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Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis

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Abstract

Almonds and other nuts appear to confer health benefits despite their high fat content. To assess the effect of almonds on colon cancer, whole almond-, almond meal- or almond oil-containing diet effects on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in azoxymethane-treated F344 male rats were investigated. Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed the various almond and control diets and given subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) twice 1 week apart. After 26 weeks animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine 1 h prior to sacrifice, after which colons were evaluated for ACF and cell turnover (labeling index, LI). Whole almond ACF and LI were both significantly lower than wheat bran and cellulose diet groups (-30 and -40%, respectively), while almond meal and almond oil ACF and almond meal LI declines were only significant vs. cellulose (P<0.05). These results suggest that almond consumption may reduce colon cancer risk and does so via at least one almond lipid-associated component.

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... Almond oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid and, when added to the diet, increase HDL-cholesterol and reduce LDL-cholesterol, improve body weight control, and reduce the risk of obesity-related health disorders such as heart disease and type II diabetes (Hollis & Mattes 2007;Damesceno et al. 2011). Hepatoprotective and anticancer activity of almond oil was reported by some in vivo research (Davis & Iwahashi 2001;Jia et al. 2011). ...
... The importance of the fatty acids constituents of nuts in the maintenance of health and protection from cancer is also of interest. Especially, animal studies have provided evidence that almond oil is closely associated with reduction in the incidence of colon cancer (Davis & Iwahashi 2001). The specific effects of almond oil with respect to signalling molecules which play a role during tumour viability metastasis, transcription factors and cell proliferation in colon carcinoma cells remain undefined. ...
... Some studies showed that almond oil reduced colonic cancer incidence in rats (Davis & Iwahashi 2001). The specific effects of almond oil with respect to colon cancer cells remains undefined and there appears to be no published reports that have directly examined the effect of almond oil on colon cancer with in vitro and in vivo studies. ...
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Context: Almond oil is used in traditional and complementary therapies for its numerous health benefits due to high unsaturated fatty acids content. Objectives: This study investigated the composition and in vitro anticancer activity of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and compared with almond oil from Turkey. Materials and methods: Almond oil from Northern Cyprus was obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. Almond oil of Turkey was provided from Turkish pharmacies. Different concentrations of almond oils were incubated for 24 and 48 h with Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells. Cell growth and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assays. Anticancer and antiprolifetarive activities of almond oils were investigated by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against to BMP-2, β-catenin, Ki-67, LGR-5 and Jagged 1. Results: Oleic acid (77.8%; 75.3%), linoleic acid (13.5%; 15.8%), palmitic acid (7.4%; 6.3%), were determined as the major compounds of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey, respectively. In the MTT assay, both almond oils were found to be active against Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells with 1:1 dilution for both 24 h and 48 h. As a result of immunohistochemical staining, while both almond oils exhibited significant antiproliferative and anticancer activity, these activities were more similar in Colo-320 cells which were treated with Northern Cyprus almond oil. Discussion and conclusion: Almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey may have anticancer and antiproliferative effects on colon cancer cells through molecular signalling pathways and, thus, they could be potential novel therapeutic agents.
... PAO is abundant in beta-zoosterol, squalene and alpha-tocopherol that is worthy for skin and majorly contain essential fatty acids, carbohydrate and protein and also very important vitamins and minerals specifically vitamin B complex and zinc [9]. Prunus amygdalus have been used pharmacologically for irritable bowel syndrome and colonic cancer, cardiovascular and cholesterol lowering action, lipid lowering action, hemorrhoids, hypoglycemic action, hepatoprotective action, immuno-stimulant action, amnesia action, pre-biotic potential, antioxidant, antistress and prominent laxative action [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. PAO is also being successfully used in aroma therapy, cosmetic purpose and as a staple diet [9,10]. ...
... Prunus amygdalus have been used pharmacologically for irritable bowel syndrome and colonic cancer, cardiovascular and cholesterol lowering action, lipid lowering action, hemorrhoids, hypoglycemic action, hepatoprotective action, immuno-stimulant action, amnesia action, pre-biotic potential, antioxidant, antistress and prominent laxative action [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. PAO is also being successfully used in aroma therapy, cosmetic purpose and as a staple diet [9,10]. ...
... PAO is abundant in beta-zoosterol, squalene and alpha-tocopherol that is worthy for skin and majorly contain essential fatty acids, carbohydrate and protein and also very important vitamins and minerals specifically vitamin B complex and zinc [9]. Prunus amygdalus have been used pharmacologically for irritable bowel syndrome and colonic cancer, cardiovascular and cholesterol lowering action, lipid lowering action, hemorrhoids, hypoglycemic action, hepatoprotective action, immuno-stimulant action, amnesia action, pre-biotic potential, antioxidant, antistress and prominent laxative action [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. PAO is also being successfully used in aroma therapy, cosmetic purpose and as a staple diet [9,10]. ...
... Prunus amygdalus have been used pharmacologically for irritable bowel syndrome and colonic cancer, cardiovascular and cholesterol lowering action, lipid lowering action, hemorrhoids, hypoglycemic action, hepatoprotective action, immuno-stimulant action, amnesia action, pre-biotic potential, antioxidant, antistress and prominent laxative action [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. PAO is also being successfully used in aroma therapy, cosmetic purpose and as a staple diet [9,10]. ...
... Apricot kernels are a rich source of nutrients such as crude oil (43-53%, w/w, dry weight basis), protein (25-26%, w/w, dry weight basis), and soluble sugar (6.5-14%, w/w, dry weight basis) (Femenia, Roselló, Mulet, & Cañellas, 1995) and are associated with the improvement of human health in the following examples. They can decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, increase the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in human beings (Hyson, Schneeman, & Davis, 2002) and reduce the risk of colon cancer (Davis & Iwahashi, 2001). Polyphenols are also healthpromoting compounds in apricot kernels which have been shown to be a protective agent against cancer and cardiovascular disease (Liu, 2004;Knekt et al., 2002). ...
Article
In this paper, the effect of drying temperature was investigated on the drying kinetics of the debittered and skin-removed apricot kernels, and the thin-layer drying model was also constructed by fitting the eight mathematical models such as Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli et al. and Approximation of diffusion model,. Among them, the Midilli et al. and Approximation of diffusion models were selected to describe the drying characteristics of apricot kernels due to their relatively higher coefficient of determination (R2), and lower chi-square (χ2) and root mean square error (RMSE). Beyond that, the moisture loss and the effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the kernels during drying were also described and estimated by Fick’s second law and the data obtained, getting a range of 1.39×10−8 to 3.5×10−8 m2/s, respectively. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity coefficients was described with the activation energy (Ea) value of 16.5 kJ/mol. All these results are beneficial for better understanding and controlling the drying of apricot kernels. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... uncooked, roasted, blanched, the chocolate and cream cake industry, and the pharmaceutical and paint industries) are among the features which highlight almond (ESFAHLAN and JAMEI, 2012;SOCIAS I COMPANY, 2008;VIJERATNE et al., 2006). In addition, it is effectively used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases (28 to 100 g day -1 ); to decrease the level of LDL cholesterol in blood; to reduce the effect of many types of cancer such as lung, pancreas, stomach, and colon; to nourish the brain and nervous systems; and to fight obesity and diabetes for a better life (AHMAD, 2010;BOLLING et al., 2010;DAVIS and IWAHASHI, 2001;ESFAHLAN et al., 2010;JENKINS et al., 2002). Furthermore, the richness of almond oil in antioxidants also allows it to be utilized as a natural softener and a skin rejuvenator today by beauticians, massage specialists, and aromatherapists (AHMAD, 2010). ...
... uncooked, roasted, blanched, the chocolate and cream cake industry, and the pharmaceutical and paint industries) are among the features which highlight almond (ESFAHLAN and JAMEI, 2012;SOCIAS I COMPANY, 2008;VIJERATNE et al., 2006). In addition, it is effectively used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases (28 to 100 g day -1 ); to decrease the level of LDL cholesterol in blood; to reduce the effect of many types of cancer such as lung, pancreas, stomach, and colon; to nourish the brain and nervous systems; and to fight obesity and diabetes for a better life (AHMAD, 2010;BOLLING et al., 2010;DAVIS and IWAHASHI, 2001;ESFAHLAN et al., 2010;JENKINS et al., 2002). Furthermore, the richness of almond oil in antioxidants also allows it to be utilized as a natural softener and a skin rejuvenator today by beauticians, massage specialists, and aromatherapists (AHMAD, 2010). ...
Article
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The phenolic (gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, kaempferol, naringenin, and p-coumaric acid) and tocopherol contents (α, β, γ, and δ) of some commercially significant almond cultivars were determined in the research. Wide variations in phenolic and tocopherol contents were detected among the cultivars in the research. The highest rate among the phenolic substances was obtained in catechin, with the average values of 27.35 µg g-1 in 2008 and 39.87 µg g-1 in 2009. The highest catechin content was recorded in cultivar ‘Ferraduel’ in both years, with the values of 117.59 µg g-1 in 2008 and 145.86 µg g-1 in 2009. The highest rate among the tocopherols was obtained in α-tocopherol, and the average values were detected as 312.29 mg kg-1 in 2008 and 467.31 mg kg-1 in 2009. The highest α-tocopherol contents were determined as 899.49 mg kg-1 and 945.41 mg kg-1 in cultivar ‘Supernova’ in both years, respectively. In the research, α-tocopherol turned out to be the major tocopherol.
... In another study in Korea, it was revealed that F. carica (Tin) can be useful as a complementary medicine in patients with chronic constipation, especially those who have an improper diet [33] . In an animal study to assess the effect of Prunus amygdalus (Loz) on colon cancer, it was observed that various almond products increase colon motility and improve bowel transit times [34] . Effects of olive oil as a laxative had been pointed out in several studies, which may improve bowel movements and prevent constipation in adults and children [35][36][37][38] . ...
