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Introducing T-shaped managers. Knowledge management's next generation

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Abstract

Most companies do a poor job of capitalizing on the wealth of expertise scattered across their organizations. That's because they tend to rely on centralized knowledge-management systems and technologies. But such systems are really only good at distributing explicit knowledge, the kind that can be captured and codified for general use. They're not very good at transferring implicit knowledge, the kind needed to generate new insights and creative ways of tackling business problems or opportunities. The authors suggest another approach, something they call T-shaped management, which requires executives to share knowledge freely across their organization (the horizontal part of the "T"), while remaining fiercely committed to their individual business unit's performance (the vertical part). A few companies are starting to use this approach, and one--BP Amoco--has been especially successful. From BP's experience, the authors have gleaned five ways that T-shaped managers help companies capitalize on their inherent knowledge. They increase efficiency by transferring best practices. They improve the quality of decision making companywide. They grow revenues through shared expertise. They develop new business opportunities through the cross-pollination of ideas. And they make bold strategic moves possible by delivering well-coordinated implementation. All that takes time, and BP's managers have had to learn how to balance that time against the attention they must pay to their own units. The authors suggest, however, that it's worth the effort to find such a balance to more fully realize the immense value of the knowledge lying idle within so many companies.

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... Possibly, individuals may experience reluctance to share their knowledge and ideas with others to develop new products from which also entities outside the borders of their own organization can benefit (West and Gallagher, 2006). In essence, however, the paradigm of open innovation calls for a workforce that is willing to share knowledge and ideas, both with intra-organizational and extra-organizational members (Bahemia and Squire, 2010;Hansen and Von Oetinger, 2001). In a similar vein, it has been shown that individuals' openness to external sources of knowledge is curvilinearly related to their ideation performance (Salter et al., 2015). ...
... Besides transactional leadership, however, it can also be argued that managers need to exercise transformational leadership, as this can intrinsically motivate their employees to engage in open innovation processes (De Jong et al., 2018;Hansen and Von Oetinger, 2001;Latham, 2014;Nedon, 2015), such that more creativity and innovation can be achieved (Nonaka, 1994). Transformational leadership can be defined as a process in which leaders and followers collaborate to achieve a higher degree of employee morale and motivation (Burns, 1978). ...
... Second, in line with expectations, however, perceived transformational leadership behaviour was found to have a Jong et al., 2018;Gumusluoglu and Ilsev, 2009;Hansen and Von Oetinger, 2001;Latham, 2014). A possible explanation for the significant direct relationship between employees' perception of transformational leadership and the perceived quality of the open innovation process may be provided by autonomy, which has been shown to support open innovation (Burchart et al., 2017) and which is facilitated by transformational leadership behaviour (Bass, 1999). ...
Article
This study contributes to the literature on open innovation by addressing the scarcity of individual-level literature and insight into the human side of open innovation. Specifically, it examines the relationships between transactional and transformational leadership on the one hand and the quality of the open innovation process as perceived by employees on the other, and whether these relationships are (partly) mediated by employees’ work engagement. Hypotheses were tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling analysis on a bootstrapped sample ( n = 173) of employees in various organizations. Transformational leadership was shown to have a positive direct and indirect relationship with open innovation, partly mediated by engagement. Additionally, this study provides guidance for managers on how to enhance the employee’s perspective on the open innovation process through transformational leadership behaviour and work engagement.
... Such diverse teamwork requires an appreciation of others' roles and worldviews as well as identifying creative multi-win solutions (Walker, Cross and Barnett, 2019). Indeed, employers in sustainability value the T-shaped professional, defined as individuals with an area of expertise as well as a broader knowledge base and interpersonal skills to engage with other professions (Alkaher and Goldman, 2018;Hansen and von Oetinger, 2001). Interdisciplinary education, therefore, often presents students with integrative conceptual and teamwork tasks that build their interpersonal, critical and reflective thinking skills (Eastwood, 2010;Howlett, Ferreira and Blomfield, 2016). ...
... The skills that students developed included how to research; bridging the research and action gap; using reflective and systems thinking; effective communication with people with different perspectives on sustainability; and being open-minded, willing to change personal perspectives and take personal responsibility. One student noted that the focus on skills development and the flexible structure of the course aligns with the idea of the T-shaped sustainability professional (Alkaher and Goldman, 2018;Hansen and von Oetinger, 2001). This prepared students to work in the sustainability sector, as suggested by previous feedback from an ex-student: ...
... Only when there is cross-pollination of ideas could new ideas are developed. Such practice has been held by BP Amoco, whereby managers from different business units sit together to discuss new development opportunities (Hansen and Oetinger, 2001). Thus, team building training is also urgently needed. ...
... When the manager of a business unit is to be promoted, they are judged on a "dual promotion" system. It is a reward and incentive scheme that considers both the unit's performance and the extent of transfer of expertise from the manager's business unit to other units (Hansen and Oetinger, 2001). ...
Article
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There is a clear shift in human resource management from a "service provider" to a "business partner"; however, the new requirements and needs can also be met by the line management or external parties. For this reason, the new development is at the same time an immense opportunity and a threat for the HR managers. This research examines the linkages between human resource management and knowledge management. Specifically, the association between four areas of human resource management (training, decision-making, performance appraisal, and compensation and reward) with the five areas of knowledge management (knowledge acquisition, knowledge documentation, knowledge transfer, knowledge creation, knowledge application) is explored. The role of human resource management is also unique. In terms of employee development, the focus should be placed on achieving quality, creativity, leadership, and problem solving skill. The design of a compensation and reward system should be on promoting group performance, knowledge sharing, and innovative thinking. The performance appraisal must be the base of evaluation of employee's knowledge management practices, and an input for directing knowledge management efforts.
... Powinni też jednocześnie pielęgnować bezpośrednie kontakty i kulturę organizacyjną skłaniającą do podejmowania ryzyka [Romanowskiej 2001]. Nowe technologie informacyjne i związani z nimi pracownicy wirtualni nie zastąpią bezpośredniego kontaktu w budowaniu kapitału społecznego, który jest nośnikiem sukcesu organizacji [Hansen 2001]. W efektywnej i przedsiębiorczej organizacji właściwie każde działanie jest odbiciem wartości kulturowych i kapitału społecznego, który tworzy nadzwyczajną społeczność w praktyce zarządczej. ...
