, revealed that the relative risk for an hypercholesterolaemic subject to increase the annual number of sick-listing episodes was 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.93-1.10 compared to normocholesterolemic men. The annual number of days on sick leave carried a relative risk of increasing by 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.14). The results suggest that if patients know they are hypercholesterolaemia it does not necessarily mean that they perceive themselves as really ill.
Article
This study explored associations among job activities and disability due to cardiovascular disease by merging national disability data with independently-obtained job activity data. Disability data were taken from a 1978 U.S. health interview survey (n = 9855). Expert ratings of job activities (dimensions) were obtained from a job analysis database (n = 2485 occupations). The two databases were merged such that job dimension data were imputed to each occupation in the disability database. Odds ratios for cardiovascular disability were calculated for scores in the second, third, and fourth quartiles for each of the 32 job dimensions, using scores in the first quartile as the standard. Job dimensions associated with cardiovascular disability were (a) hazardous situations; (b) vigilant work and responsibility for others; (c) exchanging job-related information; and (d) attention to devices. Occupations identified with high scores on these job dimensions included transportation jobs (air traffic controllers, airline pilots and attendants, bus drivers, locomotive engineers, truck drivers), teachers (preschool, adult education), and craftsmen/foremen (machinists, carpenters, and foremen).
Article
The interrelationship of life stress, social support, and glucose regulation was studied in eighty patients with diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent = 40, non-insulin-dependent = 40). Glucose control was measured using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1); stress and social support were determined by the Social Readjustment Rating Scale and a Visual Analog Scale of social support. A two-way analysis of variance [social support (high/low) by life stress (high/low)] revealed that neither social support nor life stress was independently associated with HbA1. However, a significant interaction between these parameters was found. When reported stress was low, the HbA1 means were not statistically different for both high and low social support groups. As stress increased, variations in social support were associated with differences in glucose control. Under conditions of high stress, low social support subjects had significantly higher HbA1 than subjects with high social support (mean = 11.8% vs. mean = 9.9%, p = .04). These data suggest that during stressful times social support may insulate patients with diabetes from the adverse physiologic and behavioral consequences of stress and thereby foster better glucose control.
Article
This paper reports on a study of the absenteeism experience of two groups of Johnson & Johnson employees over a 3-year period. Employees at four company sites (n = 1406) where LIVE FOR LIFE, a comprehensive health promotion program, had been introduced, were compared with employees at five company sites (n = 487) without the health promotion program. Analyses of covariance were employed to control for differences between the two study groups with respect to age, gender, job classification (wage or salaried), as well as baseline levels of absenteeism. Adjusted mean levels of absenteeism among wage earners in the LIVE FOR LIFE groups were found to decline over the study period, and were significantly lower (P less than .01) than mean levels for the non-LIVE FOR LIFE wage employees in the final year of the study. No significant differences were found for salaried personnel.
Article
This study examined the relationship between participation in a facility-based fitness program and the number of reported absences from work due to illness. Employees who became members had a history of fewer absences before the program began in 1987 than employees who did not become members. Comparing 1988 with 1986, members experienced a significant decrease in absences, whereas nonmembers did not. Male and female members experienced 0.42 and 1.0 fewer days absent in 1988 than in 1986, respectively. Controlling for gender and previous absences, members could be expected to have 1.2 fewer absences in 1988 than nonmembers. On average, those who participated most frequently experienced the greatest improvement in attendance. A significant interaction between participation and 1986 absences indicated that a member's decrease in absences depended both on how many absences the member had to begin with, and how much he or she participated. Members having a high number of absences in 1986 could expect the greatest benefit from frequent participation.
Article
We evaluated the impact of a comprehensive workplace health promotion program on absences among full-time employees in a large, multi-location, diversified industrial company. A pretest-posttest control group design was used to study 41 intervention sites and 19 control sites with 29,315 and 14,573 hourly employees, respectively. Blue-collar employees at intervention sites experienced an 14.0 percent decline in disability days over two years versus a 5.8 percent decline at control sites. This resulted in a net difference of 11,726 fewer disability days over two years at program sites compared with non-program sites. Savings due to lower disability costs at intervention sites offset program costs in the first year, and provided a return of $2.05 for every dollar invested in the program by the end of the second year. These results suggest that comprehensive workplace health promotion programs can reduce disability days among blue collar employees and provide a good return on investment.
