Magnetic Seizure Therapy of Major Depression
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "Soon after the first description of MST in animals, initial human reports were published. In 2001, Lisanby et al.  described the first use of MST in a 20-year-old patient with treatment-resistant episode of MDD, who had undergone for the previous three years several pharmacological trials, with different classes of antidepressant drugs, without success, being referred to ECT. The patient received four sessions of MST before following up with conventional ECT. "
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel, experimental therapeutic intervention, which combines therapeutic aspects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, in order to achieve the efficacy of the former with the safety of the latter. MST might prove to be a valuable tool in the treatment of mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Our aim is to review current literature on MST. Methods. OVID and MEDLINE databases were used to systematically search for clinical studies on MST. The terms "magnetic seizure therapy," "depression," and "bipolar" were employed. Results. Out of 74 studies, 8 met eligibility criteria. There was considerable variability in the methods employed and samples sizes were small, limiting the generalization of the results. All studies focused on depressive episodes, but few included patients with bipolar disorder. The studies found reported significant antidepressant effects, with remission rates ranging from 30% to 40%. No significant cognitive side effects related to MST were found, with a better cognitive profile when compared to ECT.
MST was effective in reducing depressive symptoms in mood disorders, with generally less side effects than ECT. No study focused on comparing MST to ECT on bipolar depression specifically.
Available from: Andreas Neef
- "Recent findings contribute to the mounting evidence that these endogenous EPs talk back to neurons and influence synchronization of firing patterns in vitro and in vivo   . Moreover, in therapy and diagnostics, strong, super-threshold fields are used in the form of electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation or deep brain stimulation to activate large populations of neurons   . Recently, techniques that utilize weaker, sub-threshold fields such as direct current stimulation or alternating current stimulation have been developed   and were reported to influence motor cortex excitability and higher functions like motor learning or memory   . "
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We present a computational method that implements a reduced set of Maxwell's equations to allow simulation of cells under realistic conditions: sub-micron cell morphology, a conductive non-homogeneous space and various ion channel properties and distributions.
While a reduced set of Maxwell's equations can be used to couple membrane currents to extra- and intracellular potentials, this approach is rarely taken, most likely because adequate computational tools are missing. By using these equations, and introducing an implicit solver, numerical stability is attained even with large time steps. The time steps are limited only by the time development of the membrane potentials.
This method allows simulation times of tens of minutes instead of weeks, even for complex problems. The extracellular fields are accurately represented, including secondary fields, which originate at inhomogeneities of the extracellular space and can reach several millivolts. We present a set of instructive examples that show how this method can be used to obtain reference solutions for problems, which might not be accurately captured by the traditional approaches. This includes the simulation of realistic magnitudes of extracellular action potential signals in restricted extracellular space.
The electric activity of neurons creates extracellular potentials. Recent findings show that these endogenous fields act back onto the neurons, contributing to the synchronization of population activity. The influence of endogenous fields is also relevant for understanding therapeutic approaches such as transcranial direct current, transcranial magnetic and deep brain stimulation. The mutual interaction between fields and membrane currents is not captured by today's concepts of cellular electrophysiology, including the commonly used activation function, as those concepts are based on isolated membranes in an infinite, isopotential extracellular space. The presented tool makes simulations with detailed morphology and implicit interactions of currents and fields available to the electrophysiology community.
Available from: Shawn M Mcclintock
- "A recent review (Hoy & Fitzgerald, 2010) highlighted that MST parameters do affect the provision of the treatment (e.g. more reliable seizure induction with 100 Hz than 50 Hz). The hypothesis of using magnetic pulses for the induction of therapeutic seizures appeared in the mid 1990s (Sackeim, 1994), but it was not until 2001 that the fi rst case report was published that documented the feasibility and safety of MST (Lisanby et al., 2001b). In that study a patient diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) was treated with four MST sessions (provided at 40 Hz either with a double cone coil or a fi gure-of-eight coil) that resulted in improved mood and no change in global cognitive function. "
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel neurotherapeutic intervention in development for the treatment of major affective disorders. Like other neurotherapeutic strategies such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a primary interest will be to monitor the associated neurocognitive effects. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the available data on the neurocognitive effects of MST. The authors performed two independent literature searches with the following terms terms: MST, magnetic, magnetic seizure therapy, depression, neurocognition, cognitive, preclinical. We included in this review a total of eleven articles that mentioned MST and neurocognition in the abstract. The articles were divided into three methodological domains that included virtual computer simulations, preclinical studies, and clinical investigations. Collectively, the available evidence suggests MST has little to no adverse cognitive effects. Specifically, virtual computer simulations found the magnetic field was localized to grey matter, and preclinical studies found no neurocortical or neurocognitive sequelae. Clinical investigations found MST to be associated with rapid reorientation and intact anterograde and retrograde memory. Future investigations using translational methods are warranted to confirm these findings and to further determine the effects of MST on neurocognitive functions.
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