... Według współczesnych badaczy podejście proaktywne wymaga jednak od praktyków zarządzania zmiany w ich zachowaniu i przejścia od zarządzania tradycyjnego do tzw. zarządzania T-kształtnego [Hansen 2001]. Opiera się ono w znacznej mierze na uczestnikach organizacji, którzy w sposób ciągły zespalają sprzeczności wynikające z podwójnej odpowiedzialności: -za dzielenie się wiedzą i tworzenie relacji w obrębie granic organizacji, jak również -za oddanie w największe możliwe korzyści z rozwiniętego kapitału społecznego [ [Dyduch 2001]. ...
Chapter
Evaluation of employees in recent years has gained importance, becoming one of the key processes in organizations. The study shows that the majority of employees is concerned about the results and approaches to the evaluation with skepticism and caution. It is worth mentioning, that some of them feel that they are carried out only due to the allocation of additional financial benefits. When evaluating it is vital to create values based on justice and appropriate criteria, so that the benefits of periodic assessment were distributed evenly among the employees and employers. It should be also remembered, that the assessment should not be associated only with cash prizes, but it should enable promotion and give an opportunity of professional development of staff as well.
... The need for T-Shaped professionals has been widely recognized in the last decade (Hansen, and von Oetinger, 2001;Spohrer, Maglio, Bailey, and Gruhl, 2007;Spohrer, Golinelli, Piciocchi, and Bassano, 2010). Indeed, the "T-Shape" idea has been adopted also from a wider management perspective, discussing about a "T-Shaped management" approach that considers the T-Shaped Manager as a new kind of executive, who breaks out of the traditional corporate hierarchy to share knowledge across the organization while remaining committed to individual business unit performance (Hansen, and von Oetinger, 2001). ...
... The need for T-Shaped professionals has been widely recognized in the last decade (Hansen, and von Oetinger, 2001;Spohrer, Maglio, Bailey, and Gruhl, 2007;Spohrer, Golinelli, Piciocchi, and Bassano, 2010). Indeed, the "T-Shape" idea has been adopted also from a wider management perspective, discussing about a "T-Shaped management" approach that considers the T-Shaped Manager as a new kind of executive, who breaks out of the traditional corporate hierarchy to share knowledge across the organization while remaining committed to individual business unit performance (Hansen, and von Oetinger, 2001). ...
... Especially how to blend human resources and skills to support the functionality of business analytics capabilities in congruence with the socio-materiality framework, which purports that the interactions between humans and non-humans (technology) are shaped by each other. As a result, firms are now turning their attention to prophecies that are knowledge and skills-centric such as the acquisition of employees with T-shaped and π-shaped skills [9][10][11]. Individuals with π-shaped skills are those with the capability to utilize 'left brain' and 'right brain' concurrently. ...
... These individuals have limited knowledge and skills in other disciplines, and they prefer to work one single job type; this sounds familiar. In the 1990s, firms around the globe stressed the importance of T-shaped professionals, who are generalists (i.e., characterized as having sufficient skills, experience, and communication abilities across various disciplines) on one side, but have deep knowledge and experience in just one area on the other side [10,11]. Recently, firms have turned their attention toward π-shaped skill sets due to technological breakthroughs and the increase in demand for an innovative and skillful workforce. ...
Article
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This paper proposes that the relationship between business analytics and innovative performance is somewhat more complex than originally thought, as firms still struggle to leverage the benefits of business analytics and artificial intelligence capabilities. To expand on the scholarship in this area of knowledge, our paper cross-fertilizes the literature by amalgamating business analytics capabilities with π-shaped skills. We draw on resource orchestration theory to examine the effects of business analytics and π-shaped skills on a firm's innovative performance, and the moderating role of π-shaped skills. Field data (n = 450) were obtained from individuals with supervisory positions in large Saudi firms and SMEs and analyzed with PLS-SEM and fsQCA techniques. PLS-SEM results reveal that business analytics and π-shaped skills are relevant antecedents for innovative performance. However, the expected moderating role of π-shaped skills on the relationship between business analytics and innovative performance did not hold. FsQCA results reveal that business analytics and π-shaped skills are sufficient but not necessary conditions for high innovative performance. This paper contributes not only to empirical evidence, but also to theory by furthering our understanding of the emergent π-shaped skills concept. Our findings echo the need to expand inquiry into business analytics and skill sets capabilities for better innovative outputs. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Online open courses represent a strategy and a tool to overcome time, spatial and financial barriers that are prerequisites of the traditional education process. They create distributed and collaborative leaning environments, which stimulate knowledge production and application, thus enabling the development of interdisciplinary "T-shaped" professionals, i.e people with "vertical" growth in specific knowledge field and horizontal growth in terms of soft skills that are essential in new working ecosystems [4], [5]. ...
... The concept of T-shaped skills refers to the type of interdisciplinary knowledge-set that the design practice requires and constructs as designers develop their career over time. The T-shape is a visual representation of a person's deep domain-specific knowledge, represented by the vertical stroke in the letter T. The horizontal stroke of the T represents the designers' broad experience and their ability to apply their knowledge in new situations and collaborate across disciplines (Karjalainen, et.al., 2009;Hansen & Oetinger 2001;Barile, et.al., 2012;Madhavan & Grover, 1998). Such T-shaped skills and practitioners may be found in any type of domain and responds well to the demands for the interdisciplinary 21 st century skills needed today. ...
Book
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Proceedings of the DRS LEARN X DESIGN 2021: 6th International Conference for Design Education Researchers Engaging with Challenges in Design Education: 10th Anniversary of the International Conference for Design Education Researchers Editors: Erik Bohemia; Liv Merete Nielsen; Lusheng Pan; Naz A.G.Z. Börekçi & Yang Zhang Section Editors: Úrsula Bravo; Catalina Cortés; Jeannette LaFors; Fabio Andres Telle; Natalia Allende; Eva Lutnæs; Karen Brænne; Siri Homlong; Hanna Hofverberg; Ingvill Gjerdrum https://learnxdesign.net/lxd2021/
... This principle was also observed by us during the process of phrasing an integrated research question in phase 1 as shown in our practical guideline. Brown et al. (2015) further described the usefulness of "T-shaped researchers" (Hansen and Von Oetinger, 2001). Such researchers are reported as experts in their own discipline, but are also capable of looking beyond their scope. ...