Article
A random sample of 517 employees was studied to determine differences in health care costs and absenteeism among exercisers and nonexercisers during the start-up of a corporate health and fitness program. Exercise was associated with decreased illness absence among female exercisers (47 v 69 hours, P less than .05) and there was a trend for illness absence to be inversely related to advancing age among exercisers, whereas illness absence increased among nonexercisers. Total health care costs among exercisers was lower (male $561, females $639) than among nonexercisers (male $1,003, females $1,535). Due to the large variation in the individual cost, the differences between exercisers and nonexercisers were not statistically significant. Ambulatory health care cost for nonexercisers (males $486, females $883) were significantly higher than the costs for exercisers (males $408, females $243). Because the differences were found upon program initiation, they were thought to be characteristics of exercisers and not due to exercise itself.
Article
The impact of a comprehensive worksite health promotion program on employee absenteeism in a large metropolitan school district was evaluated. Participants in the program (n = 3,846) did not differ from nonparticipants (n = 8,290) in age or sex distributions. Program participants improved their physical fitness, body composition, coronary risk factors, and overall feeling of well-being. Absenteeism was determined for the study year and for the previous year from records in the district personnel office. Absenteeism differences were evaluated by analysis of covariance by using age, sex, ethnic group, and the previous year's absenteeism as covariates. Participants who completed the health promotion program had an average of 1.25 days less absenteeism (P less than 0.0001) during the study year than nonparticipants. Regression analyses indicated that improvement in physical fitness was associated with less absenteeism. The results suggest that a reduction in absenteeism due to the health promotion program was possibly associated with an improvement in physical fitness.
Article
Lindén, V. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 47-53. Absence from work and physical fitness. The distribution of sickness absence in a given population is not one of chance but is governed by the nature of the individuals making up the group. Earlier studies strongly suggested that an individual factor was operating. The present paper is concerned with the possible influence of a physical factor. Are those who repeatedly absent themselves from work less physically fit than those who do not, and are the former, in carrying out their work, overtaxing their respiratory and circulatory systems? Pilot studies were carried out on 203 employees from different occupations. Physical fitness was determined by measurement of the maximal oxygen uptake during performance of dynamic work. A bicycle ergometer of the mechanical braking type was used.For 51 customs officers, an inverse relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and number of absences from work was found. No such relationship was found for 56 firemen, which might have been expected because they form a selective group. So far as male and female office workers were concerned, no relationship was found between the maximal oxygen uptake and number of absences. Some morphological recordings were also made. No relationship was found between the data for height, weight or skinfold thickness and the maximal oxygen uptake or number of absences.Continuous, telemetric heart rate recording, which roughly indicates the level of oxygen uptake, was performed in 10 employees from different occupations during whole working days. Five were `repeaters', i.e., persons with many sickness absences for different and unrelated conditions, occupied with non-sedentary work. They were found to have much higher heart rate recordings than some of their fellow-workers used as controls. The former thus made higher demands on their vital systems than the latter, and they were physically overtaxed by their daily work. No investigation was made in this study with regard to the extent these men may be trained physically. Three were postmen who had been following that occupation for more than 20 years; they did not seem to benefit from the physical training apparently involved in their work. Repeaters having subnormal physical fitness will probably never be able to cope with strenuous physical work. Preventive measures such as physical training programmes should be taken early in their lives. Vocational guidance at the start of their working careers is also necessary.
Article
Responses to an employee fitness programme have been examined in a total of 1125 volunteers (both male and female), recruited from a test and a closely matched control company. Evaluations covered 3 months prior to and 6 months after introduction of the programme, with 534 subjects participating consistently in the research.About 20% of the test company employees participated in the exercise classes. Gains of maximum oxygen intake and flexibility, with a loss of body fat were seen in the group of subjects as a whole, changes being largest in adherents to the exercise programme. The general attitudes of the employees towards their employment improved, but the job-description index of Smith, Kendal and Hulin did not register parallel gains. Employee turnover in a 10-month period was substantially lower in programme adherents (15%) than in the remainder of company employees (15%). Productivity showed small (3-4%) gains in both test and control companies. Absenteeism of high adherents was reduced by 22% relative to other employees.Given 20% participation in an exercise class, there is a potential for a 1% reduction of company pay-roll costs resulting from reduced turnover and absenteeism. However, it is not clear whether this is a specific consequence of the fitness programme or a more general reaction to improved working conditions.
Article
The effects of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise on employee state and trait anxiety levels, absenteeism, job satisfaction, and resting heart rate were investigated within a worksite setting. Results indicated that aerobic subjects significantly reduced their state anxiety levels over a single exercise session. Post-exercise state anxiety decreased over the 8 weeks for both groups. Aerobic subjects who were not previous exercisers decreased their trait anxiety. No changes in job satisfaction, absenteeism, or resting heart rate were evident. These results support past findings that concluded that aerobic exercise is superior to nonaerobic exercise for anxiety reduction. Tentative evidence was found to oppose the hypothesis that cardiovascular conditioning is the mechanism responsible for the psychological benefits because no significant cardiovascular changes occurred.
