National nutritional anaemia control programme in India.
Available from: Gayatri Moghe
- "Our findings were consistent with those of several studies regarding diet of Indian females (Mathai, 1989; Srinivasan and Tara, 1989; Desai, 1994; Dharmalingam et al., 2010). Few were aware about schemes such as the National Nutritional Anemia Control Program, wherein iron and folic acid supplements are provided free of cost to pregnant, lactating mothers and preschoolers, at least 100 days in a year (Kumar, 1999). "
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was the initiation of systematic data collection so as to improve the capacity for outcome measurement after cleft repair. Also, a clinical audit was done for evaluation of the process and assessment of outcomes of cleft care. Design& Setting: A questionnaire based survey and outcome assessment was carried out over a one-year period from March 2008 to February 2009 at the combined outpatient cleft clinic of a tertiary care center in India. Patients and Participants: Data collection (basic demographic and environmental information) was done by students from the Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry at the outpatient cleft clinic, twice a week, throughout the year. Results: Sixty eight completed cleft lip palate registry forms from which all the information was available, were analyzed. There was a skewed sex ratio with a higher preponderance of male children seeking treatment. 19.1% affected males between 2 and 5 years of age first reported to the cleft clinic. Surprisingly, no Bilateral Clefts of Lip, Unilateral Cleft Lip (Right) and Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (Right) were observed in females. Oral health was poor in 74% patients, among the dental referrals only 26% could be recruited for orthodontics with reasonably good prognosis. Conclusions: Poverty, illiteracy and superstitions prevent an average patient from India from receiving multidisciplinary cleft care. This emphasizes on the need to create systems that suit the needs of our target patients. Key words: Gene-environment interaction; Consanguinity; Lateralization of clefts, Clinical audits.
Available from: Judith A Noronha
- "Fortunately, anaemia in pregnancy is for the most part, easily prevented and treatable. Kumar (1999) reports that there is a need to improve coverage, quality and efficiency of the National Nutritional Anaemia Control programme in the ninth 5-year plan given by government of India. The focus is to promote regular consumption of foods rich in iron, provisions of iron and folate supplements in the form of tablets to high risk groups, and identification and treatment of severely anaemic cases. "
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ABSTRACT: Anaemia in pregnancy is still a concern during the reproductive period, as it is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This study examined the maternal risk factors associated with increased prevalence of anaemia among antenatal and postnatal women. A prospective-retrospective cohort approach was carried out among 1,077 antenatal and 1,000 postnatal women. The haemoglobin was estimated using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. The maternal factors included were age, parity, education, socioeconomic status, spacing, history of bleeding, worm infestation, period of gestation, knowledge regarding anaemia in pregnancy, food selection ability and compliance to iron supplementation. Of the 1,077 antenatal women studied, 540 were anaemic. Among the 1,000 postnatal women, the prevalence was 537 (53.7%). The high prevalence was strongly associated with low socioeconomic status (OR 1.409 [1.048-1.899]; p < 0.023) which affected their knowledge and health seeking behaviour in both the groups. Hence it can be concluded that empowering women in terms of education and economic status is the key factor in combating anaemia in pregnancy to prevent the vicious cycle of associated problems.
Available from: Bishan Swarup Garg
- "Poor foetal outcome may occur if iron deficiency occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy (13). The national nutritional anaemia-control programme in India, which focused on supplementation of iron to pregnant women after the first trimester of pregnancy (14), failed to make an impact—similar to the experience from other countries (15). Over the past decade, the proportion of low-birthweight babies has failed to come down (16). "
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ABSTRACT: A national nutritional anaemia-control programme in India, focusing on supplementation of iron to pregnant women after the first trimester of pregnancy, failed to make an impact. It is prudent to recommend the correction of iron stores before the woman becomes pregnant. 'Efficacy' of weekly supplementation of iron has been proved to improve iron stores in adolescence in many studies abroad and in India. The objective was to study the 'effectiveness' of a weekly iron-supplementation regimen among urban-slum, rural, and tribal girls of Nashik district, Maharashtra, India. A baseline and the mid-term assessments were done using the cluster-sampling techniques. In each stratum, 30 clusters were identified. Twelve and 10 adolescent girls from each cluster were identified in the baseline and mid-term surveys respectively. The haemoglobin estimation was done using the HemoCue system. Data were analyzed using the Epi Info software (version 6.04). The overall prevalence of anaemia came down significantly to 54.3% from 65.3%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in tribal girls (48.6% from 68.9%) and among rural girls (51.6% from 62.8%). But the decline was not statistically significant among urban slum girls. Similarly, a significant rise in the mean haemoglobin levels was seen among tribal and rural girls. However, it did not increase significantly among urban slum girls. The programme had performed poorly in urban-slum areas, as the mean number of tablets consumed in urban-slum areas was only 5.6+/-3.3, as against 6.7+/-2.6 tablets in tribal girls and 7.2+/-2.2 tablets in rural girls. Considering the biological and operational feasibility and the effectiveness of the intervention, weekly supplementation of iron to adolescent girls should be universally started to correct the iron stores of a woman before she becomes pregnant.
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