Article
Full-text available
The comprehensive understanding of increasingly complex global challenges, such as climate change induced sea level rise demands for interdisciplinary research groups. As a result, there is an increasing interest of funding bodies to support interdisciplinary research initiatives. Attempts for interdisciplinary research in such programs often end in research between closely linked disciplines. This is often due to a lack of understanding about how to work interdisciplinarily as a group. Useful practical guidelines have been provided to overcome existing barriers during interdisciplinary integration. Working as an interdisciplinary research group becomes particularly challenging at the doctoral student level. This study reports findings of an interdisciplinary group project in which a group of doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers from various disciplines faced the challenges of reconciling natural, social, and legal aspects of a fictional coastal environmental problem. The research group went through three phases of interdisciplinary integration: (1) comparing disciplines, (2) understanding disciplines, and (3) thinking between disciplines. These phases finally resulted in the development of a practical guideline, including five concepts of interactive integration. A reflective analysis with observations made in existing literature about interdisciplinary integration further supported the feasibility of the practical guideline. It is intended that this practical guideline may help others to leave out pitfalls and to gain a more successful application of interdisciplinarity in their training.
... Today, the idea of a "T-shaped" person or professional is commonly used in the popular human resource literature to refer to the need for both deep specialization and broad knowledge and skills (e.g., Bierema, 2016;Cotter, 2015;Harris, 2009). Beyond the fields of computing and design, references to the "T-shaped" metaphor can also be found in the practice literatures of law (e.g., Smathers, 2014), public health (e.g., Frenk, Hunter, & Lapp, 2015), medical education (e.g., Donofrio, Spohrer, & Zadeh, 2010), water management (e.g., McIntosh & Taylor, 2013) and knowledge management (e.g., Hansen & Von Oetinger, 2001). The metaphor of the T-shaped professional is also associated with innovation and enterprise: "T-shaped professionals are lifelong learners with open minds who collaborate easily across their local and global networks. ...
Chapter
Today, tertiary educational institutions are especially concerned with the work-readiness and employability of their graduates beyond mere education for education’s sake. More than academic results, university graduates are expected to possess transferable skills, life-long learning and self-managing career skills and mindsets beyond their technical, vocational or professional knowledge and skills to navigate highly dynamic job/labor markets. Chan et al. (2012) first introduced the Entrepreneurial, Professional and Leadership or EPL framework using the “dimensions of boundaryless career space” as a heuristic to help individuals visualize how they can advance their careers simultaneously in E, P and L dimensions. This chapter suggests how the EPL framework can relate to the popular “T-shaped” metaphor in the popular human resources literature, where “T-shaped” is used to describe the need for both breadth (transferable) and depth (specialized/technical) skills needed for various reasons from collaboration to employability. We present empirical evidence to show how E, P and L efficacies contribute to the prediction of self-perceived employability in a sample of 5,874 university students, as a way to justify how individuals can think of developing their E, P and L skills to ensure employability in the future. We discuss how universities can provide future graduates with more holistic T-shaped EPL development for greater employability and career adaptability.
... The concept, which is also applied in the Raw Materials sector, is being introduced by T-Dore Consortium (2017): 'T-shaped professionals are characterized by their deep disciplinary knowledge in at least one substance area and capability to cross the boundaries between disciplines.' Although the concept of T-shaped managers was first introduced by Hansen and Oetinger (2001) in opposition to the I shape professionals (see also tsummit.org). T-shaped professionals are already in high demand for their ability to innovate, build relationships, advance research and strengthen their organisations. ...
Article
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The raw materials sector is undergoing significant structural changes. Skills required by emerging technologies and ever more challenging mineral deposits are changing quicker than todays’ workforce can update them. Education mainly focusses on “classical” raw materials related topics (geology, mining and mineral processing), whereas there are deficiencies in emerging and non-technical skills like communication and management. There is a strong need for both sides to understand the necessities and constraints of the respective other partner in this business. This paper generates a knowledge base for future analysis of raw materials education, identifying currently taught skills and the structure of higher education. A definition of skills, knowledge and teaching areas is presented, leading to a comprehensive “skills catalogue”. It builds the basis for an inventory of raw materials education worldwide.
... of professionals called T-Shaped professionals immerged as 21 st century professionals who have been widely recognized in the last decade (Hansen, and von Oetinger, 2001;Spohrer et al., 2007;Spohrer et al., 2010).With wide recognition of T-Shaped professionals, HEIs start producing T-Shaped professionals in all the disciplines such as Business Management (Bajada&Trayler, 2013), Software Engineering (Boehm &Mobasser, 2015). Mechanical engineering, Electrical engineering, Product design and Entrepreneurship (Oskam, 2009) Medical education and Sustainability education (Barile et al., 2015) and so on.T-Shaped professionals compared with I-Shaped professionals are outstanding in their employment and self employment by being adaptive innovators due to capabilities for problem solving and decision making because of deep knowledge of at least one discipline, deep knowledge of at least one system in their depth and in their breadth they have understanding and communication of many disciplines and many systems together with system thinking and the boundary crossing communications skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
Today's hospitality management graduates need to be more than the traditional "I-Shaped" graduates of the past and more of the "T-Shaped" graduates employers are looking for (Badja et al., 2013). The traditional I-Shaped graduates who posse only deep knowledge of at least one discipline are specialized problem solvers of the 20th century in their home discipline/s and T-Shaped (hospitality management) graduates who are still grounded in their home discipline have strong communication skills across areas of (hospitality) management, technology and social sciences are decision makers of the 21st century (Spohrer et al, 2010). On this premise, this position paper argues that the present hospitality management programme of the HEI produces I-Shaped professionals who cannot be competitive in a service centric organization/society/economy and this paper posits empirically the existing management education from I-Shaped to T-Shaped programme latter which is a shift of shape of the hospitality management education warranted due to the paradigm shift from Goods Dominant Logic to Service Dominant Logic in the dynamically changing environment that demand graduates with their ability to excel as collaborative innovators and adaptive innovators (Donofrio et al., 2010). Finally this paper recommends the HEI to produce early birds of T-Shaped professionals for (hospitality) management while not observing any major barrier present in the HEI subjected to the study for this purpose.
... These pillars, properly integrated with a set of organizational principles and practices, would constitute a robust and flexible back-end side of open innovation. These principles and practices include: the knowledge diversity of the participants (Bogers et al., 2018); an active presence of the internal R&D department (Chesbrough, 2020); the workforce mobility within the company and the network of partners (Chesbrough, 2012); the presence of "T-shaped managers" (Hansen and von Oetinger, 2001), who operate as boundary-spanners and G. Elia, et al. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 155 (2020) 119994 intermediaries that connect knowledge from different sources and industries and find ways to mash it all together into new combinations (Chesbrough, 2012;Gassmann et al., 2011;Savino et al., 2017); the sharing of basic intellectual property protection rules to guarantee capital-intensive investors (Chesbrough, 2012); the cultivation of an organizational culture that promotes open mindset and collaboration among different functions, as well as the availability of dedicated resources and time to experiment open innovation initiatives (Chesbrough, 2020). ...
