Detachment of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve from the annulus (TVD) has been used to improve visualization of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), but may be associated with increased operative time, heart block, and the development of tricuspid regurgitation (TR).
Patients undergoing VSD closure between 1/1/96 and 31/12/99 were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up was obtained from the patients' cardiologists.
Transatrial VSD closure was performed in 172 patients with TVD in 36 (21%) at the surgeon's discretion. The leaflet incision was repaired with a separate suture (22) or with the VSD patch suture (14). Additional procedures including arch augmentation, closure of atrial septal defects, and closure of additional VSDs were performed in 93 (68%) non-TVD patients and 20 (56%) TVD patients. The median age was 6.2 months (range 1 day to 46 years) and the median weight was 5.9 kg (range 1.5-71.5 kg). Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time was 64+/-24 min and cross-clamp time was 34+/-16 min. One hospital death occurred in an infant with tracheal stenosis. No child in either group developed complete heart block. The median duration of postoperative stay was 4 days (range 2-49 days). There were no differences in CPB time, cross-clamp time or postoperative stay between the TVD and non-TVD groups (P>0.1 for all). At a mean follow-up of 17+/-15 months, there have been two late deaths unrelated to cardiac disease. No child in the TVD group required reoperation for residual VSD, compared to three in the non-TVD group. No child in the TVD group has greater than mild TR, but six in the non-TVD group have greater than mild TR. No child in either group has undergone reoperation for TR.
TVD is a safe, effective technique to improve visualization of VSD and is not associated with heart block, increased operative time, or TR. TVD may result in improved preservation of tricuspid valve architecture and decrease the incidence of significant postoperative TR.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess long-term outcome of children after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD).
Between January 1992 and December 2001 a consecutive series of 188 patients (100 females) were operated for closure of a VSD. Temporary tricuspid valve detachment (TVD) was applied in 46 patients (24%) to enhance exposure of the defect using transatrial approach. Pre-operative baseline characteristics showed that the detached group was younger (0.79+/-1.8 vs 2.1+/-3.5 years, p=0.002) and had a lower weight (6.5+/-6.4 vs 10.0+/-11.0 kg, p=0.009).
There was no difference in cross-clamp time (temporary TVD 36.2+/-11.3 vs non-temporary TVD 33.6+/-13.1 min, p=0.228). Postoperative echocardiography showed that 67 patients (36%) had trivial/minimal regurgitation, 10 patients (22%) from the temporary TVD group vs 57 patients (40%) from the non-detached group (p=0.02). There was no tricuspid stenosis. Hospital mortality comprised two patients (1%). One patient died due to a pulmonary hypertensive crisis and one in relation to an acute patch dehiscence for which an emergency reoperation was necessary. At first postoperative echocardiography no shunting was detected in 113 patients, trivial shunting in 73 and significant shunting in none. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that weight at operation was a predictive factor for the occurrence of residual shunting (OR 0.95, C.I. 0.91-0.99). One patient with conduction disturbances needed a permanent DDD-pacemaker. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 2.6 years (range 0.1-9.4). During follow-up no reoperations were necessary for closing a residual VSD. One patient died 7 months postoperative due to a bronchopneumonia. During follow-up in 37 (51%) of the 73 patients the trivial shunting disappeared spontaneously at a median time of 3.9 years. According to actuarial analysis all trivial shunting had disappeared at 8.4 years.
Trivial residual shunting disappeared spontaneously at a median follow-up time of 3.9 years. During follow-up no patient needed to be reoperated for residual VSD. TVD proved to be a safe method to enhance the exposure of a VSD.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
"We read with interest the article of Gaynor and co-workers on the closure of ventricular septal defects after detachment of the septal lea¯et of the tricuspid valve . In this retrospective analysis, the method was used in 21% of the patients with a ventricular septal defect. "