Increase in Myofibrillar Ca2+ Sensitivity Induced by UD-CG 212 Cl, an Active Metabolite of Pimobendan, in Canine Ventricular Myocardium
We performed experiments in canine ventricular trabeculae loaded with aequorin to elucidate the mechanism of positive inotropic effect of UD-CG 212 Cl (4,5-dihydro-6-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole-5-yl]-5-methyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone), an active metabolite of pimobendan. The maximum response to UD-CG 212 Cl achieved at 10(-5) M was 18% of ISOmax and it was associated with an increase in Ca2+ transients of 7% of ISOmax. For a given increase in force, the increase in Ca2+ transients induced by UD-CG 212 Cl was less than that induced by elevation of [Ca2+]o. The positive inotropic effect of UD-CG 212 Cl was not associated with an impairment of relaxation and it was abolished by carbachol. In conclusion, UD-CG 212 Cl has a positive inotropic effect partly due to an increase in myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity that is exerted via cross talk with a signal transduction pathway that involves cAMP.
Available from: Jens Haggstrom
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of a calcium sensitizer, pimobendan, in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure.
Pimobendan was administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/day for 12 months to 34 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class IIm to III) after treatment with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The etiologies of heart failure were dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), old myocardial infarction (OMI) and other heart disease (Others). The effects of pimobendan were assessed by echocardiography, blood pool scintigraphy, Holter monitoring, (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging and (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging.
Pimobendan produced improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients. Improvement was more common in the DCM group than in the OMI group. Left ventricular internal diameter measured by echocardiography was significantly decreased. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly increased in the DCM and Others groups. The heart to mediastinum ratio on MIBG imaging was significantly increased in the DCM and Others groups, and the heart to mediastinum ratio on BMIPP imaging was significantly increased in the DCM group.
Pimobendan is effective in patients with chronic heart failure but is less effective in patients with OMI than in patients with DCM or other heart diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Ca2+ sensitizers act on the central mechanism (Ca2+ binding affinity of troponin C) and/or downstream mechanisms (thin filament regulation of actin and direct action on crossbridge cycling) of cardiac E-C coupling. Ca2+ sensitizers have mechanistic and energetic advantages over the agents that act through the upstream mechanism (intracellular Ca2+ mobilization). Ca2+ sensitizers and the agents that act through cyclic AMP-mediated signaling process have been postulated to belong to different classes, however, recent experimental findings revealed that certain Ca2+ sensitizers, such as levosimendan, OR 1896 and UD-CG 212 Cl, require cyclic AMP-mediated signaling for induction of the Ca2+ sensitizing effect. No clinically available agents act primarily via Ca2+ sensitization, but the positive inotropic effect of pimobendan and levosimendan is partly due to an increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. These agents are the hybrid of Ca2+ sensitizer and PDE III inhibitor. The extent of contribution of Ca2+ sensitizing effect of these agents to the clinical effectiveness to improve the hemodynamics in patients with heart failure is uncertain. Nevertheless pieces of evidence have been accumulating that these agents with Ca2+ sensitizing effect are clinically more effective than the agents that act purely via the upstream mechanism.
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