Article
The paper focuses on virtual brand community (VBC) as new management tool for open innovation. Existing research on the intersection between brand communities and innovation management shows how the knowledge of the brand communities’ members and their engagement in product-related discussions represent a relevant source of innovation for the companies. However, how do companies implement open innovation through the VBC and how do they implement purposeful practices represent an unexplored research area. By adopting a value-oriented perspective of open innovation, this study interprets the VBC as a co-creation space where undertaking opportunity identification and resource mobilization for value creation and value capture. The paper presents a single case study of a multinational company operating in the semiconductor industry that has recently implemented a VBC as a tool for peer-to-peer support and knowledge sharing. Results show the features of this VBC and the set of practices designed to realize the open innovation strategies. By adopting an open innovation perspective, the article presents a model of VBC as a collaborative space for innovation. For practitioners, the article provides evidences and insights about the use of VBC to support the implementation of open innovation strategies.
... These challenges and demands can be more intense in interdisciplinary research contexts. This is illustrated in the T-shaped model for interdisciplinary researchers, a concept leveraged in by Brown et al. (2015) from business scholarship (Hansen and von Oetinger, 2001). According to Brown et al. (2019), interdisciplinary researchers must develop specialization in a discipline (the vertical line of the "T"), while engaging constructively in theories, evidence, and advances of others (the horizontal line of the "T"). ...
Article
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The immense challenges associated with realizing ocean and coastal sustainability require highly skilled interdisciplinary marine scientists. However, the barriers experienced by early career researchers (ECRs) seeking to address these challenges, and the support required to overcome those barriers, are not well understood. This study examines the perspectives of ECRs on opportunities to build interdisciplinary research capacity in marine science. We engaged 23 current and former graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in a policy Delphi method with three rounds of surveying that included semi-structured questionnaires and q-methodology. We identified the following five barriers that limit ECRs' capacity for interdisciplinary research: (i) demanding workloads; (ii) stress linked to funding, publishing, and employment uncertainty ; (iii) limited support for balancing personal and professional commitments; (iv) ineffective supervisory support; and (v) the steep learning curve associated with interdisciplinary research. Our analysis highlights three main types of responses to these barriers adopted by ECRs, including "taking on too much", "coping effectively", and "maintaining material wellbeing at any cost". To overcome these barriers, we propose the following three institutional actions to build early career interdisciplinary researcher capacity: formalize mentorship, create inter-disciplinary research groups, and mainstream mental health support.
... The problem of focusing on research activities and competencies has been accentuated in recent years in academia by the increasing focus on cutting-edge research and the associated research specialization, unfortunately at the expense of the development of general career resources of doctoral students and postdocs. The T-Shaped Skills Model (Hansen & von Oetinger, 2001) provides a framework for the development of scientific competencies, supplemented with additional transferable competencies. Translated, this means that doctoral students should acquire additional competences (= those that allow the transfer of specialist competences) and system knowledge outside research or academia and combine these with transferable skills in order to be able to bring use their specialist expertise in a future job. ...
Book
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This guideline is for women in life sciences who are looking for encouragement and want to make use of their drive and know-how and competences to assess the potential of their own ideas. We strongly believe that the conditions for female scientists to become entrepreneurs have never been better. Nothing should hold women back from the conviction that their ideas have value and that they MUST consequently enter the marketplace for e.g. Switzerland to remain competitive, and for society to grow in gender equality. Women-owned Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are reported to be growing at a faster rate than the economy as a whole in several OECD countries; however, the removal of a number of obstacles would allow their potential to be fully tapped. These guidelines were developed as a helpful tool for female scientists, entrepreneurs, educators, coaches and all those involved in gender equality. Download: https://blogs.ethz.ch/feminno/guidelines/
... The concept of T-shaped skills refers to the type of interdisciplinary knowledge-set that the design practice requires and constructs as designers develop their career over time. The T-shape is a visual representation of a person's deep domain-specific knowledge, represented by the vertical stroke in the letter T. The horizontal stroke of the T represents the designers' broad experience and their ability to apply their knowledge in new situations and collaborate across disciplines (Karjalainen, et.al., 2009;Hansen & Oetinger 2001;Barile, et.al., 2012;Madhavan & Grover, 1998). Such T-shaped skills and practitioners may be found in any type of domain and responds well to the demands for the interdisciplinary 21 st century skills needed today. ...
... 4 The importance of combining both deep professional expertise with broad crossdisciplinary skills to produce a ''T-shaped'' professional has been acknowledged in other fields as well. 5 Beginning to incorporate development of these capabilities in our medical students and residents is the next step. A number of participants emphasized Unafraid to challenge norms ''So . . . ...
... Some business-oriented writers and scholars have referred to this general way of thinking as "T-shaped management," which encourages the individual "to share knowledge freely across the organization (the horizontal part of the 'T') while remaining fiercely committed to individual business unit performance (the vertical part). The successful T-shaped manager must learn to live with, and ultimately thrive within, the tension created by this dual responsibility" (Hansen & von Oetinger, 2001). Given the importance of both approaches to leadership, it is worth considering the ways in which this framework can be used to prepare a pool of potential leaders À some who have deep vertical expertise and others who would come to the position with experience performing the broad horizontal competencies outside of the specific sector. ...
... Some business-oriented writers and scholars have referred to this general way of thinking as "T-shaped management," which encourages the individual "to share knowledge freely across the organization (the horizontal part of the 'T') while remaining fiercely committed to individual business unit performance (the vertical part). The successful T-shaped manager must learn to live with, and ultimately thrive within, the tension created by this dual responsibility" (Hansen & von Oetinger, 2001). Given the importance of both approaches to leadership, it is worth considering the ways in which this framework can be used to prepare a pool of potential leaders À some who have deep vertical expertise and others who would come to the position with experience performing the broad horizontal competencies outside of the specific sector. ...
