Genetic Potential of Interfacial Guided Osteogenesis in Implant Devices

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Stomatology, University of Beograd, Beograd, Yugoslavia.
Dental Materials Journal (Impact Factor: 0.97). 07/2000; 19(2):99-132. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.19.99
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this review is to summarise recent advances in the design and composition of bioactive surface layers of implantabile biomaterials, and thus the genetic potential of osteoprogenitor cells to recognize and respond to these diverse implanted biomaterials. Changes applied to a biomaterial's surface, in general, could improve its biocompatibility, osseointegration and durability properties, which are required for long-term implantation in the living body. In this review, the implant-bone interface was evaluated and interpreted on the basis of osteoblast cell cultures, i.e., on the genetic potential of osteoblasts to express different phenotype markers depending on the type of biomaterials used. The interface formed by in vitro-grown osteoblasts may be used to identify components of the in vivo implant-bone interface. Over the years, a large number of implant systems consisting of many different biomaterials have been introduced in dentistry and orthopaedics. This paper discusses the performance of currently used metals and other biomaterials, by focusing on the events which occur immediately after implantation and on their impact on the bone-implant interface. The review demonstrates that continuous improvements in composition, surface modality and design of implants may benefit osseointegration and clinical longevity of such implants. No load-bearing conditions or clinical status are discussed. Titanium (Ti) and calcium phosphate ceramics are regarded as the most biocompatible synthetic substances known to be used in hard tissue implantation. These biomaterials are osteoconductive, and do not induce ectopic bone formation. Nonetheless, they provide a physical matrix which is suitable for the deposition of new bone and may guide both the growth and extension of the bone. Comparative investigation evaluated that Ti implant systems appear to be apposed by more bone than ceramic systems, although alternatives concerning the type of Ti alloy and bioactive surface layer engineering, generate extremely diverse osseointegration results. Manufacturers have created an extensive range of inorganic or ceramic coatings on Ti implants in order to achieve better bone healing and osteoconduction. Biologically active molecules, added to the implant surface, represent breakthroughs in guided interfacial osteogenesis. This methodology offers an enormous potential of genetic controlling and promoting osteogenesis. The bone growth factors are not fully understood, but most researchers agree that the contact between the bioactive surface layer of the implant and bone is not static but dynamic and that the above factors may maximise the implant osseointegration.

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    • "Rutile is considered to be denser and has a closer packed structure with few paths for ion di!usion than anatase, and therefore the structure will improve dissolution resistance [4]. The biocompatibility of titanium depends on the surface chemical composition and the ability of titanium oxide to adsorb molecules and incorporate elements [10]. McAlarney et al. [11] studied the e!ects of titanium dioxide passive "lm crystal structure, thickness, and crystallinity on complement C3 adsorption from diluted human plasma. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anodic oxidation and oxide films of titanium in the new electrolyte of calcium glycerophosphate (Ca-GP) and calcium acetate (CA) were investigated by galvanostatic mode, SEM, XRD and EPMA. The anodic oxide film displayed porosity, intermediate roughness, and high crystallinity. Also, the oxide film is enriched with Ca and P and high in thickness without microcracks. According to the surface properties of the oxide film, the optimum condition was that the concentration of the electrolyte was 0.02 M Ca-GP and 0.15 M CA, and current density and final voltage were 70 A/m2 and ca. 350 V. The oxide film formed in the condition is 0.98 microm (Ra) rough, 5-7 microm thick, adhesive to the underlying substrate, and near 1.67 Ca/P ratio in the oxide film.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: Hundreds of thousands of implantations are performed each year in dental clinical practice. Dental implants are a small fraction of the total number of synthetic materials implanted into the human body in all fields of medicine. Basically, these millions of implants going into humans function adequately. But longevity and complications still are significant issues and provide opportunities for the creation of improved devices. This manuscript briefly reviews the history of dental implant devices and the concepts surrounding the word "biocompatibility." It then contrasts the foreign body reaction with normal healing. Finally, the article describes how ideas gleaned from the study of normal wound healing can be applied to improved dental implants. In a concluding section, three scenarios for dental implants twenty years from now are envisioned.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of dental education
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