Article
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Constipation is one of the most common complaints of children and a common cause of referrals to pediatricians. Numerous reasons for this disease have been mentioned in the Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). It is believed that this disorder is mostly due to the lack of consideration of the six essential principles (Setteh-ye-Zarurieah), which are necessary to maintain health and prevent disease. In this descriptive study we collected and classified the concepts related to the topic by reviewing reliable ITM text books. Scientific databases were also searched for the most commonly used herbs in the treatment of constipation. The results showed that, from the perspective of ITM, the first step in treating constipation in children is making lifestyle changes. This includes giving appropriate training in the six essential principles, and making modification in existing habits where necessary. In the next steps, using some herbal remedies for topical or oral administration is recommended. On the other hand, a few clinical trials have been done concerning the effects of herbal medicines on pediatric constipation. Therefore, ITM's preventive and curative strategies can provide an efficient and cost-effective way to address constipation in children. This study can serve as a preface to performing clinical studies in this field.
... Almonds are a good source of high-quality protein and contain 16-22% protein on a dry weight basis (Sathe et al., 2002). It has been reported that almonds, when incorporated in the diet, reduce colon cancer risk in rats (Davis & Iwahashi, 2001). It also increases HDL cholesterol and reduces LDL cholesterol levels in humans (Hyson, Schneeman, & Davis, 2002). ...
Article
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It is well known that fruit nuts contain wide variety of flavonoids and various proteins, consumption of which has been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases. Cystatins, a family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors, ubiquitously present in all cells serve various important and critical physiological functions. In this study a phytocystatin with molecular mass of 63.4 kDa was purified to homogeneity by a three-step process including ammonium sulfate fractionation (50–70%), acetone precipitation, and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S100-HR column.The purified inhibitor migrated as single band under native and SDS-PAGE. The Ki values for purified inhibitor with papain, ficin, and bromelain were found to be 45.45, 83.33, and 90.9 nM, respectively, suggesting higher affinity of the inhibitor for papain as compared to ficin and bromelain. Phytocystatin was stable in broad pH and temperaturerange. Purified cystatin appeared to be antigenic as observed in western blot analysis. ITC assay data show a binding stoichiometry of 0.870 ± 0.03 sites for cystatin and papain interaction which indicated that cystatin is surrounded by nearly one papain molecule. FTIR, UV, and fluorescence studies showed significant conformational changes on cystatin–papain complex formation. Purified cystatin was found to possess 36.8% α-helical content as observed by CD spectroscopy.
... The results obtained by Davis and Iwahashi (2001) suggest that almond consumption may reduce the risk of colon cancer. Six-week-old male rats were fed either whole almond-, almond meal-, almond oil-containing or control diets, and were then given subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane twice one week apart. ...
Chapter
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Almonds (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb, Rosaceae), Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excels Humb. &; Bonpl., Lecythisaceae), cashews (Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae), hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L., Betulaceae), macadamia nuts (Macadamia interfolia Maiden &; Betche, Proteaceae), pecans (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, Juglandaceae), pine nuts (Pinus spp., Pineaceae), pistachios (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae), and walnuts (Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae) are considered as the most commercially important tree nuts. The USA is one of the leading producers of tree nuts worldwide, with 1.5 million metric tons of shelled tree nuts produced in 2012. USA tree nut consumption per capita has increased from 1.17∩kg to 1.89∩kg as the popularity of tree nuts has grown significantly over the past decade. Tree nut exports averaged >40% of the total value of USA fruit and nut exports. East Asia, Hong Kong, and China are the most prominent trade partners for USA tree nuts, which jointly account for over 21% of the total exports. Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands are important export destinations in Europe. Recently, the USA has enjoyed an increased export for supplying almonds, pistachios, and walnuts to the EU, with a market share of 91%, 73%, and 55%, respectively.
... Nitekim yapılan çalışmalarla sert kabuklu meyve türleri içerisinde en yüksek protein içeriğine bademin (%20) sahip olduğu bununla birlikte ve kolesterol içermediği belirtilmiştir (Ahrens et al., 2005). Ayrıca bademin, kötü kolesterol olarak bilinen LDY yi düşürdüğü iyi kolesterol olarak bilinen HDL'yi yükselttiği, kolon ve akciğer kanseri riskini azalttığı tespit edilmiştir (Davis and Iwahashi, 2001). Bademin E vitaminince ve antioksidanlarca zengin olması sayesinde, kalp krizi riskini %50 azalttığı, kemikleri güçlendirdiği, tümör hücrelerinin gelişimini engellediği, prostat kanserine karşı koruduğu, baş, böbrek ve karaciğer ağrılarını azalttığı, eklem, romatizma ve cilt hastalıklarına iyi geldiği tespit edilmiştir (Spiller et al., 1998;McManus et al., 2001;Jenkins et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2005;Mandalari et al., 2010). ...
... Historically, almond oil was used in Ancient Chinese, Ayurvedic and Greco-Persian Schools of Medicine to treat dry skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. Consumption of almond is shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis [10]. Traditionally, almonds and almond oil have been used in several Asian countries as a memory booster. ...
Article
Background: Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest in the usual activities. According to WHO, depression has been estimated to affect up to 21% of the world's population, while two recent cross-sectional studies conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia show that about 50% of the population is suffering from mild to severe depression. Objective: Since the adverse effects associated with the current anti-depression medications are severe, the current study aimed to test the anti-depressant effect of natural oils, including almond oil, along with the inhalation of lavender oil, for alleviating depression. Methods: Male Wister rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used for the study. Almond oil was given to rats through oral or intraperitoneal injection (3.2 g/kg). Inhalation of lavender oil (diluted with water; 1: 20) was given to rats for a period of 30 or 60 min. The anti-depressant effect of the natural oils was evaluated using two different methods, either the forced swim test or the passive avoidance test. Results: The anxiety and depression associated with forcing the rats to swim is reduced by the treatment with almond oil alone and in combination with the inhalation of lavender oil. The treatments resulted in the reduction of immobility events and an improvement in climbing behavior. Furthermore, the treatment of rats with almond oil alone and in combination with lavender oil inhalation increased the latency period to avoiding the shock in the passive avoidance test apparatus. The combination therapy resulted in a significant additive effect in the passive avoidance test. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the treatment with almond oil or the combination of almond oil with the inhalation of lavender oil show anti-depressant-like effects in the rats studied, using the forced swim test and the passive avoidance test as evaluation tools.
... Besides, almond oil has long been used in complementary medicine circles for its numerous health benefits[12]. It has been demonstrated that almond oil has several properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting and antihepatotoxicity effects[13][14][15][16]. It is also used as component of dry skin creams, anti-wrinkle, and anti-aging products in the cosmetic industry as well as for pharmaceutical purposes. ...
Article
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In Morocco, almond(Prunusdulcis[Mill.] D.A. Webb) is the most important nut tree and the second after olive in terms of commercial production.In this work, we investigated almond oil content and its physico-chemical traits from fivecultivars widely grown in northern Morocco. Oil quality determinations consisted of polyphenols content (PP), acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), and UV absorption coefficients (K232and K270). For all the studied traits, cultivar was the main source of variability, although site and cultivar×site effects were also significant. Mean values averaged between sites of oil content ranged from 49.50% dry weight of total kernel in FournatdeBreznaud to 56.75% in Marcona.Low oil yielding cultivars with early maturity were the highest in terms of PP, resulting in a negative correlation between PP and oil content(r = -0.917***). K232and K270were significantly correlated to PV. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a better discrimination between the five cultivars and sites. In fact, 70% of total variability was genotypic-dependent while 15% was attributed to environmental effect. Oil samples analyzed were generally of excellent quality with low values of AV, PV, K232, and K270and higher values of PP.
... A similar observation was found in our study confirming the induction of colorectal carcinoma in experimental animals. Literature suggests that, the reduction in ACF is a marker of recovery from colorectal carcinoma (Davis and Iwahashi, 2001). Our results demonstrated that the test compounds were able to reduce ACF formation significantly when compared to DMH control suggesting their preventive role. ...
Article
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Considering the therapeutic values of bioflavonoids in colon cancer treatment, six 2′-hydroxy chalcones (C1-C6) were synthesized, characterized and screened for in vitro cytotoxicity on human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero). Only C5 showed selective cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells. Other potent cytotoxic compounds were C1, C2 and C3. Further screening included enzyme inhibition studies on histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme where C1 showed lowest IC50 value (105.03 µM). Based on cytotoxicity data C1, C2 and C3 were selected for further in vitro mechanistic studies, namely apoptotic studies (Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Annexin V), cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) stain and in vivo anticancer efficacy in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinoma in Wistar rats. The compounds induced apoptosis in more than 30% cells in AO/EB and Annexin V staining. They also showed cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase with PI staining. They showed a significant reduction in aberrant crypt foci formation and adenocarcinoma count along with a significant (p<0.05) reduction in TNF-α levels as compared to DMH control at 100 mg/kg dose. Thus, it can be concluded that the synthesized 2′-hydroxychalcones were effective against colon adenocarcinoma in in vitro and in vivo studies. © 2017, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights reserved.
... After eating nuts, we get antioxidants which are responsible to protect the human body by lowing the oxygen mass, it stops the chain which is responsible for hydrogen removal from the substance, decomposing of the first stage of oxidation to non-radical, stops the initial chain reaction by hunting down the free radicals, stops the process of singlet oxygen making, ion catalysts bonded by them [8]. Almonds when added to the daily base diet is reported that's it reduce the factors that cause colon cancer in the large intestine in rats [9] and its raise the good cholesterol level and decrease the level of bad cholesterol level in the human body [10]. ...
Article
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Almond belongs to plant-based food and is botanically called Prunus dulcis. The edible part of the almond is the seed that is composed of different nutritive and non-nutritive components. Almond seed consists of fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phenolic compounds. These compositional constituents of almond seed play important role in the human body. It is helpful in heart disease and diabetes because it is a good source of antioxidants and polyphenols that prevents inflammation of cells. Almond seed fiber is suitable for preventing constipation. Conclusively, its seeds are composed of many beneficial components that can reduce the chances of diseases.
... Whereas the inedible counterparts, including almond by-products; hull, shell, and skin and the other aerial parts of leaves and stems are discarded or used as fuel material or livestock feed (Agricultural, Forest + Urban, Green By-Product Marketing + Recycling). Almond has recently been associated with a number of health benefits include powerful free radical scavenging capacities, [4] hepatoprotective, [5] antidiabetic, [6] cholesterol-lowering effect, [7] and anticancer activity [8]. ...