... Haas (2006) pointed out that individuals or groups possess high or low levels of both specialist and generalist HC. This is consistent with the concept of T-shaped staff, where the vertical and horizontal parts of the T, respectively, represent deep specialised knowledge and general domain knowledge (Hansen and von Oetinger, 2001). HC in a construction contractor firm can be specialist professional technical knowledge and abilities (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose:Intellectual capital (IC) has been suggested to be a means by which firms develop capabilities that enhance competitive advantage. There is, however, a paucity of empirical research linking IC with innovation in construction firms, leaving the IC–innovation link in such environments unclear. The purpose of this paper is to advance understanding of the relationships between IC components and strategic exploratory and exploitative innovation in construction contractor firms. Design/Methodology/Approach:The sample comprised of 135 management personnel from construction contractor firms in Hong Kong. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey using validated scales in the literature which were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Hierarchical linear regression was used to test the hypotheses while partial least squares structural equation modelling was used for post hoc analysis. Findings: Social capital (SC) and organisational capital (OC) each have significant positive linear effects on exploratory and exploitative innovation, while human capital (HC) has no direct linear effect on either innovation type. HC, however, affects both exploratory and exploitative innovation through SC or OC. None of the three IC dimensions has a significant quadratic effect on exploratory or exploitative innovation. The findings suggest that in construction contractor firms increases in the accumulation of SC and OC are associated with proportional increases in exploratory and exploitative innovation. Originality: Despite the growth of studies connecting IC to innovation, the link between IC and exploratory and exploitative innovation has focussed on linear effects in units or on radical innovation outcomes. This study makes a novel contextual contribution by exploring both linear and quadratic effects of IC dimensions on strategic exploratory and exploitative innovation processes in construction contractor firms. The insights contribute to advance knowledge on the relationship between IC and innovation categories in different industrial settings (https://www.emeraldinsight.com/eprint/yxcexYcqV36Da2usM4nB/full)
... The relationship between design and other organisational functions is under increasing scrutiny as multidisciplinary collaboration is at the heart of the application of design methods to a broad range of innovation challenges (Seidel and Fixson, 2013). Hansen and von Oetinger (2001) outline that leaders within the growing knowledge economy must freely share ideas and expertise across the company whilst being committed to firm performance, however they stress that the cultivation of these types of manager within the organisation must be approached carefully. Iansiti (1993) and Leonard-Barton (1995) both argue that in order to deal with these challenges, leaders must be 'T-Shaped' in that they will have a deep knowledge of one subject and broad experience of other subjects. ...
Thesis
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Research has identified the beneficial impact that design-led innovation can have on the competitive success of organisations, however there has been a lack of supporting research that builds on this domain in order to identify areas of best practice for the initial integration of design-led innovation into organisational innovation practices. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the way in which three multinational science and technology-led corporate organisations have attempted this integration. Data collection was guided by a case study approach and occurred in the form of embedded engagements leading to semi-structured interviews, with corporate staff across three in-depth cases. The findings of the research have utilised the case study data to underpin the creation of a theoretical framework that is capable of explaining the way in which design-led innovation has been integrated across the three corporations. The framework demonstrates a cyclical relationship between organisational culture, strategy, structure and operations; in order to provide an explanation for the way in which design has been integrated based on the presence of various barriers to and enablers of design- led innovation. The research findings have importance to business leaders, practicing design managers and academics. For business leaders and design managers, the work offers guidance for optimal practices to integrating design-led innovation, through both top- down and bottom-up approaches, supported by examples from the participating cases. In the case of design academics, the research furthers the theoretical understanding surrounding the way in which design-led innovation occurs, particularly with the creation of a dynamic framework, which differs from existing static approaches.
... The programme was developed based on the concept of T-shape designers. According to Hansen and von Oetiger (2001), the horizontal part of the T refers to a breadth of knowledge across various aspects of design, while the vertical part of the T is defined as the depth of knowledge of professional designers. Thus, this capacity-building programme aimed to build upon designers' core skills and broaden their knowledge in other areas. ...
Article
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Design disciplines have constantly evolved to keep up with the emerging demands of the 21 st Century. Design education is thus called to change its methods, tools and approaches. There is an increasing interest in emerging economies in design education, especially in India, where the role of creativity, communication and technology can support social and economic development. This paper aims to present the educational approach developed in the context of the Erasmus+ KA2 project entitled 'Design and Innovation Capacity Building in India/DESINNO'. The modernisation and internationalisation of Indian universities with innovative and contemporary design courses have been the main goals of a set of research and training activities. In this paper, the state-of-the-art methodologies in design thinking, sustainability, design research, social innovation and ethical issues in design are presented, leading to a bespoke educational approach that provides a platform for Indian design academics to apply modern educational approaches to their specificities and needs.
... For example, cross-sectoral collaboration for dengue control is facilitated by the Inter-Agency Dengue Taskforce. Further, rotation of leadership between different government departments and agencies means that so-called 'T-shaped' managers have not only specialist expertise but a broader perspective on issues and can help to break down departmental or agency silos [53]. This coordinated whole-of-government approach is exemplified by the Singapore response to a dengue outbreak that coincided with the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 (Box 1). ...
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Vector-borne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Aedes-borne diseases, in particular, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, are increasing at an alarming rate due to urbanisation, population movement, weak vector control programmes, and climate change. The World Health Organization calls for strengthening of vector control programmes in line with the Global Vector Control Response (GVCR) strategy, and many vector control programmes are transitioning to this new approach. The Singapore dengue control programme, situated within the country’s larger vision of a clean, green, and sustainable environment for the health and well-being of its citizens, provides an excellent example of the GVCR approach in action. Since establishing vector control operations in the 1960s, the Singapore dengue control programme succeeded in reducing the dengue force of infection 10-fold by the 1990s and has maintained it at low levels ever since. Key to this success is consideration of dengue as an environmental disease, with a strong focus on source reduction and other environmental management methods as the dominant vector control strategy. The programme collaborates closely with other government ministries, as well as town councils, communities, the private sector, and academic and research institutions. Community engagement programmes encourage source reduction, and house-to-house inspections accompanied by a strong legislative framework with monetary penalties help to support compliance. Strong vector and epidemiological surveillance means that routine control activities can be heightened to specifically target dengue clusters. Despite its success, the programme continues to innovate to tackle challenges such as climate change, low herd immunity, and manpower constraints. Initiatives include development of novel vector controls such as Wolbachia-infected males and spatiotemporal models for dengue risk assessment. Lessons learnt from the Singapore programme can be applied to other settings, even those less well-resourced than Singapore, for more effective vector control.
... This is very much conducive towards a culture of managing Although the volume of literature on knowledge management is in general increasing, especially with regard to its "soft" (human and organisational) aspects (e.g. Gupta and Govindarajan, 2000;Hansen and Oetinger, 2001), there is less information available about technical aspects or software tools for knowledge management (Hlupic et al., 2002). ...
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The value of electronic collaboration has arisen as successful organisations recognize that they need to convert their intellectual resources into customized services. The shift from personal computing to interpersonal or collaborative computing has given rise to ways of working that may bring about better and more effective use of intellectual resources. Current efforts in managing knowledge have concentrated on producing, sharing and storing knowledge while business problems require the combined use of these intellectual resources to enable organisations to provide innovative and customized services. In this chapter the collaborative context is developed using a model for electronic collaboration through the use of which organisations may mobiles collaborative technologies and intellectual resources towards achieving joint effect.