Article
The effect of an employer-sponsored health promotion program on worker absenteeism is examined over a 4-year period in a group of 4972 Duke University hourly employees. Program participants experienced an average of 4.6 fewer absentee hours in the third year of program availability than did nonparticipants, after controlling for baseline absenteeism, gender, race, education, and age. These results suggest that employer-sponsored health promotion initiatives can have a favorable influence on absenteeism.
Article
This study examined the effects of work-site health promotion on employee absenteeism. Thirty-two work sites were randomized to programs for weight control and smoking cessation or to no treatment for 2 years. The prevalence of self-reported absences from work was assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results using work site as the unit of analysis showed a net reduction in the percent of workers reporting a sick day in the last month in treatment versus control work sites of 3.7% (P = .04) and 3.4% (P = .06) in cross-sectional and cohort analysis, respectively. Further analyses found that the rate of participation in smoking (P = .09) but not weight programs (P = .72) was positively associated with change in sick day prevalence and that this effect was strongest in baseline smokers (P = .002). It is concluded that work-site smoking cessation programs may yield important short-term economic benefits by reducing employee absenteeism.
Article
This paper reports on the 1982-1986 follow-up of two samples of healthy persons first studied in 1972 and followed up in 1982 when mortality and cause of death were established (N = 2,146). Both were related to stress and personality type according to clearly elaborated theories, and results were very much in accordance with theory. The second follow-up was instigated to answer criticisms of the first study and to test whether results would still support the theories involved. The data support the previous results strongly and show that psychosocial data can predict with considerable accuracy mortality and cause of death over 14 years ahead.
Article
To describe the pattern of sick-leave and disability pension in an obese sample and to estimate the Incremental, indirect cost due to sick-leave and early retirement for the obese fraction of the Swedish female population. A retrospective study of sick-leave and disability pension in health examined obese subjects was performed. The indirect cost of obesity in Sweden was estimated from reported and recorded sick-leave and disability pension in the sample and from the estimated prevalence of obesity in the country. 1298 obese persons aged 30-59 y. The mean age was 46 years. The mean body mass Index was 39 kg/m2 (range 28-68). The obese subjects were recruited from eight counties in Sweden. As compared to the general Swedish population the obese subjects had 1.5-1.9 times higher sick-leave during one year. Twelve percent of the obese women had disability pension while the corresponding figure in the general population was 5%. The incremental cost of sick-leave and disability pensions attributable to obesity was 3.6 billion SEK during one year, which is equivalent to about 300 million USD per million female adult population. The total cost for sick-leave and disability pension due to absence from work for the obese fraction of the Swedish female population was 10.5 billion SEK during one year. Obesity represents a major health problem with significant economic implications for the society. Approximately 10 percent of the total cost of loss of productivity due to sick-leave and disability pensions in women may be related to obesity and obesity-related diseases.
Article
Results from a prospective illness-absence surveillance of refinery and petrochemical workers from 1986 through 1994 are presented. Illness absence data for this study were extracted from the morbidity section of the Shell Oil Company's Health Surveillance System, which includes records of all illness absences in excess of 5 days. The majority of employees (59%) had no illness absence during the 9-year period studied. The 13% of the population who had three or more absences accounted for 63% of the total illness absence episodes and 62% of the total work days lost. Frequency rate and duration of absence increased with increasing age. The increased illness absence was associated with the presence of known health risk factors, such as smoking, elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity. For example, obese women had a twofold increased illness absence rate compared with nonobese women and the rate for male smokers doubled that of nonsmoking men. These health risk factors are also more common among employees with three or more absences than those with fewer or no absences. The goal of this analysis is to quantify the impact of illness absence to develop disease prevention strategies to maximize good health in employees and to minimize both the frequency and duration of illness absence.
Article
The effect of participation in an employee fitness program on reduction of absenteeism due to illness on three different worksites (police force, chemical industry, banking) was studied. The study used a longitudinal pretest-posttest design. From 884 subjects, data were collected on absenteeism in the pre-intervention year and on absenteeism in the first year of the fitness program. The subjects were divided into three groups: high participation, low participation, and no participation in the employee fitness program. Results of covariance analyses show that the high participation group had a significant decline in sick days (4.8 days), while the low and no participation groups showed no change in sick days. Even when self-selection in the participation in an employee fitness program seems to be present, there is potentially for a great deal to be gained from participation of this self-selected group in terms of changed sick days.