Article
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Metabolite profiling of the total ethanolic extract of Prunus amygdalus stem and leaves was carried out for the first time using LC-DAD-ESI-MS in the negative ion mode to investigate its chemical composition. Results revealed the identification of 33 phenolic compounds. Fifteen compounds were investigated in P. amygdalus for the first time and identified as; veratic acid, rosmarinicacid, protocatechuic acid-hexoside, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid), dihydroquercetin- hexoside, coumaroyl-quinic acid, vanillic acid glucoside, cis piceid, hesperidin, dihydrokaempferol, acteoside, quercetin acetyl hexoside, homovanillic acid, fisetin-deoxyhexoside. The antioxidant potential of the total ethanolic extract (EE) and the fractions: petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE), ethyl acetate (EtE), methanol eluted diaion (DME) and diaion eluted with 50% methanol (D 50%E) was performed using DPPH assay. The most potent antioxidant EE, EtE and D50%E extracts (compared with vitamin C) were selected for further hepatoprotective assessment against hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in a dose of 200 mg/kg compared with silymarin (50 mg/kg) as a standard drug. Results revealed the significant reversal of the deleterious effects of thioacetamide on serum ALT, AST and total protein in the order: EtE > (Silymarin = EE) > D50% E. The biochemical results were corroborated with the histological studies of liver.
... El consumo de almendras ha aumentado en los últimos años ( Gradziel et al., 2017), un hecho que responde a la evolución de su consideración desde la de un aperitivo y un elemento de diversos postres, especialmente los navideños, hacia la de un alimento saludable. El consumo regular de almendras se ha asociado con un amplio abanico de beneficios, tales como de protección contra el cáncer (Da vis e Iwahashi, 2001;Davis et al., 2003), la obesidad ( Ren et al., 2001;Fraser et al., 2002;Kendall et al., 2003), la diabetes ( Scott et al., 2003) y las enfermedades cardiovasculares ( Spiller et al., 1992;Fulgoni et al., 2002;Hyson et al., 2002;Jenkins et al., 2002;Sabaté et al., 2003). Las almendras se encuentran en un gran número de productos y de aplicaciones gastronómicas y se consideran un ingrediente básico de la dieta mediterránea. ...
Article
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Oil content, percentage of the different fatty acids and concentration on the three main tocopherol homologs were determined for the almonds of 23 cultivars of Majorca. All these parameters showed great variability, with a range of 47.40-56.78% of dry matter for oil, of 58.65-78.44% of total oil for oleic acid, of 12.01-29.40% for linoleic acid, of 5.38-7.06% for palmitic acid, of 1.88-3.71% for stearic acid, of 0.38- 0.61% for palmitoleic acid, of 258.5-500.2 mg kg⁻¹ oil for a-tocopherol, of 0.02-1.13 mg kg⁻¹ oil for d-to - copherol, of 1.89-20.8 mg kg⁻¹ oil for ˠ-tocopherol, and of 260.41-522.13 mg kg⁻¹ oil for total tocopherols. This variability agrees with the levels of variability of these components analyzed in almond cultivars of different geographical origin, but the values obtained were lower than the average for the oil content, the percentage of oleic acid and the concentration of tocopherols, a fact that may recommend a rapid commercialization of the Majorcan almonds, as well as their utilization for specific confectioneries due to their oil content. é 2018. Asociacion Interprofesional para el Desarrollo Agrario, All rights reserved.
... Almond consumption has almost doubled in the last 20 years [5], a fact that highlights how this consumption has evolved from a convenient snack food and component of a high number of confectioneries, to an important food which is increasingly recognized as essential for maintaining and increasing human health. Recent nutritional and medical studies have associated the regular consumption of almonds with a wide range of health benefits, including protection from cancer [6,7], obesity [8][9][10], diabetes [11,12], and heart diseases [13][14][15][16][17]. Almond kernels may be consumed in many different ways, blanched or unblanched, raw or combined, and/or mixed with other nuts. They can also be transformed to produce marzipan, nougat, almond milk, and almond flour, incorporated in many pastries and ice creams. ...
Article
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Almond is the most important nut species worldwide and almond kernels show the highest levels of tocopherols among all nuts. In almond, tocopherols not only play a substantial role as a healthy food for human consumption, but also in protecting lipids against oxidation and, thus, lengthening the storage time of almond kernels. The main tocopherol homologues detected in almond in decreasing content and biological importance are α-, γ-, δ-, and β-tocopherol. Tocopherol concentration in almond depends on the genotype and the environment, such as the climatic conditions of the year and the growing management of the orchard. The range of variability for the different tocopherol homologues is of 335-657 mg/kg of almond oil for α-, 2-50 for γ-, and 0.1-22 for β-tocopherol. Drought and heat have been the most important stresses affecting tocopherol content in almond, with increased levels at higher temperatures and in water deficit conditions. The right cultivar and the most appropriate growing conditions may be selected to obtain crops with effective kernel storage and for the most beneficial effects of almond consumption for human nutrition and health.
... Almond is one of the popular fruits being increased in both production and consumption owing to the fact that human health and beneficial all over the word [5,6]. Furthermore, sweet almond fruit is used in the food industry and almond oil obtained from bitter almond used in the chemistry industry [7][8][9]. In addition, almond is one of the important fruits recommended and be consumed in the human diet, due to its contents of fatty acids, protein, dietary fiber, polyphenols, vitamins C and E and many minerals [10][11][12][13]. ...
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Selection of promising genotypes possessing superior yield and quality traits among the rich almond seedling population in Turkey is necessary for increasing the contribution of these genotypes to the Turkish economy through propagation. It is also important to consider the relationship between yield and quality traits when making this selection. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two sets of variables created considering characteristics of fruit and kernel of almond by using the canonical correlation analysis method, which is one of the multivariable analysis methods. In this method, the relationship between two canonical variables and the major variables of the same set was examined. It was concluded that the increase in fruit weight (FWe) and fruit thickness (FT) led to a significant decrease in kernel weight (KWe) and kernel ratio (KR).
... Various health benefits associated with the consumption of Almond have been reported. Almond nuts help lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and simultaneously increase the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevent diabetes-associated disorders like heart disease and type II diabetes [27,28]. In vivo studies have reported that almond oil significantly reduces colon cancer cells' emergence and exhibited hepatoprotective properties [29]. ...
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy found in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is defined by PCa cells that stop responding to hormone therapy. Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of androgens in humans. Androgen signaling cascade is a principal survival pathway for prostate cancer cells, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the key treatment for patients marked with locally advanced and metastatic PCa cells. Available synthetic drugs have been reported for toxicity, drug resistance, and decreasing efficacy. Thus, the design of novel selective inhibitors of CYP17A1 lyase would help circumvent associated side effects and improve pharmacological activities. Therefore, we employed structural bioinformatics techniques via molecular docking; molecular mechanics generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA), molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and pharmacokinetic study to identify putative CYP17A1 lyase inhibitors. The results of the computational investigation showed that the Prunus dulcis compounds exhibited higher binding energy than the clinically approved abiraterone acetate. The stability of the ligand with the highest binding affinity (Quercetin-3-o-rutinoside) was observed during MD simulation for 10 ns. Quercetin-3-o-rutinoside was observed to be stable within the active site of CYP17A1Lyase throughout the simulation period. The result of the pharmacokinetic study revealed that, these compounds are promising therapeutic agents. Collectively, this study proposed that bioactive compounds from P. dulcis may be potential selective inhibitors of CYP17A1Lyase in CRPC treatments.
... DMH is an extremely precise colorectal carcinogen that along with its metabolite azoxymethane (AOM) hastens the development of colorectal cancer in rats [39]. e formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) is the initial lesion observed in colon tissues, and a reduction in the ACF count is an essential indicator of recovery from colorectal cancer [40]. In the present study, histopathological analysis indicated the formation of ACF and abnormal mucosal architecture in DMH control group. ...
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Alteration of epigenetic enzymes is associated with the pathophysiology of colon cancer with an overexpression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) enzyme in this tissue. Numerous reports suggest that targeting HDAC8 is a viable strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Flavonols provide a rich source of molecules that are effective against cancer; however, their clinical use is limited. The present study investigated the potential of quercetin and synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues to inhibit HDAC8 enzyme and evaluated their anticancer property. Synthesis of the analogues was carried out, and cytotoxicity was determined using MTT assay. Nonspecific and specific HDAC enzyme inhibition assays were performed followed by the expression studies of target proteins. Induction of apoptosis was studied through annexin V and caspase 3/7 activation assay. Furthermore, the analogues were assessed against in vivo colorectal cancer. Among the synthesized analogues, QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 were cytotoxic against HCT116 cells with an IC 50 value of 68 ± 2.3 and 27.4 ± 1.8 µ M, respectively. They inhibited HDAC enzyme in HCT116 cells at an IC 50 value of 181.7 ± 22.04 and 70.2 ± 4.3 µ M, respectively, and inhibited human HDAC8 and 1 enzyme at an IC 50 value of <50 µ M with QMJ-5 having greater specificity towards HDAC8. A reduction in the expression of HDAC8 and an increase in acetyl H3K9 expression were observed with the synthesized analogues. Both QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 treatment induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase 3/7 evident from 55.70% and 83.55% apoptotic cells, respectively. In vivo studies revealed a significant decrease in colon weight to length ratio in QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 treatment groups compared to DMH control. Furthermore, a reduction in aberrant crypt foci formation was observed in the treatment groups. The present study demonstrated the potential of novel 3-hydroxyflavone analogues as HDAC8 inhibitors with anticancer property against colorectal cancer.
... animal versus plant based) rather than related to the percentage of animal fat in the diet (Geter et al., 2004). Almonds and almond oil appear to reduce ACF inazoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight)-treated F344 male rats when investigated (Davis et al., 2001). As mentioned the higher degree of PUFA content (i.e. ...