... At the turn of the twentieth century many companies (BP, Canon, GlaxoSmithKline, Honda, Siemens and Xerox, among them) have tried, with varied achievement rates, to leverage knowledge assets by centralizing Knowledge Management (KM) functions or by investing heavily in Information Technology (IT) (Davenport and Prusak, 2000;Hansen and von Oetinger, 2001). In parallel, the number of new knowledge management articles, according to Despres and Chauvel (2000, p. 55) "... has more than doubled each year over the past decade". ...
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The chapter evaluates the contribution of shared knowledge and information technology to manufacturing performance. For this purpose, a theoretical model was built and tested in praxis through a research study among manufacturing, quality and R&D groups. The social character of science is perceived as a matter of the aggregation of individuals, not their interactions, and social knowledge as simply the additive outcome of mostly scientists, members of the three groups, making sound scientific judgments. The study results verify the significant contribution of shared knowledge to the manufacturing group performance. They also demonstrate that information technology influences notably the manufacturing group performance and, in a less significant way, the sharing of knowledge. Study results are useful to researchers and the business community alike as they may be used as a springboard for further empirical studies and can help put together strategies involving knowledge management and information technology.
... Among various theoretical and empirical contributions offered for building educational programs that are better able to face the challenges imposed by emerging complex dynamics, one model for rethinking educational programs, which is attracting interest among scholars from several disciplinary domains is the "T-shaped model" (Hansen and Von Oetinger 2001;Spohrer et al. 2010). "T-shaped people" or "T-shaped professionals" as a human resource are capable of combining in-depth vertical knowledge in specific fields, disciplines, or systems with horizontal capabilities in an attempt to shift between them (Spohrer et al.2010). ...
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The study analyzed the factors influencing the decision to attend graduate school in an employed group (female graduate assistants) in a setting where culture/religion plays a dominant role. Specifically, logistic regression procedures were utilized to evaluate the influence of these identified factors. The sample was composed of 208 female graduate assistants in Saudi Arabian public universities. Contrary to expectations, and of interest in this study, is the lack of significant influence of the cultural factor on the decision of female graduate assistants to attend graduate school, despite the perceived hostile (maybe negative) attitude to Western influence in the Arab world. Though marginally significant, being a married woman decreased the likelihood of deciding to attend graduate school according to this study, probably as a result of limited opportunities or roles available to this subgroup after graduation in that echelon of society. The findings generally indicate that the impact of background characteristics, even with the inclusion of the cultural factor in the model, is not very pronounced. Higher education planners and managers should place more emphasis on the institutional environment and the influence of global realities on economic and educational trends, as the end result of this aspiration is to acquire additional knowledge for one’s own benefit and is key to the successful creation of a knowledge society with a knowledge-based economy.
... This ageold question continues to spur debate. While some practitioners argue strongly in favor of specialization (Kovac, 2016), others emphasize the importance of a diverse portfolio of experiences (Hansen & Von Oetinger, 2001;Lovegrove, 2016;Mansharamani, 2012). The latter opinion prevails among human resources practitioners, who often consider generalist skills a qualifying condition for managerial hiring and promotion (Cust odio et al., 2013), especially in knowledge-intensive industries (Wallace & Creelman, 2015). ...
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Research has found that a project manager's experience is a driver of project performance. However, whether specialist or generalist project managers are more effective remains an open question to date. In this paper, we examine how project managers' breadth of experience influences project completion time under different levels of project complexity. Using longitudinal data from 9,765 enterprise resource planning (ERP) system projects executed by a software services organization, we find that managers' breadth of experience has a U‐shaped impact on project completion time. We also find that while we can identify an optimal level of breadth of experience that minimizes project completion time on the U‐curve, this optimal level becomes lower (the U‐curve shifts to the left) as project complexity increases. As project complexity decreases, the U‐curve flattens and tends to become monotonically decreasing, signifying that diseconomies from project managers' breadth of experience are less apparent in simpler projects. From a practical standpoint, these findings suggest that project managers' breadth of experience is a critical driver of project performance that should be a key consideration in the selection of managers to lead knowledge work, especially for complex projects.
... Further, what organizations measure and reward significantly affects their end results. The importance of T-shaped people has been recognized for some time (Hansen and Oetinger 2001). The primary emphasis in U.S. educational systems, however, has been towards STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) programs. ...
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For many years people in government and business organizations have urged universities to try to produce T-shaped people who have both technical expertise and an ability to work well with others. In recent years universities have moved strongly in the opposite direction, toward greater specialization. This article will describe why this change has occurred and the effect on universities and on the creation of T-shaped people. We end with two suggestions: One way to broaden the thinking of students is to increase the attention paid to multidisciplinary fields such as systems science. A second possibility is for business and government to expand internal programs, such as corporate university curricula, to include those aspects of a T-shaped body of knowledge that universities are not covering.
... In essence, successful far-flung team members have to maximize cognitive diversity while creating a collaborative process that is acceptable to all members. One way of overcoming this challenge is to enlist team members who have "T-shaped skills"-deep functional/geographical knowledge and broad organizational process knowledge (Hansen & von Oetinger, 2001). While the deep functional/geographic knowledge is what makes team members valuable to the team, it is their broad network-centric process knowl- edge that sets the common ground for the team and minimizes the behavioral diversity that encumbers far-flung teams (see Chapters 1 and 2). ...
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To leverage knowledge management for business innovation, IT managers must first understand the basic principles, theories, and practices of knowledge management. Next, they must understand how knowledge management will contribute to innovation. This chapter addresses both topics to help make IT managers become IT innovators.
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This study focuses on how self-efficacy plays an important role as moderator between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior. The target population of this study comprises sales and operations department of pharmaceutical companies operating in Islamabad, Pakistan and the employees of pharmaceutical companies were taken as unit of analysis. The data was collected from 350 employees through a well-established questionnaire by random sampling technique. The study used Cronbach's alpha, correlation test, multiple regression and ANOVA test to find consistency of data, the type of relationship between variables, effectiveness of self-efficacy between relationship of knowledge sharing & organizational citizenship behavior and difference between knowledge sharing intensity among the different departments respectively. The results established strong correlation between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior. The study confirmed that self-efficacy strongly and positively affects the association of organizational citizenship behaviour and knowledge sharing.
