Dietary fiber fraction of germinated barley foodstuff attenuated mucosal damage and diarrhea, and accelerated the repair of the colonic mucosa in an experimental colitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol
Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contains protein and insoluble dietary fiber. We have previously shown in ulcerative colitis patients and a colitis model that GBF feeding attenuates mucosal damage by increasing luminal butyrate levels. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear because of its heterogeneous nature. The present study was carried out to: (i) evaluate the active ingredient in GBF; and (ii) examine its effect on the repair process in colonic inflammation by using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model.
Colitis was induced by feeding a diet containing 0.5-3.5% DSS to male Sprague-Dawley rats. (i) Active ingredient: GBF was fractionated enzymatically into fiber- and protein-rich fractions. Each fraction was administered to DSS-colitis rats. Clinical signs, cecal short chain fatty acid concentrations and serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were determined. (ii) Effect on mucosal repair: GBF with or without salazosulfapyridine (SASP), or SASP alone was administered to rats after the onset of colitis. Seven days after initial treatment, the number of epithelial cells in HE sections was evaluated morphologically in a blind fashion and serum AAG was determined.
(i) Germinate barley foodstuff and GBF-fiber significantly attenuated the clinical signs of colitis and decreased serum AAG levels, with a significant increase in cecal butyrate production, while GBF-protein did not. (ii) Treatment with GBF alone and GBF plus SASP significantly accelerated colonic epithelial repair and improved clinical signs.
These findings suggest that the fiber fraction of GBF may effectively enhance luminal butyrate production, and thereby accelerate colonic epithelial repair in colitis.
Available from: Luiz Claudio Di Stasi
- "The detected intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Typha angustifolia rhizomes correlates with traditional uses against inflammation and diarrhoea
[7-10]. Few pharmacological studies with Typha angustifolia have been performed, but its effects as an immunoregulating product can corroborate the anti-inflammatory activity that was demonstrated in the present study
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD.
The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests.
We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as prednisolone, and no synergistic effects were observed. Saponins, flavonoids and coumarins were detected in the rhizome flour. No changes were observed in the total number of lactic bacteria after dietary supplementation with cattail rhizome flour.
Dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour and its combination with prednisolone prevent TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats, but no synergistic effects were observed. The prevention of TNBS-induced colon damage was associated with an improvement in intestinal oxidative stress, which likely resulted from the antioxidant properties of the active compounds detected in the cattail rhizome. This protective effect was not related to an improvement in lactic bacteria counts.
Available from: Yoshihide Fujiyama
- "They were acclimatized for one week before the experiment, and were housed individually in a room maintained at 22°C under a 12-h day/night cycle throughout the experiments. According to previous reports describing preventive effects of prebiotics on DSS-colitis [8, 9], we used mild DSS-colitis model. The mice were divided into two groups. "
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ABSTRACT: Cellobiose is produced from cellulose using specific bacterial enzymes, and is hydrolyzed into glucose by the enzymes cellobiosidase and cellulase. In this study, we examined the effects of cellobiose on colonic mucosal damage in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. BALB/c mice were divided into two groups. In the first group, the mice were fed 3.5% DSS mixed with normal chow. In the second group, the mice were fed 3.5% DSS plus 6.0 or 9.0% (weight/weight) cellobiose mixed with normal chow. The development of colitis was assessed on day 21. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Body weight loss was significantly attenuated in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice as compared to the DSS mice. Colonic weight/length ratio, a maker of tissue edema, was significantly higher in the DSS mice than in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. The disease activity index and histological colitis score were also significantly higher in the DSS mice than in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. Mucosal mRNA expression for IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-17 and IP-10 were markedly reduced in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. In conclusion, a preventive effect of cellobiose against DSS colitis suggests its clinical use for inflammatory bowel diseases patients.
Available from: Mayra Veronica Herías
- "The limitation of UC to the colon together with the microbiological impact, makes it appropriate to study probiotic/prebiotic preparations. Prebiotic treatment with germinated barley, probiotics such as Clostridium butyricum, and feeding with anaerobic bacterial antigen appeared to be beneficial in the DSS model of UC (Okamoto et al., 2000; Verdu et al., 2000; Kanauchi et al., 2001). In addition, in other models of UC (Il-10-deficient mice, acetic acid or methotrexate-induced colitis), the development of colitis was attenuated after restoring Lactobacillus levels or adding exogeneous lactobacilli (Fabia et al., 1993; Mao et al., 1996; Schultz et al., 1998; Madsen et al., 1999). "
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ABSTRACT: We tested the effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on the murine model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate. The effect of LcS was tested either as a prophylactic 10 days before the onset of the disease, simultaneously with ulcerative colitis induction or continued 10 days after the disease was induced. LcS was not able to prevent the disease induction in any of the experiments. However, important clinical parameters including blood anemia indicators, body weight, and organ weight were improved in the animals receiving LcS as compared with the ulcerative colitis-induced controls. Increased colonic epithelial regeneration in the LcS treated animals was observed in the chronic stage. The results seemed better for the simultaneous short LcS treatment where some parameters remained similar to the PBS controls, including disease activity scores measured in the acute stage. We can conclude that although LcS alone cannot prevent the induction of ulcerative colitis by dextran sodium sulphate, it can improve the clinical condition of the mice. This could imply important biological consequences for the human situation. Further studies including LcS or other probiotic bacteria together with the available treatment are encouraged.
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