Loss of heterozygosity among tumor suppressor genes in invasive and in situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix
The aim of the present study was to further clarify the histogenesis of cervical carcinoma by investigating loss of heterozygosity (LOH) among a number of tumor suppressor genes in invasive and in situ carcinoma of the cervix. Materials consisted of 16 in situ and 29 invasive carcinomas (16 squamous cell carcinomas, nine adenocarcinomas, and four adenosquamous carcinomas). DNA samples were collected by microdissection from ordinary formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, both from the lesions and from normal tissues. LOH was analyzed using eight DNA polymorphic tumor suppressor markers. Of the 16 cases of carcinoma in situ, three cases exhibited LOH at one locus. Of the 29 cases of invasive carcinomas, six cases exhibited LOH at two loci and nine cases exhibited LOH at one locus. Overall, LOH was found more frequently in invasive carcinomas than in in situ carcinomas. LOH was most frequently detected at the PTCH (Drosophila patched gene) locus. There was no significant correlation between LOH at a specific site and either histologic subtype or clinical stage. These results suggest that LOH might already occur in a fraction of preinvasive squamous lesions and that accumulation of LOH may in part play a role in carcinogenesis of the cervix.
Available from: Young Kee Shin
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ABSTRACT: The hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway plays an essential role in normal development. Deregulation of this pathway is responsible for several types of cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern and the extent of Hh-signaling molecules in squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix and its precursor lesions. A total of 106 uterine cervical cancers and related lesions (37 squamous cell carcinomas, 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III, 10 CIN II, four CIN I, 32 normal cervical epithelia) were immunohistochemically analyzed with anti-Shh, Indian Hh (Ihh), Patched (PTCH), Smoothened (Smo), Gli-1, Gli-2, Gli-3 antibodies on paraffin blocks. The results showed that the expression of all the Hh-signaling molecules was greatly enhanced in uterine cervical tumors, including carcinoma and its precursor lesions. The staining pattern was mainly cytoplasmic except for Gli-1/2, whose expression was observed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. In case of Ihh, PTCH, Smo and Gli-1, their expression in normal epithelium was completely absent or rare. The expression of all the seven Hh-signaling molecules mentioned above was significantly increased in CIN II/III and carcinoma, compared with that in normal epithelium (P < 0.05). The expression of Shh was increased by double; the first increase occurred in normal epithelium-CIN transition, and the second, during the progression of CIN to carcinoma. These results strongly suggest that the Hh-signaling pathways were extensively activated in carcinoma and CIN of uterine cervix. In conclusion, the Hh-signaling pathways may be involved in carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix and can be considered as a potential therapeutic target.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is tumor selective and intrinsically oncolytic because of its potent ability to induce apoptosis. Several studies have demonstrated that NDV is selectively cytotoxic to tumor cells but not normal cells due to defects in the interferon (IFN) antiviral responses of tumor cells. Many naturally occurring strains of NDV have an intact IFN-antagonistic function and can still replicate in normal human cells. To avoid potential toxicity issues with NDV, especially in cancer patients with immunosuppression, safe NDV-oncolytic vectors are needed. We compared the cell killing abilities of (i) a recombinant NDV (rNDV) strain, Beaudette C, containing an IFN-antagonistic, wild-type V protein (rBC), (ii) an isogenic recombinant virus with a mutant V protein (rBC-Edit virus) that induces increased IFN in infected cells and whose replication is restricted in normal human cells, and (iii) a recombinant LaSota virus with a virulent F protein cleavage site that is as interferon sensitive as rBC-Edit virus (LaSota V.F. virus). Our results indicated that the tumor-selective replication of rNDV is determined by the differential regulation of IFN-alpha and downstream antiviral genes induced by IFN-alpha, especially through the IRF-7 pathway. In a nude mouse model of human fibrosarcoma, we show that the IFN-sensitive NDV variants are as effective as IFN-resistant rBC virus in clearing the tumor burden. In addition, mice treated with rNDV exhibited no signs of toxicity to the viruses. These findings indicate that augmentation of innate immune responses by NDV results in selective oncolysis and offer a novel and safe virotherapy platform.
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ABSTRACT: To understand the importance of frequent deletion of chromosomal 11q23.3-24.3 region in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/methylation/mutation/expression) of the candidate genes LOH11CR2A, EI24 and CHEK1 located in the region were analyzed in 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 112 cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples and two CACX cell lines. The deletion frequency of these genes was low in CIN than in CACX [CIN: CHEK1: 28%, EI24: 21%, LOH11CR2A: 15% and CACX: CHEK1: 51%, EI24: 41%, LOH11CR2A: 36%]. Similar trend was seen in promoter methylation of these genes [CIN: CHEK1: 10%, EI24: 3%, LOH11CR2A: 3% and CACX: CHEK1: 55%, EI24: 31%, LOH11CR2A: 14%]. Mutations of the genes are a rare event. Overall alterations (deletion and methylation) of CHEK1 and EI24 were associated with progression of CACX. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed reduced expression of the three genes in concordance to their molecular alterations. A shorter isoform of CHEK1 lacking exon 8, hence impaired in substrate binding capacity, was found in two samples. Immunohistochemical analysis showed nuclear expression of Chek1, p-Chek1 and Ei24 in tumor tissues, whereas the cell lines exhibited both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Chek1 and Ei24, as is also evident from Western blot analysis suggesting differential localization of the proteins. Alterations of CHEK1 and EI24 coupled with tumor stage and early sexual debut (≤ 19 years) predicted worst prognosis. Thus, our data suggest that inactivation of EI24 and CHEK1 through two independent mechanisms contributes to the development of CACX.
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