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الادارة الفاعلة للمخاطر هي وظيفة مركزية في تنفيذ التوجه الاستراتيجي الناجح للمنظمة، ويكشف البحث الحالي كيفية تحسين المداخل القائمة على المعرفة لادارة المخاطرة لتكون اكثر استجابة لتغيرات البيئة الداخلية والخارجية للمنظمة ومن ثم زيادة فاعليتها، ويتيح عرض عمليات ادارة مخاطرة المعرفة اجراء مناقشة الخصائص المطلوبة لهذا المدخل. وقد جرى دراسة ادارة المخاطر وادارة المعرفة لغاية الان بشكل مستقل تقريباً، ويتطلب تطور ادارة المخاطر نظرة شمولية لادارة مخاطر المنظمة والحواجز بين الصوامع التنظيمية وتبادل المعرفة وتطبيقها في مختلف مجالات ادارة المخاطر. وبغية تفسير العلاقات والروابط بين ادارة مخاطرة المعرفة والتوجه الاستراتيجي وانعكاسها على فاعلية المنظمة، جرى صياغة مجموعة تساؤلات تعبر عن تلك الروابط في اطاريها النظري على مستوى المفاهيم، والعملي على مستوى التطبيق، ومن تلك التساولات هي درجة تفسير ادارة مخاطرة المعرفة عند مستوى معين تباين التوجهات الاستراتيجية للمصارف الحكومية عينة البحث، ومن ثم مستويات الاداء فيها، بمعنى درجة تاثير التكامل بين ادارة المخاطرة وادارة المعرفة في اختلاف التوجهات الاستراتيجية للمصارف الحكومية المدروسة ومن ثم فاعليتها. ويعد البحث خطوة اولى للقيام بمزيد من البحوث في طريق دراسة امكانية الافادة من التداخل بين الحقول المعرفية عبر التكامل بين البنى على مستوى المفاهيم وتطبيقاتها وما يترتب عليها من بلوغ لحقائق محددة تصب في النهاية بتعزيز مستويات اداء المنظمات والتي تبرز من بينها منظمات الخدمة العامة بما فيها المصرفية منها. وينطلق البحث نحو تحقيق مجموعة من الاهداف تتصل في جوهرها بالكشف عن حقيقة العلاقة بين ادارة مخاطرة المعرفة والتوجه الاستراتيجي وتاثيرها في فاعلية المنظمة عبر التعرف على طبيعة هذه العلاقة كهدف رئيس. وجرى استعمال الاستبانة كاداة اساسية لجمع البيانات بعد ان عرضت على مجموعة راي منتخبة والاسلوب المسحي بالاعتماد على المقابلات المهيكلة والتي جرى توزيعها على عينة البحث البالغة (202) مستجيباً والتي استهدفت ادارات مصرفي الرافدين والرشيد وفروعهما المنتشرة في بغداد، بعدها جرى تحليل البيانات واختبار الفرضيات باستعمال الادوات الاحصائية الملائمة وتحليلها عبر عدد من البرامج الاحصائية الجاهزة (SPSS، وExcel، وAmos، وSobel). واشارت نتائج اختبار الفرضيات بمجملها الى توافر الدعم والقبول الجزئي بفرضيات البحث على مستوى الابعاد الممثلة للمتغيرات والعلاقات الرابطة في ما بينهما بعد ان اثبتت النتائج معنويتها وقبولها على مستوى ابعاد (مخاطرة استمرارية المعرفة وانتقالها) في تاثيرها بفاعلية المصارف المدروسة عبر رؤيتها وقيمها، وعدم معنويتها ورفضها على مستوى الابعاد الاخرى، وهذا ما يدعو للقول بضرورة بذل ادارات المصارف للمزيد من الجهد في دعم ادارة المخاطر المنظمية الحقيقية على اساس المعرفة، واستعمال هياكل الحوافز التنظيمية والاقتصادية لتبادل المعرفة وتوظيفها في تجنب المخاطر المحتملة.
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Chapter
In the face of an emerging scenario characterized by multiple overlapping trends that seriously question the future of mankind, this contribution envisions the need for a re-founding of human values in which process scholars are required to play a prominent role. Our focus is on the complexity of interdisciplinary thinking required for the development of a new widely shared paradigm. In particular, we believe that systems thinking can support interdisciplinarity as a common denominator of generalizable knowledge useful to build a shared thinking space that cross-cuts the boundaries of various disciplines. Within this context, the bases are delineated of a potential approach, favouring interdisciplinary convergence toward a shared vision of the future, via general systems thinking models developed within the Viable Systems Approach strand of studies.
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This qualitative study examines 21st century skills used by former ballerinas in their current careers as data analysts. Using the Partnership for 21st Century Learning’s list of 21st century skills as the framework, four unstructured interviews were analyzed. The findings indicate that the former ballerinas (1) articulate a connection between the creativity needed for ballet and data analysis, (2) recognize that their ballet training helped them develop 21st century skills needed to be data analysts, and (3) suggest that being a dancer influences their identity. These findings can contribute to the discussion of developing transferable skills essential to workplace success.
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The purpose of the chapter is to introduce the T‐shaped professional and advance it as an organizing rubric for curriculum development in higher education as a strategy to enhance employability. The chapter explores the T‐shaped professional by investigating its history, considering the context creating demand for T‐shaped people, and outlining curricular and pedagogical strategies for a developing T‐shaped people.
Chapter
>The fast pace of the technological evolution forces workers to update their competencies in order to remain attractive in the labor market: the World Economic Forum identified upskilling and re‐skilling as two of the main challenges for reducing the risk of job loss. This chapter argues that the professional evolution suggested by the studies about the T‐shaped professionals is particularly suitable to interpret the changes of jobs that are caused by the technological revolution and hence to suggest how workers could enhance their employability in the labor market. It identifies four areas of skill specialization: computer‐related skills, digital skills, functional‐related skills, and soft skills. The chapter provides the research defining which is the set of professional, soft and digital competences needed to be employable in the contemporary labor market. It provides useful insights to employers and policy‐makers to design effective training programs and to employees in order to manage their professional development.
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Design methods and processes are now commonly used across disciplines as an approach to gain deeper and more connected understanding within complex or wicked problems. However, little research exists on the use of Design to facilitate and grow interdisciplinary research culture within higher education institutes. This paper discusses how and why Design methods were used to create an interdisciplinary research culture in a newly emergent and rapidly evolving higher education environment. It uses a case study of a teaching orientated higher education institute, now moving towards Technological University status, and seeking to create an Interdisciplinary research culture. It discusses the process of using Design to create a unifying research identity, Design methods in mapping and framing of research landscapes, designing dissemination platforms, and Co-designing future research policy for the institute.