Article
Faecal pH and cholate are two important factors that can affect colon tumorigenesis, and can be modified by diet. In this study, the effects of two Chinese traditional cooking oils (pork oil and canola/rapeseed oil) on the pH and the cholic acid content in feces, in addition to colon tumorigenesis, were studied in mice. Kunming mice were randomized into various groups; negative control group (NCG), azoxymethane control group (ACG), pork oil group (POG), and canola oil Ggroup (COG) . Mice in the ACG were fed a basic rodent chow; mice in POG and COG were given 10% cooking oil rodent chow with the respective oil type. All mice were given four weekly AOM (azoxymethane) i.p. injections (10mg/kg). The pH and cholic acid of the feces were examined every two weeks. Colon tumors, aberrant crypt foci and organ weights were examined 32 weeks following the final AOM injection. The results showed that canola oil significantly decreased faecal pH in female mice (P < 0.05), but had no influence on feces pH in male mice (P > 0.05). Pork oil significantly increased the feces pH in both male and female mice (P < 0.05). No significant change was found in feces cholic acid content when mice were fed 10% pork oil or canola oil compared with the ACG. Although Kunming mice were not susceptible to AOM-induced tumorigenesis in terms of colon tumor incidence, pork oil significantly increased the ACF number in male mice. Canola oil showed no influence on ACF in either male or female mice. Our results indicate that cooking oil effects faecal pH, but does not affect the faecal cholic acid content and thus AOM-induced colon neoplastic ACF is modified by dietary fat.
... A rat study showed that diets containing almond oil or meal reduced colon cancer risk (Davis & Iwahashi, 2001). Likewise, the antiproliferative effects of almond oil in primary (Colo-320) and metastatic (Colo-741) colon carcinoma cells were also observed in vitro (Mericli et al., 2017). ...
Article
Almond oil, a rich source of macronutrients and micronutrients, is extracted for food flavorings and the cosmetics industry. In recent years, the need for high-quality and high-quantity production of almond oil for human consumption has been increased. The present review examines the chemical composition of almond oil, storage conditions, and clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of almond oil. From the reviewed studies, it appears that almond oil contains a significant proportion of poly and monounsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid as the main compound, and an important amount of tocopherol and phytosterol content. Some variations in almond oil composition can be found depending on the kernel's origin and the extraction system used. Some new technologies such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, subcritical fluid extraction, and salt-assisted aqueous extraction have emerged as the most promising extraction techniques that allow eco-friendly and effective recovery of almond oil. This safe oil was reported by several clinical studies to have potential roles in cardiovascular risk management, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress reduction, neuroprotection, and many dermatologic and cosmetic applications. However, the anticarcinogenic and fertility benefits of almond oil have yet to be experimentally verified. K E Y W O R D S
... Plethora methodologies of cocos nucifera showed to possess anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-viral, anti-microbial, healing activities, immunomodultor & moisturizing activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-cancer & anti-thrombotic activities and anti-obesity effects [206,207] . Prunus dulcis oil has multi-properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity boosting, anti-hepatotoxicity effects and also showed reduction in colon cancer [208] . Neem seed oil was significantly effective as an analgesic in the dose of 1 & 2 ml/kg and also concluded that animals treated with the dose of 100 mg/kg of Carbon Tetrachloride Extract (CTCE) of azadirachta indica fruit skin and isolated ingredient azadiradione showed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities [209,210] . ...
... It is believed that almond can be considered as a new drug in the management of cancerous tumors. Adding almond or its oil to the rats' diet could significantly decrease the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colonic cell turnover (Davis & Iwahashi, 2001). According to the findings of an in vitro study unsaturated fatty acids in almond oil, especially oleic acid, have antiproliferative and anti-cancer effects due to decreasing of signaling molecules, which play important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of colon cancer cells. ...
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Sweet almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is a known nut, which has long been used in several ethnomedical systems, especially in Persian medicine (PM) for its nutritional and therapeutic activities. In this study, we aimed to provide a summary on traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of sweet almond. Thus, we reviewed textbooks of PM and electronic literature on traditional medicine. Moreover, the available data on the usage of sweet almond were searched in electronic databases to find articles on its pharmacological properties and phytochemistry. According to phytochemical investigations, this plant contains macronutrients, micronutrients, essential oils, various phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. Current pharmacological studies represent that Prunus dulcis has several biological activities including prebiotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiometabolic protection, nootropic, anxiolytic, sedative–hypnotic, and nervous‐improving effects. Further clinical trials and meta‐analysis are required to draw a definitive conclusion on the efficacy and therapeutic activities of almond.
... Wijeratne, Abou-Zaid, et al. (2006) evaluated antioxidant efficacy of defatted almond whole seed, brown skin, and green shell cover extracts by monitoring inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, inhibition of DNA scission and metal ion chelation activities and also found that the brown skin of almond exerted the highest preventive effect against LDL oxidation at 10, 50, and 100 ppm levels, compared to those of whole almond and its green shell (leafy) cover. Almonds, when incorporated in the diet, have been reported to reduce colon cancer risk in rats (Davis & Iwahashi, 2001) and increase HDL cholesterol and reduce LDL cholesterol levels in humans (Hyson, Schneeman, & Davis, 2002). Almond appears to be effective in reducing the risk of heart disease and cancer prevention, and consumption of almond is recommended by FDA for better health conditions (Shahidi, Zhong, Wijeratne, & Ho, 2009). ...
... Anticancer property of almond and its extracts has been also been reported. Davis and Iwahashi [51] reported that whole almond and almond fractions can reduce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. According to Heasman and Mellentin [52] the anticancer properties of almond is mainly attributed to the phytochemicals such as, quercetin and kaempferol, which suppresses lung and prostate tumor cell growth. ...
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In recent times, the Mediterranean diet plans are very popular because it has a lot of advantage in protecting from chronic health problems. Nuts are the integral part of the Mediterranean diet and advised to be incorporated in diet for health benefits. Both tree nuts and pea nut are good source of unsaturated fatty acids, soluble and insoluble fibers, good quantity of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals with recognized benefits to human health. Due to life style disorders many chronic diseases are increasing in human beings. There are many epidemiological studies and research conducted on the relationship between consumption of nuts and chronic disease risks. This book chapter elaborately discusses about the nutritional composition of the nuts and their effect on cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer.
... In an animal study to assess the effect of almond on colon cancer, effects of whole almond-, almond meal-or almond oil-containing diet on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in azoxymethanetreated F344 male rats were investigated. Improved movement through the colon and better bowel transit was presented as a secondary objective in this study [47]. ...
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Background:Constipation is a common complaint during pregnancy. Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) has some recommendations for this complaint. Objective: In this study, interventions of constipation in pregnancy have been presented and their efficacy and safety evidence were reviewed from modern literature. Methods: Interventions selected based upon the chapters related to health protection of pregnant women from ITM literature. Then a literature search was performed in the scientific databases including articles from inception up to March 2014. Articles with a focus on safety or efficacy of the selected herbs during animal or human pregnancy were selected. Results: Folus (Cassia fistula), Shir-khesht (Cotoneaster numularia Fisch.), Tamarind (Tamarindus indica), Taranjabin (Alhagi camelorum), Damask rose (Rosa damascene) and almond oil are the most recommended medications for constipation in pregnant women. For all of these herbs, there is some efficacy evidence in animal or human studies. Folus is forbidden during pregnancy due to its anthraquinones ingredients. Shir-Khesht was safe in a study to treatment of constipation in pregnant women. The other mentioned herbs have not been evaluated during pregnancy. There is limited evidence to provide safe advice for consuming these herbs for constipation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Although there are some animal and human study suggesting the laxative effect of ITM interventions, their safety are not sufficiently documented in modern literature. Scientific studies regarding these herbal remedies during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome are warranted to determine safety.
... Nitekim yapılan çalışmalarla sert kabuklu meyve türleri içerisinde en yüksek protein içeriğine bademin (%20) sahip olduğu bununla birlikte ve kolesterol içermediği belirtilmiştir (Ahrens et al., 2005). Ayrıca bademin, kötü kolesterol olarak bilinen LDY yi düşürdüğü iyi kolesterol olarak bilinen HDL'yi yükselttiği, kolon ve akciğer kanseri riskini azalttığı tespit edilmiştir (Davis and Iwahashi, 2001). Bademin E vitaminince ve antioksidanlarca zengin olması sayesinde, kalp krizi riskini %50 azalttığı, kemikleri güçlendirdiği, tümör hücrelerinin gelişimini engellediği, prostat kanserine karşı koruduğu, baş, böbrek ve karaciğer ağrılarını azalttığı, eklem, romatizma ve cilt hastalıklarına iyi geldiği tespit edilmiştir (Spiller et al., 1998;McManus et al., 2001;Jenkins et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2005;Mandalari et al., 2010). ...
... Almond extracts have been characterized for their effects against cancer and cardiovascular disease. For example, studies conducted with whole almonds and almond fractions have been shown to reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis (Davis and Iwahashi, 2001). Clinical studies have shown that inclusion of almonds in the daily diet may elevate the blood levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) while lowering levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and these lipid-altering effects have been associated with the interactive or additive effects of the numerous bioactive constituents found in almonds (Spiller et al., 1998). ...
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This book has 19 chapters focusing on the beneficial effects of the consumption of fruits and vegetables on human health. Some of the most common fruits and vegetables, their biologically active constituents and their medicinal properties are discussed. Some methodologies used for the extraction, isolation, characterization and quantification of these biologically active compounds and evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo activities are also presented.
... Monounsaturated fats in almond kernels are rich in fiber, α-tocopherol, magnesium and copper (Kamil and Chen, 2012;Şimşek and Kızmaz, 2017). Especially, because of being rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic and oleic acids, they increase good cholesterol (HDL) levels, decrease bad cholesterol levels, and minimize the risks of cardiovascular diseases and heart attacks (Davis and Iwahashi, 2001). ...