Article
This study was undertaken to determine if a progressive correlation exists between body mass index (BMI), health care costs, and absenteeism and to identify an economically optimal BMI. We studied 3,066 First Chicago NBD employees by using health risk appraisals and personnel data. Analysis was completed for those employees with and without a risk for BMI. People at risk for BMI are more likely to have additional health risks, short-term disability and illness absence, and higher health care costs than those not at risk for BMI. A "J-shaped" curve between health care costs and BMI exists, with the low point occurring at about 25 to 27 kg/m2. We concluded that indirect and direct costs to an employer increase with increasing BMI. Employers may benefit from helping employees achieve a healthy weight. The initial target population should be those who are at highest risk of complications from obesity.
Article
The impact of a workplace health promotion program was evaluated to determine changes in the number and level of seven behavioral risks and self-reported illness days. The study employed a pretest/posttest intervention group (N=7,178) with a two-year follow-up and a time-lagged, nonequivalent comparison group (N=7,101). The study population was drawn from a large manufacturing company with more than 100 United States locations. Approximately one half of the study population was 40 years of age or older, 75% were males, 90% were white, and about 40% were hourly manufacturing employees. The program consisted of 1) training and support of coordinators; 2) health risk appraisals; 3) on-site classes, safety meetings, and self-help options; 4) environmental changes, e.g., smoking policy, cafeteria offerings, and blood pressure machines; and 5) recognition. A 38-item health appraisal included self-report of illness days and behavioral risks, as well as information from company physical examinations. Both the number and the level of behavioral risk factors improved over two years. The proportion of employees with three or more risk factors decreased by 14% (p less than .001). The number of self-reported illness days in this group decreased by 12% during the same period (p less than .001). No change in illness days was observed in the group with fewer than three risk factors. Risk levels improved (range = 4.5% to 79%) for six of seven factors among high-risk individuals. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
To investigate the association between perceived stress and illness-related work absenteeism. A standardized health profile questionnaire developed by Johnson & Johnson Advanced Behavioral Technologies, Inc., was used to collect demographic and personal health data between June 1988 and January 1993. Chi-square, odds ratio, and stepwise regression tests were used to analyze perceived stress and self-reported absenteeism data. Worksite health promotion programs in 250 U.S. companies. Subjects consisted of 79,070 employees. Stress data, grouped as low, moderate, and high, were correlated with absenteeism data grouped by annual days missed (None, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5+). Significant relationships were found (p < or = .05) between high stress and absenteeism for both genders. Female workers reported higher stress levels and absenteeism than men. Those with high stress were 2.22 more likely to be absent 5+ days per year than those with low stress. Work, finances, and family were the highest stress sources. Greatest absenteeism predictors were health, legal, social, and financial stress. These data primarily represented self-selected white workers and may not apply to all employees. However, if high stress relates to absenteeism, these data may provide valuable information for program design in stress management.
Article
This article provides the foundation for a series of literature reviews that critically examine the effectiveness of worksite health promotion programs. This issue reviews the exercise, health risk appraisal, nutrition and cholesterol, and weight control literatures; a future issue will review the alcohol, HIV/AIDS, multicomponent program, seat belt, smoking, and stress management literatures. The literature search used a four-step process that included a computerized database search, a reference search, a manual search of relevant health promotion journals, and the writing of the review by a recognized expert in the area being searched. The databases were searched from 1968 through 1994 and included Medline, Aidsline, Psychological Abstracts, Combined Health Information Database, Employee Benefits Infosource, National Prevention Evaluation Research Collection, National Resource Center on Worksite Health Promotion, National Technical Information Service, and the Substance Abuse Information database. A total of 288 articles were identified by the search, not including the 37 articles in the hypertension literature. Authors of each review were requested to incorporate additional studies not identified by the search, provide a research rating for each individual article, and a rating for the overall literature for their respective area. The authors reviewed 316 studies. The overall ratings for the reviews reported in this issue were suggestive for exercise, weak for health risk appraisals, suggestive/indicative for both nutrition and cholesterol, and indicative for weight control. The ratings for the other reviews will be reported in the subsequent issue. Research reported in these reviews suggests the effectiveness of worksite health promotion programs, however, additional research is required to provide conclusive evidence of their impact.