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Given the continued popularity of coaching in the West and its increasing use in China, this chapter examines how the predominantly Western-driven coaching methodology can be modified for more effective use in a Confucian culture and its potential positive impact on knowledge exchange and innovation. Through this exploration, the authors examine how a mixed methodology of coaching, wherein team coaching is deployed with internal coaches, can improve coachee's Positive Career Behaviors and as a result the socialisation of knowledge within the organisation. In exploring this dynamic the authors seek to raise awareness of the potential for coaching to address a number of issues within Nonaka's SECI model and to particularly focus on how team coaching may both increase organisational learning and opportunities for knowledge creation.
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Im ersten Teil seines Beitrags in der letzten Ausgabe hat Michael W. Busch das richtige Mischverhältnis bei der Teamzusammensetzung, die Identifikation der Entwicklungsstufe eines Teams, die personelle Anpassung von Teamstrukturen und die Ermöglichung multipler Mitgliedschaften von Teammitgliedern beschrieben. Im zweiten und letzten Teil geht der Autor der Frage nach, wie durchlässige Grenzen dafür sorgen, dass kreative Impulse von außen die kollektive Wissensbasis in Teams positiv beeinflussen. Schließlich wird die Rolle der Teamführung reflektiert
Chapter
Il "Memorandum on Lifelong Learning" (2000) ha sottolineato la necessità di adattare i modelli di formazione esistenti alle nuove esigenze in costante evoluzione della società. Nel fare questo, la "capacità" di creare e sfruttare efficacemente la conoscenza è stata etichettata come la risorsa più importante per rispondere alle attuali dinamiche mutevoli (Cerini e Spinosi, 2005). L'attenzione focalizzata sulle capacità piuttosto che sulle competenze trova anche supporto nell'idea che si sostiene nel presente lavoro: le competenze sviluppate con una impostazione marcata-mente cartesiana, su cui si basano gli schemi tradizionali e convenzionali di formazione, di solito portano a modelli interpretativi della realtà non soddisfacenti e non in grado di coglierne le complesse ed emergenti dinamiche. Questo è il motivo per cui, ad esempio, gli strumenti standard per la formazione e l’apprendimento (quali percorsi formativi basati su approcci accentuatamente cartesiani all’apprendimento e focalizzati in via esclusiva su competenze specialistiche), non sono più sufficienti a favorire la creazione e lo sviluppo di capacità di problem setting e decision making in contesti complessi.
Article
Research shows that teams comprised of individuals with differing knowledge are increasingly important to enabling innovation in organizations. Beyond diverse connections, research also shows individuals must be familiar with their collaborators’ areas of expertise to effectively integrate knowledge. Despite growing recognition of the importance of familiarity for interdisciplinary collaboration, we argue that there is reason to suspect this form of relationship is likely to be particularly rare in organizations. We present an egocentric analysis of collaboration networks in a scientific organization, exploring factors associated with the copresence of interdisciplinary ties alongside familiarity with a collaborator’s area of expertise. Our results demonstrate pressures toward similarity of expertise that minimized connections to differing alters. Furthermore, those respondents who had diverse connections tended to be unfamiliar with their distant collaborators’ domains. Interaction counteracted this effect but participants reported pressures inhibiting interaction across knowledge boundaries. The findings demonstrate how network forces compound to inhibit what we call “different yet familiar” ties and, by doing so, offer conceptual and practical implications for contemporary organizations.
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Zusammenfassung In diesem Fallbeispiel der Zeitschrift „Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation (GIO)“ wird abgeleitet, wie sich die unternehmens- und gewerkübergreifende Kooperation im Baugewerbe durch die Einführung eines digitalen Tools zur 3D-Modellierung von Gebäuden verändern könnte. Die Digitalisierung durchdringt das Baugewerbe (Naegele et al. 2015) und soll im Fall von Building Information Modeling (BIM) Potenziale zur Optimierung der Planung, Fertigung und Wartung von Gebäuden bieten (z. B. Fischer et al. 2017). Im Fallbeispiel wird ein digitales Tool entwickelt, mit dem auch kleine und mittlere Unternehmen, die momentan über keine Kompetenzen und Ressourcen zur computerbasierten Modellierung von Gebäuden im mehrdimensionalen Raum verfügen, diesem Digitalisierungstrend folgen können. Zur erfolgreichen Integration eines digitalen Tools in die kooperativen Arbeitsprozesse bedarf es einer proaktiven, gemeinsamen und menschenzentrierten Betrachtung der Technologie und der Arbeitsgestaltung im Sinne des soziotechnischen Ansatzes (z. B. Parker und Grote 2020). Im Fokus des Beitrags steht die mögliche Veränderung der Arbeitsprozesse und der Arbeitsgestaltung der unternehmens- und gewerkübergreifenden Kooperation eines mittelgroßen Holzbauunternehmens in der Planungsphase des Gebäudebaus durch die Technologieeinführung. Der Ist- und Soll-Zustand sowie die möglichen Konsequenzen der Einführung des digitalen Tools werden diskutiert. Das digitale Tool verspricht eine Intensivierung der gemeinsamen Arbeit in der Planungsphase, durch die Probleme in der Ausführungsphase reduziert werden können. Neben erwünschten Veränderungen, wie den verbesserten Möglichkeiten zum Informationsaustausch und zur Abstimmung, sind vielfältige weitere Konsequenzen möglich, die durch eine frühzeitige Aufdeckung in der Entwicklungsphase eines digitalen Tools proaktiv gestaltbar werden.
Chapter
Development of knowledge assets and protection of knowledge assets are both complementary and competing concerns for the contemporary business. Each has specific issues related to trust that need to be understood and addressed before an individual firm launches a knowledge management initiative. Further, with important contemporary trends such as enterprise systems, external knowledge management networks, and aggressive competitive intelligence efforts, decision-makers must increasingly evaluate their circumstances and establish the appropriate levels of trust between individuals and the organization and between cooperating organizations. This chapter reviews and elaborates on such issues. It then passes to a consideration of how these concerns might vary by industry, presenting selected data on knowledge development and knowledge protection conditions in a variety of industries.
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An e-business new product development (NPD) knowledge articulation model is built from the interdisciplinary empirical and theoretical literature. The model is intended to facilitate a case study of a large multinational mobile communications services/products company (with team members in Europe, Asia and Australia). The NPD teams include subject matter experts that function as a community of practice, electronically collaborating in a virtual context. The knowledge created and shared in the NPD teams involve various unknown levels of tacit and explicit ideas, which are difficult to understand or assess. The goal of the research is to build a tacit knowledge articulation framework and measurement construct that can be used to understand how a successful (or unsuccessful) NPD team operates, in terms of knowledge innovation and productivity. Complex issues and controversies in knowledge management are examined to clarify terminology for future research.
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