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The species Prunus fenzliana is acknowledged to be the possible ancestor of cultivated almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and other wild almond species. The objective of this study was to determine phenological and pomological properties and fatty acid composition of the almond species Prunus fenzliana Fritsch, which grows naturally on the slopes of Mount Ararat. The study was conducted in 2016 and 2017. The fruit weight with shell, kernel weight, fruit thickness with shell: kernel ratios of the selected almond genotypes were 0.47-0.89 g, 0.13-0.22 g, 0.87-1.31 mm, and 22.38-37.36%, respectively. Double kernelled fruits were encountered in two genotypes [(PFG-10 (6.67%) and PFG-15 (7.14%)]. In 2016, the first flowering, full flowering, and harvesting time of the genotypes ranged from 20-25 March, 24-31 March and 17-23 August, respectively. In 2017, the first flowering, full bloom, and harvest time were observed between 08-12 April, 13-17 April and 4-9 September, respectively. The oleic acid concentration was much higher than in previous studies. In this context, the oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic and myristic acid concentrations were 69.2-77.9, 15.2-18.5, 4.6-5.3, 1.2-1.6 and 0.7-1.7%, respectively. The results revealed that genotypes under the Prunus fenzliana species could be used as a genetic resource in rootstock breeding programs and could be utilized in chemical and pharmaceutical industry due to its rich fat content.
... 14 Further, it also possesses more vitamin B complex and zinc content, which support and maintain the skin in healthy condition. The almond oil was reported to possess many multifaceted properties, such as anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting, and anti-hepatotoxicity. [15][16][17] For the first time, we had analyzed the role of almond oil with PU for bone tissue repair applications. The scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications should be nontoxic and also should not cause infection. ...
Article
One of the greatest challenges in the bone remodeling is to fabricate the structure resembling the extracellular matrix. This research aims to fabricate a novel bone scaffold comprising polyurethane (PU) added with almond nanofibers via electrospinning technique. The PU/almond oil nanocomposites showed smaller fiber diameter (629 ± 148.92 nm) compared to the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). The interaction of PU with almond oil was confirmed in the infrared spectrum by the strong formation of a hydrogen bond. The wettability analysis showed that the prepared PU/almond oil nanocomposites were hydrophobic in nature (107° ± 1) compared with the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). Thermal analysis revealed enhancement of the thermal stability with the addition of the almond oil. The addition of almond oil into the PU matrix increased the surface roughness and blood compatibility properties. Further, the fabricated PU/almond oil nanocomposites showed less toxicity to red blood cells (RBCs), as indicated in the hemolytic assay. Hence, the novel fabricated scaffold possesses better physicochemical properties and is nontoxic to the RBCs, which may be utilized for bone tissue regeneration.
... Among diverse nuts consumed around the world, almonds (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) constitute a relevant production due to its organoleptic properties and content of healthy nutrients, being nowadays promoted as healthy foods because of their capacity to lower the prevalence of diverse pathophysiological processes, in specific, reducing the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk of colon cancer and displaying cardioprotective and antidiabetic effects (Davis and Iwahashi 2001;Ros 2010;Vadivel et al. 2012). ...
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Response surface methodology (RSM) was chosen to optimize the influence of solvent pH and relative proportion, and time of extraction, regarding polyphenols and radical scavenging capacity of almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) by-products (hulls, shells, and skins) from an almond orchard located in the North of Portugal (Lousa, Torre de Moncorvo). The RSM model was developed according to a Box-Behnken design and the optimal conditions were set for pH 6.5, 250.0 min, and 90.0% of food quality ethanol, pH 1.5, 235.0 min, and 63.0% ethanol, and pH 1.5, 250.0 min, and 56.0% ethanol for hulls, shells, and skins, respectively. The optimal conditions were obtained applying spectrophotometric techniques because of their versatility, while the chromatographic profile of extracts obtained when applied the optimal conditions indicated the presence of 3-caffeoylquinic acid, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin aglycone in hulls and skins. The model designed allowed the optimization of the phenolic extraction from almond by-products, demonstrating the potential of these materials as sources of antioxidant compounds with potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and food applications.
Article
Present investigation of pollen germination and viability pertain to Prunus amygdalus belonging to family Rosaceae. The pollen germination was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions using "hanging drop technique". Viability was determined by storing pollen in different conditions as refrigerator (4°C), freezer (-20°C, -30°C), freeze drier (-60°C). Pollen stored at low temperature showed better percentage of germination compared to pollen stored at 4°C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen showed viability for a longer period.
Free radicals are highly reactive form of molecules. After their endogenic generation inside human body, they diversely affect human cells and cause various disorders. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals which cause oxidative damage of important biological molecules. Human body possesses natural antioxidant system for protection but sometimes the oxidant-antioxidant level becomes disturbed either due to depletion of immune system or due to more generation of free radicals. Plants contain various secondary metabolites like polyphenolic components which acts as antioxidants. Fruits and vegetables as dietary sources are rich in polyphenolic compounds and other secondary metabolites but many of these are not isolated and purified for their antioxidant potential. Fruits and vegetables are consumed fresh hence; there are less chances of antioxidant loss. As fruits and vegetables are part of daily human diet, it helps in improving endogenous antioxidant level by consuming them. Consumption of fruits and vegetables as source of natural antioxidants is a health beneficiary alternative to consumption of synthetic antioxidants which cause adverse health effects. In this review, antioxidant composition, characterization, positive health effects and efforts to Improve the content of various food and vegetable sources has been discussed.
Article
Seeds are commonly used foods, and several seeds are rich in nutraceuticals. Examples include the seeds of the members of the Apiaceae family, that are used as spices. Seeds are also rich in omega-3-fatty acids, tocotrienols and phytosterols. In addition, there are several unutilized seed species that are rich in nutraceuticals. Consumption of these seeds regularly has been considered to be a health beneficial practice. This chapter provides a comprehensive account of several types of seeds, and their potential influences on health.
Article
The international marketing and cutting-edge research on the nutritional benefits of almonds is discussed. The research reports show that almonds are part of cholesterol-lowering diet even if the resulting diet is slightly higher in fat. The alcohol-based solvents are used for the initial extraction of almond skins, while two steps which involves solvent extraction are used for almond hull reforming removal to obtain almond by-products. The heart health benefits of blanched almonds provides slightly milder taste than natural almonds while roasted almonds offer greater flavor intensity against chocolates, fruits and vegetables.
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The main goal of this chapter is to evaluate the potential functional properties of nuts and dried fruits cultivated in Portugal, contributing for the valorization of the national species, increasing of local products consumption, and local environment and socio-economic sustainability. This work contributes also to value a Mediterranean diet, including the regular consumption of nuts and dried fruits. After a national and international market evaluation of the fruits under study (e.g., almond, hazelnut, walnut, chestnut, pine, carob, dried fig, dried pear, dried grape, and prune), a nutritional characterization was performed as well as a functional properties analysis.
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The almond tree, Prunus dulcis, is a species that belongs to the Amygdalus subgenus inside the Prunus genus, the Rosaceae family and the order Rosales. The almond kernel has been used as food for the mankind, due to its oil-rich and high-calorie content. As consumers are more interested in healthy life styles, almonds are emerging as some of the most popular edible nuts. Almonds are a nutrient-dense food, an excellent source of vitamin E, and a good source of manganese, magnesium, copper, phosphorus, fiber and riboflavin. Recent studies have shown that almonds also contain a diverse array of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds. Almond kernel is known as a source of high lipids (44–61% on fresh weight; 20–68% on dry weight). Only 8% of the fatty acids in almond oil are saturated fats, while it is high in monounsaturated fats, which have demonstrated beneficial effects on lipoprotein profiles in the blood and ability lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The major fatty acid is oleic acid, representing 50–70% of the total fatty acid content. Other minor components in almond oil include sterols, tocopherols (mainly α-tocopherol) and squalene. The almond oil is used as edible oil, mainly as a salad dressing and in vegetable dips. It is also used in the cosmetic industry, especially in dry skin creams, anti-wrinkle and anti-aging products. Historically, almond oil has been used for its numerous health and beauty benefits in ancient Chinese, Ayurvedic and Greco-Persian schools of medicine. The bitter almond oil contains three basic components, benzaldehyde, amygdalin and hydrogen cyanide that limit its uses to external applications. The sweet almond oil contains large amounts of vitamins E and K that help skin regeneration and maintain elasticity, which is why the oil is used in many cosmetic products. Almond oil is one of the most popular essential oils used in aromatherapy and massage therapy since it is suitable for any skin type.
Article
Cancer management is a worldwide challenge. In addition to effective cancer therapies like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, treatment based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and combined TCM with western medicine has gradually gained attention in Oriental countries. One potential TCM approach using extracted fatty oils, containing fatty acids which are important active ingredients with a variety of pharmacological activities, makes significant contributions to cancer treatment. The strategies of treating cancer with the fatty oils of TCM were classified into “Fuzheng”, which usually associates with improving immunity, represented by coix seed oil. The other classification is “Quxie”, which relates to inducing apoptosis of cancer cells, and is represented by Brucea javanica oil. Compared with other active substances, the literature about anticancer fatty oils is relatively limited, and most of them focus on the composition and other biological activities without a systematic review. Therefore, based on the theories of “Fuzheng” and “Quxie” in TCM, in this paper, the anticancer effects of fatty oils have been reviewed. The chemical composition, anticancer mechanism, listed drugs, studying dosage form and clinical application of fatty oils have also been discussed. In summary, since there are different types and abundance of fatty oils among botanicals, anticancer effects of fatty oils can be achieved through two TCM theory-based strategies. We hoped that this review paper can reveal the anticancer potential of fatty oils and provide a reference for future related studies.
Chapter
Tree nut oils are primarily composed of triacylglycerols, but also contain diacylglycerols (DAG), monoacylglycerols (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), and other minor components, including natural antioxidants and fat‐soluble vitamins. The chemical composition of edible fats and oils largely determines their stability, quality, nutritional value, sensory properties, and potential health effects. Generally, the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), predominantly oleic acid, are the major fatty acids present in tree nuts oil, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and small amounts of saturated lipids. Besides, tree nut oils contain abundant bioactive components including phytosterols, carotenoids, tocols, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. And as the major antioxidants in tree nut oil, the content of carotenoids and tocols remarkably affects the oil oxidative stability, as well as their degree of unsaturation and pigment content. Tree nuts have long been considered to be an important component of the Mediterranean diet. Their by‐products, especially defatted meals, skins, and hulls, may also be considered as excellent sources of protein and phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of whole tree nuts may exert antioxidative stress, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐obesity, anti‐diabetes, and cardioprotective effects in animal or human body. Recent investigations have also shown that dietary consumption of either whole tree nuts, oils or polyphenol extract has beneficial effects on animal or human body, which implies that both the lipid components in oil and phenolics in defatted meal are responsible for the health‐enhanced results of tree nuts fed. In this article, the specific chemical composition, oxidative stability, and potential health effects of nine commercial tree nut oils (almond oil, hazelnut oil, pecan oil, walnut oil, pistachio oil, Brazil nut oil, pine nut oil, cashew nut oil, and macadamia nut oil) are summarized. In addition, the major amino acids profile, phenolic constituent, and health effects of tree nut by‐products are also presented.