Article
This study was conducted to determine the extent of the relationship between obesity and absenteeism due to illness. A secondary objective was to ascertain the extent to which age, gender, family income, length of workweek, and cigarette smoking influenced the obesity-absenteeism association. A cross-sectional design was used. Data regarding obesity, absenteeism, and the potential confounding factors were collected during the same time period. Data were collected within workplaces throughout the U.S., and at the headquarters of Health Advancement Services, Inc. (HAS). Subjects were 10,825 employed men and women who participated in an ongoing wellness screening program administered by HAS. The three-site skinfold technique was used to estimate body fat percentage. Absenteeism due to illness and the potential confounding variables were assessed using a structured paper-pencil questionnaire. Without controlling for any potential confounders, obese employees were more than twice as likely to experience high-level absenteeism (seven or more absences due to illness during the past 6 months), and 1.49 times more likely to suffer from moderate absenteeism (three to six absences due to illness during the last 6 months) than were lean employees. With all of the potential confounders controlled simultaneously, obese employees were 1.74 and 1.61 times more likely to experience high and moderate levels of absenteeism, respectively, than were lean individuals. Obese employees tend to be absent from work due to illness substantially more than their counterparts.
This study examined the relationship between job stress and employees' performance and withdrawal behavior among nurses (N = 440) in two hospitals in a metropolitan Canadian city on the east coast. Job stressors assessed included role ambiguity, role overload, role conflict, and resource inadequacy. Employees' performance was operationalized in terms of job performance, motivation, and patient care skill. Withdrawal behaviors assessed were absenteeism, tardiness, and anticipated turnover. Multiple regressions, curvilinear correlation coefficients, and canonical correlations were computed to test the nature of the relationship between stressors and the criterion variables of the study. In general, data were more supportive of the negative linear relationship between stress and performance than for positive linear or curvilinear relationship. However, the stressor role ambiguity did exhibit a monotonic nonlinear relationship with a number of criterion variables. Employees' professional and organizational commitment were proposed to moderate the stress-performance relationship. However, the data only partially supported the role of the moderators.
Article
The costs attributed to employee health problems are usually measured by employers in terms of direct health care costs, such as medical plan claims. Although it has been understood that employee health problems also produce indirect costs for employers, their measurement has been far less frequent. At best, studies have recorded one component of indirect health costs: the time lost to employee absenteeism and disability. The study presented here includes a measure of the actual decrease in the productivity of employees while they are on the job, in addition to measures of absenteeism and disability. These three measurements were combined to produce a Worker Productivity Index (WPI). The WPIs of 564 telephone customer-service agents were correlated with the employees' number and type of health risks, as measured by a Health Risk Appraisal. Additionally, the WPI was also examined across different disease states in the same population of employees. As the number of health risks increased, an employee's productivity decreased. The nature of the health risk may also differentially affect the pattern of the decrease. Finally, disease states were also associated with different patterns of productivity reduction.
Article
BACKGROUND OF STUDY: Three hundred and sixty three subjects from various civil service organisations were administered the SCOPE-i (Stress, Coping and Personality Inventory) as part of the Institute of Mental Health's efforts to promote mental health in the workplace. This study examines the relationship between stress-related factors and absenteeism. Absenteeism is measured by the number of days of medical leave taken (MC) and self-report of minor illnesses (MI) which are not severe enough to warrant the coverage of a medical certificate. In this study, we are interested in the differences between MI and MC, and their respective relationships with stress-related factors. We hypothesised that MI, rather than MC, is more related to poor workplace conditions. The findings of this study support this hypothesis. Thus if workplace environment is stressful, people are still likely to come to work despite their illness. An interesting observation in this study is the different ways in which environmental stressors and psychosocial aspects of the workplace environment affect the MC variable. Individuals are more likely to take MC when the environmental stressors are high (i.e., poor lighting, uncomfortable temperatures, etc) as compared to poor psychosocial environmental conditions (e.g., work overload, high organisational tension, career limitations and high personal constraints). On the other hand, when faced with poor psychosocial environmental conditions, MI increases instead of MC. These findings have implications on the types of changes in a workplace which employers should make in order to decrease MC and improve physical well-being. In addition, the study shows the usefulness of MI in future studies as a dependent variable.
Article
This study presents results from analyses of statistical associations between absenteeism and self-reports of doctors' diagnosed hypertension. Data are drawn from a national probability sample of 1308 employees working more than 20 hours per week- the Quality of Employment Survey for 1973. A number of analyses are carried out, including (1) comparison of means of hypertensives, of hypertensives taking medication, of hypertensives not taking medication and normotensives; (2) two-limit Tobit regresslons, which account for the statistical problems of truncated data, are run In which absenteeism is the dependent variable and measures of hypertension, as well as age, race, gender, schooling and measures of job characteristics are the Independent variables. No statistically significant associations are discovered between absenteeism and any of the measures of hypertension. Care should be exercised In attempting to generalize these findings beyond this sample, since the data rely on self-report, they are old and statistical power is low due to the modest number (n = 146) of hypertensives in the sample.