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(Oleum Amygdalae) synonyms: Mandelöl (D); huile d’amande (F); bitter: almond oil (E); huile d’amande amere (F); sweet: sweet almond oil (E); huile d’amande douce (F) – ill. 2.
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The aim of the present study was the prediction of the geographical origin of almonds (Prunus dulcis Mill.) via Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. For this purpose, 250 almond samples from six different countries were analyzed. As the year of harvest has a major impact on the metabolome, three different crop years (2017–2019) were considered. In order to predict the geographical origin, a support vector machine (SVM) model was trained. The SVM achieved a mean classification accuracy of 80.3% (± 1.5%). In particular one of the economically relevant questions – the distinction between Mediterranean almonds and American almonds – can be answered with this model. Combining the Spanish and Italian almonds to one Mediterranean class the overall classification accuracy is increased to up to 88.2% ± 1.0%. These results confirmed the suitability of NIR screening for the determination of the geographical origin of almonds and may pave the way for future analytical applications. With regard to potential future applications, the transferability of the developed NIR method to blanched almonds was discussed and evaluated: Even if the classification accuracy of unblanched almonds is higher than the prediction based on blanched almonds, the determination of the geographical origin still seems to be possible with this type of processed almonds.
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The rates of colon cancer in various countries are strongly correlated with the per capita consumption of red meat and animal fat and, to a lesser degree, inversely associated with the consumption of fiber. We conducted a prospective study among 88,751 women 34 to 59 years old and without a history of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or familial polyposis who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1980. By 1986, during 512,488 person-years of follow-up, 150 incident cases of colon cancer had been documented. After adjustment for total energy intake, animal fat was positively associated with the risk of colon cancer (P for trend = 0.01); the relative risk for the highest as compared with the lowest quintile was 1.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.15). No association was found for vegetable fat. The relative risk of colon cancer in women who ate beef, pork, or lamb as a main dish every day was 2.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.24 to 5.03), as compared with those reporting consumption less than once a month. Processed meats and liver were also significantly associated with increased risk, whereas fish and chicken without skin were related to decreased risk. The ratio of the intake of red meat to the intake of chicken and fish was particularly strongly associated with an increased incidence of colon cancer (P for trend = 0.0005); the relative risk for women in the highest quintile of this ratio as compared with those in the lowest quintile was 2.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.50 to 4.13). A low intake of fiber from fruits appeared to contribute to the risk of colon cancer, but this relation was not statistically independent of meat intake. These prospective data provide evidence for the hypothesis that a high intake of animal fat increases the risk of colon cancer, and they support existing recommendations to substitute fish and chicken for meats high in fat.
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To examine the relation between nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of women from the Nurses' Health Study. Prospective cohort study. Nurses' Health Study. 86 016 women from 34 to 59 years of age without previously diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline in 1980. Major coronary heart disease including non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. 1255 major coronary disease events (861 cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction and 394 cases of fatal coronary heart disease) occurred during 14 years of follow up. After adjusting for age, smoking, and other known risk factors for coronary heart disease, women who ate more than five units of nuts (one unit equivalent to 1 oz of nuts) a week (frequent consumption) had a significantly lower risk of total coronary heart disease (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.89, P for trend=0.0009) than women who never ate nuts or who ate less than one unit a month (rare consumption). The magnitude of risk reduction was similar for both fatal coronary heart disease (0.61, 0.35 to 1.05, P for trend=0.007) and non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.68, 0.47 to 1.00, P for trend=0.04). Further adjustment for intakes of dietary fats, fibre, vegetables, and fruits did not alter these results. The inverse association persisted in subgroups stratified by levels of smoking,use of alcohol, use of multivitamin and vitamin E supplements, body mass index, exercise, and intake of vegetables or fruits. Frequent nut consumption was associated with a reduced risk of both fatal coronary heart disease and non-fatal myocardial infarction. These data, and those from other epidemiological and clinical studies, support a role for nuts in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease.
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Animal model studies have shown that the colon tumour promoting effect of dietary fat depends not only on the amount but on its fatty acid composition. With respect to this, the effect of n9 fatty acids, present in olive oil, on colon carcinogenesis has been scarcely investigated. To assess the effect of an n9 fat diet on precancer events, carcinoma development, and changes in mucosal fatty acid composition and prostaglandin (PG)E(2) formation in male Sprague-Dawley rats with azoxymethane induced colon cancer. Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets (5% of the energy as fat) rich in n9, n3, or n6 fat, and were administered azoxymethane subcutaneously once a week for 11 weeks at a dose rate of 7.4 mg/kg body weight. Vehicle treated groups received an equal volume of normal saline. Groups of animals were colectomised at weeks 12 and 19 after the first dose of azoxymethane or saline. Mucosal fatty acids were assessed at 12 and 19 weeks. Aberrant crypt foci and the in vivo intracolonic release of PGE(2) were assessed at week 12, and tumour formation at week 19. Rats on the n6 diet were found to have colonic aberrant crypt foci and adenocarcinomas more often than those consuming either the n9 or n3 diet. There were no differences between the rats on the n9 and n3 diets. On the other hand, administration of both n9 and n3 diets was associated with a decrease in mucosal arachidonate concentrations as compared with the n6 diet. Carcinogen treatment induced an appreciable increase in PGE(2) formation in rats fed the n6 diet, but not in those fed the n3 and n9 diets. Dietary olive oil prevented the development of aberrant crypt foci and colon carcinomas in rats, suggesting that olive oil may have chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis. These effects may be partly due to modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and local PGE(2) synthesis.
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The multiple intestinal neoplasia (Apc(Min/+)) mouse possesses a germline mutation at codon 850 of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene resulting in the formation of a nonfunctional truncated gene product. Following a somatic mutation of the remaining wild-type allele, mice spontaneously develop approximately 40-50 tumors throughout the intestinal tract. This mouse model has been used to study intestinal tumorigenesis because this mutation is analogous to the inherited APC mutation in humans with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). These individuals characteristically develop numerous adenomas throughout their intestinal tracts. Only a few studies have evaluated the effects of dietary fatty acids on tumorigenesis in this animal model with varying results, and none have linked these effects to alterations in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumorigenic effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model and to determine whether these effects are related to inhibition of AA metabolism. Male Apc(Min/+)mice were fed diets supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), AA or a combination of AA + EPA. Mean tumor number in the EPA group was 68% lower (P<0.05) compared with the control group, whereas AA supplementation did not significantly alter tumor load. The reduction in tumor load coincided with significant reductions in intestinal AA content and levels of prostaglandins. However, supplementing AA to the EPA diet (AA + EPA) abolished the antitumorigenic effect of EPA, increased tissue AA content fourfold and prostaglandin production two- to fourfold. These results indicate that AA is involved in tumorigenesis and suggest that EPA's ability to reduce tumor load in Apc(Min/+) mice is related to reductions in tissue AA content or its metabolism.
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In the past, many have avoided nuts because of their high fat content. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, however, recommends regular consumption of this food along with seeds and dried beans (4–5 servings per week) as part of a diet to control hypertension. Nuts are nutrient-dense and most of their fat is unsaturated. They are also perhaps the best natural source of vitamin E and are relatively concentrated repositories of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and arginine, the dietary precursor of nitric oxide. Human feeding studies have demonstrated reductions of 8–12% in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol when almonds and walnuts are substituted for more traditional fats. Other studies show that macadamias and hazelnuts appear at least as beneficial as fats in commonly recommended diets. Whether consuming modest quantities of nuts daily may promote weight gain is not known with certainty, but preliminary data suggest that this is unlikely. Four of the best and largest cohort studies in nutritional epidemiology have now reported that eating nuts frequently is associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease of the order of 30–50%. The findings are very consistent in subgroup analyses and unlikely to be due to confounding. Possible mechanisms include reduction in LDL cholesterol, the antioxidant actions of vitamin E, and the effects on the endothelium and platelet function of higher levels of nitric oxide. Although nuts may account for a relatively small percentage of dietary calories, the potential interacting effects of these factors on disease risk may be considerable.
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L-Arginine inhibits the development of spontaneous, transplantable solid tumors and chemically induced mammary tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of l-arginine on chemically induced colorectal cancer in male Wistar rats. Colorectal cancer was induced in all animals by weekly subcutaneous injections of the colonic procarcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight. Arginine was given in a 1% solution of drinking water. Group I was the DMH control; group II, arginine for 22 weeks; group III, arginine for the first 10 weeks only. Lymphocyte function was evaluated by measuring the thymic lymphocyte proliferative response to the T cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin. The results show that tumor incidence and tumor burden (tumors/rat and tumors/tumor-bearing rat) were significantly reduced in both groups of animals receiving arginine compared to DMH controls (p < 0.05). The tumor areas and volumes were also reduced in both arginine groups (p < 0.05). Thymic lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased by arginine supplementation (p < 0.05). These results would be in keeping with the reduction in colorectal tumor production due to a "nonspecific" stimulation of the host immune system by L-arginine.
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The inhibitory effect of dietary perilla oil rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid against colon carcinogenesis was investigated in rats. Four groups of 26 F344 rats each received an intrarectal dose of 2 mg of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 3 times a week for 2 weeks, and received a diet containing 12% perilla oil, 6% or 12% safflower oil (rich in the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid), or 12% palm oil (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids). At week 35, the incidence of colon cancer was significantly lower in perilla oil-fed rats than in other dietary groups; 19% vs. 46%, 56% and 58%. When examined at week 10, the concentration of fecal bile acids, known to be tumor promoters, was not significantly different among the dietary groups, and the intrarectal deoxycholic acid-induced colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity, a marker of tumor promotion, was significantly lower in perilla oil-fed group than in other groups. The serum and colonic mucosal fatty acid compositions and the blood plasma prostaglandin E2 level directly reflected the fatty acid composition of each dietary fat. The results suggest that the anti-tumor-promoting effect of dietary perilla oil was a result of a decreased sensitivity of colonic mucosa to tumor promoters arising from the altered fatty acid composition in membrane phospholipid of colonic epithelial cells, and was not a consequence of a decrease of promoters such as bile acids.
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The epidemiologic literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and human cancer at a variety of sites was reviewed systematically in Part I. It was concluded that consumption of higher levels of vegetables and fruit is associated consistently, although not universally, with a reduced risk of cancer at most sites, and particularly with epithelial cancers of the alimentary and respiratory tracts. Possible mechanisms by which vegetable and fruit intake might alter risk of cancer are addressed here. A large number of potentially anticarcinogenic agents are found in these food sources, including carotenoids, vitamins C and E, selenium, dietary fiber, dithiolthiones, glucosinolates and indoles, isothiocyanates, flavonoids, phenols, protease inhibitors, plant sterols, allium compounds, and limonene. These agents have both complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including the induction of detoxification enzymes, inhibition of nitrosamine formation, provision of substrate for formation of antineoplastic agents, dilution and binding of carcinogens in the digestive tract, alteration of hormone metabolism, antioxidant effects, and others. It appears extremely unlikely that any one substance is responsible for all the associations seen. Possible adverse effects of vegetable and fruit consumption are also examined. One way to consider the relationships reviewed here is to hypothesize that humans are adapted to a high intake of plant foods that supply substances crucial to the maintenance of the organism, but only some of which are currently called 'essential nutrients.' Cancer may be the result of reducing the level of intake of foods that are metabolically necessary--it may be a disease of maladaptation.
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As part of a large-scale investigation of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, etiology, and survival, a case-control study was conducted to identify dietary factors associated with the risk of CRC. The study compared 715 cases with 727 age- and sex-matched community controls. A quantitative diet history, assessed to be the most representative of the previous 20 years, was obtained from each subject and analyzed for both food groups and nutrients. The combination of a high-fiber and high-vegetable intake was found to be protective against large bowel cancer. Cruciferous vegetable intake was also found, although with less certainty, to be protective. Dietary vitamin C was protective for estimated intakes greater than 230 mg/day. Dietary Beta-carotene had no separate association with the risk of CRC. Beef intake was a risk factor in males but not in females. Fat intake was a risk factor for both males and females. A low intake of milk drinks was a risk for both males and females. A high intake of pork and fish was protective. The use of vitamin supplements was highly protective. A risk score, which was calculated as the number of risk factors an individual has in his or her diet, showed an increasing monotonic relationship with risk of CRC. The effects of the dietary variables were similar for colon and rectal cancer and, with the exception of beef, were similar for males and females.
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The effect of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the proliferative characteristics of the pyloric epithelium was investigated in ACI and Buffalo rats and their F1 rats, which are susceptible, resistant, and resistant, respectively, to gastric carcinogenesis by this chemical. After injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), DNA synthesizing cells in the pyloric epithelium were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BrdUrd antibody. The average number and range of distribution of cells labeled with BrdUrd in the pyloric glands were significantly larger in ACI rats than in Buffalo or F1 rats after administration of MNNG (83 micrograms/ml in the drinking water) for 2 or 16 weeks. In control rats given tap water for 2 weeks, there was no significant difference in these values in the three groups (Experiment 1). The distribution of cells that were labeled with [methyl-3H]MNNG in the pyloric epithelium was measured by histoautoradiography, and the distribution of cells double labeled with both [methyl-3H]MNNG and BrdUrd was also analyzed. Rats were given 83 micrograms/ml of MNNG in their drinking water for 2 weeks and then received [methyl-3H]MNNG by gavage and an injection of BrdUrd 2 and 1 h, respectively, before sacrifice. The average number of double labeled cells (i.e., replicating cells exposed to MNNG) was significantly larger in ACI rats than in Buffalo or F1 rats. In control rats given tap water without MNNG for 2 weeks, there was no significant difference in these values in the three groups (Experiment 2). Cells double labeled with [methyl-3H]MNNG and BrdUrd are considered to be cells with the potential to establish mutations (cell population at risk of MNNG-induced carcinogenesis). Our results show that, after MNNG treatment, the size of this cell population is larger in susceptible ACI rats than in resistant Buffalo and F1 rats. Thus, differential responses of the gastric mucosa to MNNG may be a key factor in the difference of susceptibility to gastric carcinogenesis between ACI and Buffalo rats.
Article
The promoting effect of dietary corn oil (CO), safflower oil (SO), olive oil (OO), coconut oil (CC), and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors was studied in female F344 rats. The animals were fed low-fat diets containing 5% CO, 5% SO, or 5% OO 2 weeks before, during, and 1 week after sc injection of 20 mg AOM/kg body weight. One week after the AOM treatment, groups of animals were transferred to high-fat diets containing 23.52% CO, 23.52% SO, 23.52% OO, and 23.52% CC, or 5.88% CO + 17.64% MCT; the remaining animals were continued on 5% fat diets. All animals were fed these diets until the termination of the experiment. Body weights and intakes of calories, protein, and micronutrients were comparable among the various dietary groups. The incidence of colon tumors was increased in rats fed diets containing high-CO and high-SO compared to those fed low-CO and low-SO diets, whereas the diets containing high OO, CC, or MCT had no promoting effect on colon tumor incidence. There was a significant increase in the excretion of fecal deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and 12-ketolithocholic acid in animals fed the high-CO and high-SO diets and no difference in these secondary bile acids excretion in animals fed the high-OO and high-CC diets compared to those animals fed their respective 5% fat diets. This study thus indicates that not only the amount of dietary fat but also the fatty acid composition (type) of fat are important factors in the determination of the promoting effect in colon carcinogenesis.
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Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed. Life-style and other environmental factors are divided into a dozen categories, and for each category the evidence relating those particular factors to cancer onset rates is summarized. Where possible, an estimate is made of the percentage of current U.S. cancer mortality that might have been caused or avoided by that category of factors. These estimates are based chiefly on evidence from epidemiology, as the available evidence from animal and other laboratory studies cannot provide reliable human risk assessments. By far the largest reliably known percentage is the 30% of current U.S. cancer deaths that are due to tobacco, although it is possible that some nutritional factor(s) may eventually be found to be of comparable importance. The percentage of U.S. cancer deaths that are due to tobacco is still increasing, and must be expected to continue to increase for some years yet due to the delayed effects of the adoption of cigarettes in earlier decades. Trends in mortality and in onset rates for many separate types of cancer are studied in detail in appendixes to this paper. Biases in the available data on registration of new cases produce apparent trends in cancer incidence which are spurious. Biases also produce spurious trends in cancer incidence which are spurious. Biases also produce spurious trends in cancer death certification rates, especially among old people. In (and before) middle age, where the biases are smaller, there appear to be a few real increases and a few real decreases in mortality from some particular types of cancer, but there is no evidence of any generalized increase other than that due to tobacco. Moderate increases or decreases due to some new agent(s) or habit(s) might of course be overlooked in such large-scale analyses. But, such analyses do suggest that, apart from cancer of the respiratory tract, the types of cancer that are currently common are not peculiarly modern diseases and are likely to depend chiefly on some long-established factor(s). (A prospective study utilizing both questionnaires and stored blood and other biological materials might help elucidate these factors.) The proportion of current U.S. cancer deaths attributed to occupational factors is provisionally estimated as 4% (lung cancer being the major contributor to this). This is far smaller than has recently been suggested by various U.S. Government agencies. The matter could be resolved directly by a "case-control" study of lung cancer two or three times larger than the recently completed U.S. National Bladder Cancer Study but similar to it in methodology and unit costs; there are also other reasons for such a study. A fuller summary of conclusions and recommendations comprises the final section of this report.
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We previously reported that the colons of animals injected with azoxymethane (AOM) and fed a diet containing cholic acid (CHA) had lower numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) than those in animals fed a control diet. To follow up on this observation, a series of studies was conducted to determine whether CHA affects the development of ACF in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the possible mechanism(s) involved. Sprague Dawley male rats were injected with AOM (20 mg/kg s.c.), and one week later randomly allocated to groups fed diets containing 0, 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% CHA by weight, for 4 weeks. Their colons were scored for the number size and location of ACF, number of crypts per ACF, and mitotic activity. It was observed that the number and size of ACF decreased with increasing levels of CHA. Mitotic activity was higher (P < 0.05) in the 0.2% CHA diet (CHA-diet) group compared to the 0% CHA group. To determine if timing of intervention with the CHA-diet was critical, rats were allocated to the CHA-diet before or after AOM injection. The ACF-reducing effect of 0.2% CHA diet was evident (P < or = 0.05) only after AOM injection. Intervention with the CHA-diet 4 weeks after AOM injection demonstrated that the diet eliminated and/or remodelled a large proportion (50%) of ACF which had developed within 4 weeks and inhibited the growth of those ACF that persisted. This effect was also associated with higher (P < or = 0.05) mitotic activity in the colon. Discontinuing the treatment of rats with the CHA-diet resulted in a rapid increase in the number of ACF in their colons, establishing that the growth inhibitory effect of the CHA-diet on ACF was reversible. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the CHA-diet modulated the number of ACF by inhibiting their development and growth and by eliminating or remodelling a selected population of ACF.
Article
Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were induced in the colon of F344 rats by s.c. injection of azoxymethane (AOM) twice in a three day-interval and examined after 4 and 12 weeks. The number and crypt multiplicity of ACF in each section of rat colon increased during this period. Histologically, aberrant crypts consisted of proliferating atypical epithelial cells. Cell proliferation of ACF consisting of 4 aberrant crypts [ACF(4)] and 2 aberrant crypts [ACF(2)], and normal crypts in the colon of rats treated with AOM [normal crypts/AOM(+)] or saline [normal crypts/AOM(-)] was investigated by measurement of the mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index (PCNA-LI), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeling index (BrdU-LI). All three parameters of the cell proliferative activity of ACF(4) were higher than those of normal crypts/AOM(+) and normal crypts/AOM(-). The PCNA-LI and BrdU-LI in ACF(2) were the same as those in ACF(4). These findings suggest that ACF have increased cell proliferative activity. The correlation of these three parameters confirmed that the PCNA-LI is also a useful parameter for evaluating cell proliferative activity in ACF. The presence of many cells stained by PCNA in the upper portion of ACF suggested that ACF have more G1 phase cells, which readily respond to mitogenic stimulation, than G0 phase cells, which are predominant in normal crypts.
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To identify systematically the nutrient and food group intakes associated with a low-fat diet, the authors used the detailed dietary information collected from 10,306 individuals aged 32-86 years in the 1982-1984 National Health Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Intakes of vitamin C and percentages of calories from carbohydrates, dietary fiber, poultry, low-fat dairy products, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and whole grains were markedly higher, while intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, oleic and linoleic acids, cholesterol, sodium, all red meats, high-fat dairy products, eggs, nuts, white bread, fried potatoes, desserts, fats, and oils were much lower in the quartile with the lowest percentage of calories from fat. These dietary patterns associated with a low-fat diet were essentially constant across strata of age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. This study suggests that individuals on a low-fat diet substitute certain carbohydrate-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables for fat. Given these associations between low-fat diets and other dietary factors independently associated with certain cancers, these dietary factors should be considered potential confounders in studies of dietary fat and these cancers.
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The effects of arginine on tumor growth, antitumor mechanisms and a potential therapeutic role have been reviewed recently. In these studies, however controversial they were, high dose protocols for arginine treatment have been applied. Based upon own recent findings that low dose arginine stimulates the immune system and blocks lipid peroxidation, we performed preventive treatment with low dose (50 mg/kg body weight per day, orally administered) L-arginine in 150 mice for a period of one year. We compared survival and total number of tumors at the end of the feeding period to that found in 150 mice given taurine in the same dosage and in 150 mice without treatment. Survival of the arginine treated group was statistically significant as compared to that of the control group without treatment (p < 0.05): 116 mice were alive in the control group, 122 in the group administered taurine and 132 in the arginine treated group. The total number of tumors was significantly lower in the arginine treated group vs. the control group (p < 0.01). The total number of malign and benign tumors was significantly lower in the arginine treated group, whereas taurine significantly reduced the number of benign tumors only (p < 0.05). Arginine and taurine stimulate the immune system at the lymphocyte level. Arginine also acts at the macrophage level, inducing nitric oxide mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Both compounds are known to block the formation of lipid peroxidation products. We therefore suggest that these two mechanisms are responsible for the decreased total number of tumors and the concomitant increase in survival.
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Throughout history, nuts have been a staple food providing energy, protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Today, nuts are classified as part of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid's Meat/ Meat Alternate Group. Foods in this group contribute protein as well as important vitamins and minerals to the diet. Nuts are also being studied for their potential health benefits. Research suggests that there may be a connection between frequent nut consumption and a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease. Thus, tradition and promising scientific evidence combine to support the role of nuts in healthful eating.
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Although epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated a strong relationship between types and amount of dietary fat and colon tumorigenesis, the modulating effects of these nutritional factors at the molecular level have not been fully elucidated. Transforming proteins encoded by activated ras genes have been implicated in the etiology of many human malignancies, including colon cancer. It is now well established that the transforming ability of ras-p21 critically depends on its correct localization in plasma membrane. The posttranslational processing of the cytosolic precursor (pro-ras), as it is synthesized in the cytoplasm, and its proper anchorage to the cytoplasmic face of plasma membrane are determined by an important intermediate metabolite of dietary fat and an enzyme system that includes farnesyl protein transferase. To provide an understanding of the molecular basis of the relationship between the types and amount of dietary fat and the transforming function of ras, especially during the stages of promotion and progression of colon tumor development, we investigated the effect of various types and amount of dietary fat on the expression of ras-p21 during azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats were fed the semipurified American Institute of Nutrition-76A diet containing low-fat corn oil and were given s.c. injections of AOM dissolved in normal saline at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly, for 2 weeks. Control animals received s.c. injections of equal volumes of normal saline. Beginning 1 day after the second AOM or saline injection, groups of animals intended for the treatment with different types of high-fat dietary regimens were fed the semipurified American Institute of Nutrition-76A diets containing high levels of high-fat corn oil (HFCO) rich in omega-6 fatty acids or high levels of high-fat fish oil (HFFO) rich in omega-3 fatty acids; the remaining animals in experimental and control groups were continued on the low-fat corn oil diet until termination of the experiment. Groups of animals were sacrificed 1, 12, or 36 weeks after the last AOM or saline injection, and their colonic mucosa and grossly visible colon tumors from rats sacrificed 36 weeks after the last AOM injection were analyzed for the levels of expression of ras-p21. We found that AOM induced increasingly higher levels of ras-p21 expression with advancing stages of colon tumor development. The HFCO diet resulted in enhanced expression of AOM-induced ras-p21 as observed 36 weeks after the last AOM injection. In contrast, feeding the HFFO diet inhibited AOM-induced ras-p21 expression. These results correlate with increased incidence and multiplicity of grossly visible colon tumors in AOM-treated animals fed a HFCO diet versus decreased incidence and lower multiplicity of colon tumors in their counterparts on the HFFO diet. Further analysis of ras-p21 levels in cytosol and plasma membrane revealed that feeding a HFFO diet resulted in increasing accumulation of ras-p21 in cytoplasm with a concomitant decrease in membrane-bound ras-p21 levels as observed in animals sacrificed 12 and 36 weeks after the last AOM injection. Thus, the dietary HFCO may promote colon tumorigenesis by increasing ras-p21 expression, whereas HFFO appears to exert its antitumor activity by interfering with posttranslational modification and membrane localization of ras-p21.
Article
The primary nutritionally linked diseases are coronary heart disease, stroke and cancers of the stomach, colon, pancreas, prostate, breast, ovary, and endometrium. Dietary fats operate through a promoting mechanism. An S-shaped dose-response curve with a threshold has been demonstrated in models of breast and colon cancer in which the standard Western fat intake of 40% of energy yields a high level of promotion, and reduction of fat to 10% to 20% of energy (the traditional Japanese fat intake) has a low promoting action. In models of breast and colon cancer, saturated fats such as beef fat or lard, and monounsaturated oils, such as olive oil, display only a weak promoting effect, with the incidence of induced tumors being similar at intake levels of 40% and 10% of energy. On the other hand, the n-6-polyunsaturated oils display a strong promoting effect. Such findings may have a parallel in the low but definitely increasing slope of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence in the past 30 years as the American public decreased saturated fat intake to avoid heart disease and increased use of the n-6-polyunsaturated oils. Mechanisms underlying the cancer-promoting effect in the colon stem from increased hepatic production of bile acids, which are transferred to the intestinal tract via the bile. Ingestion of 40% fat calories yields higher concentrations of bile acids in the colon than lower levels of dietary fat ingestion. Cancer in the mammary gland is promoted through higher concentrations of fats and phospholipids in the gland as well as increased levels of estrogen secondary to production by the ovary and other endocrine tissues that, in turn, affect the generation of pituitary hormones such as prolactin and growth hormone. The n-3-fats, as found in fish and fish oils, have a pronounced inhibitory effect in models of colon and breast cancer, presumably through their shifting of prostaglandin metabolism to the generation of prostaglandins, which lower cell proliferation potential and, thus, decrease promotional effects. The role of dietary fat as a promoter can be modified by other nutritional components. Finally, one of the best pieces of evidence for an enhancing effect of many dietary fats in the nutritionally linked cancers is the current increase in the incidence of these diseases in Japan as the nutritional habits of people in that country become more Westernized.
Article
The oldest-old population (> or = 84 years of age) is growing rapidly and consumes a disproportionate amount of health care dollars. Risk factors for disease have not been extensively studied in this group. A cohort study of non-Hispanic white Seventh-Day Adventists from California allowed follow-up for mortality from 1976 through 1988. Associations between traditional risk factors, consumption of selected foods, and both coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality were evaluated in the oldest-old portion of this population, using proportional hazards regression analyses. We observed 364 cases of CHD and 1387 total deaths during 11,828 person-years of follow-up. Men had higher risk of both all-cause mortality and mortality from CHD. The relative risks (RRs) associated with diabetes mellitus were 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.84; P < .001) for all deaths and 1.95 (95% CI, 1.38-2.76; P < .001) for mortality from CHD. The apparent effects of hypertension were small unless subjects were currently taking antihypertensive medications. Compared with those with no regular vigorous activity, subjects who exercised at least 3 times each week had RRs of death of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.91; P < .001) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.56-0.97; P < .05) for mortality from CHD. Subjects who consumed nuts 5 times per week had RRs of death of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.96; P < .01) and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45-0.83; P < .001) for death from CHD compared with those consuming nuts less than weekly. In men, regular consumption of donuts appeared hazardous for both all-cause mortality (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05-1.88) and mortality from CHD (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15-3.81), and consumption of beef 4 times weekly was associated with a 2-fold RR for CHD compared with vegetarians, but there was no increase in risk for women. Even in the oldest-old, certain traditional risk factors and dietary habits are associated with mortality.
Article
Among women, cancers of the lung and bronchus, breast, and colon and rectum are expected to account for more than half of all cancer deaths in 1998 (Fig. 2). In 1987, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, and it is expected to account for 25% of all cancer deaths in women in 1998. Although lung cancer mortality in men is leveling off, the mortality rate and the number of deaths from lung cancer in women are steadily increasing. Between 1990 and 1994, the lung cancer mortality rate in women increased about 1.7% per year.3 Conversely, the numbers of deaths of women from breast and colorectal cancers appear to be leveling off and may be beginning to decline. These sites account for 16% and 11%, respectively, of cancer deaths in women (Fig. 2). Between 1990 and 1994, mortality rates in women decreased about 1.8% per year for breast cancer and 1.5% per year for colorectal cancers.3
Article
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death shown to play a central role in normal colonic development.1,2 During apoptosis, the nucleus and cytoplasm condense and the dying cell fragments form membrane bound apoptotic bodies which are subsequently digested by phagocytic cells.3 In contrast to necrosis, this process avoids the release of noxious cellular contents, preventing the induction of an inflammatory response.