Increased plasma levels of soluble selectins in patients with unstable angina
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of unstable angina. Adhesion molecules, such as selectins, mediate the interactions between leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells during inflammation and thrombogenesis.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether soluble E-selectin, P-selectin and L-selectin levels are increased in patients with unstable angina (UA).
Soluble E-, P- and L-selectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay in the peripheral blood of 23 patients with UA, 26 patients with stable angina (SA) and 15 control patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries.
Soluble E-selectin levels were significantly higher in patients with UA (45+/-11 ng/ml) than in controls (30+/-8 ng/ml, P<0.001), or patients with SA (34+/-8 ng/ml, P=0.001). Similarly, plasma levels of P- and L-selectin were significantly higher in patients with UA (427+/-144 and 772+/-160 ng/ml, respectively) than in patients with SA (278+/-79 and 643+/-94 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.005 vs. UA for both), or control patients (189+/-43 and 601+/-126 ng/ml, respectively, P=0.001 vs. UA for both).
Plasma levels of soluble selectins were increased in patients with UA compared with patients with SA or patients without angiographically visible coronary artery disease. Measurements of these adhesion molecules may be helpful as non-invasive markers of coronary plaque destabilization in UA.
Available from: Yaping TIAN
- "Besides these inflammation-related cytokines, other gene expression panels such as HMOX1, VWF, ID2, MTHFR and SELL (which are also involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis) are of great interest to researchers. However, almost all of such studies have focused on individual gene expression, which cannot provide the profile information of all inflammation-related cytokines [16-21]. "
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ABSTRACT: Studies have demonstrated that inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis due to the abnormal gene expressions of multiple cytokines. We established an accurate and precise method to observe gene expression in whole blood that might provide specific diagnostic information for coronary artery disease (CAD) and other related diseases.
The fifteen selected CAD-related genes (IL1B, IL6, IL8, IFNG, MCP-1, VWF, MTHFR, SELL, TNFalpha, ubiquitin, MCSF, ICAM1, ID2, HMOX1 and LDLR) and two housekeeping genes (ACTB and GK) as internal references have been measured simultaneously with a newly developed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multi-PCR) method. Moreover, the precision was evaluated, and a procedure for distinguishing patients from the normal population has been developed based upon analyses of peripheral blood. A total of 148 subjects were divided into group A (control group without plaques), group B (calcified plaques) and group C (non-calcified plaques, and combination group) according dual-source CT criteria. Gene expression in blood was analyzed by multi-PCR, and levels of glucose and lipids measured in 50 subjects to explore the relationship among them.
The precision results of the multi-PCR system revealed within-run and between-run CV values of 3.695-12.537% and 4.405-13.405%, respectively. The profiles of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood were set: a positive correlation between glucose and MCSF, HMOX1 or TNFalpha were found. We also found that triglyceride levels were negatively correlated with SELL gene expression in 50 subjects. Compared with controls, gene expression levels of IL1B, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 increased significantly in group C.
A new multiple gene expression analysis system has been developed. The primary data suggested that gene expression was related to CAD. This system might be used for risk assessment of CVDs and other related diseases.
Available from: Yury Rochev
- "Soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) found in circulating blood following surgery or in a variety of disease states has previously been identified as a potential marker of endothelial activation and damage (Belch et al. 1997; Kilickap et al. 2004). Elevated levels of sE-selectin were found in the blood of patients with unstable angina, compared to those with stable angina (Atalar et al. 2001). This indicates that the measurement of sE-selectin in circulating blood may provide a suitable noninvasive means of FIG. 3. VCAM-1 expression profile. "
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ABSTRACT: The surface properties of vascular devices dictate the initial postimplantation reactions that occur and thus the efficacy of the implantation procedure. Over the last number of years, a number of different stent designs have emerged and stents are generally polished to a mirror finish during the manufacturing procedure. This study sought to investigate the effect of stainless steel surface roughness on endothelial cell gene expression using an appropriate cell culture in vitro assay system. Stainless steel discs were roughened by shot blasting or polished by mechanical polishing. The surface roughness of the treated and untreated discs was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells were seeded on collagen type 1 gels and left to attach for 24 h. Stainless steel discs of varying roughness were then placed in contact with the cells and incubated for 24 h. RNA extractions and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was then performed to determine the expression levels of candidate genes in the treated cells compared to suitable control cells. E-selectin and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) were found to be significantly up-regulated in cells incubated with polished and roughened samples, indicating endothelial cell activation and inflammation. This study indicates that the surface roughness of stainless steel is an important surface property in the development of vascular stents.
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ABSTRACT: The recruitment of circulating leukocytes to atherosclerotic sites is mediated by a family of adhesion molecules. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between circulating adhesion molecule levels in the coronary circulation and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The subjects were 79 patients undergoing coronary angiography. According to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis as assessed by the Gensini Score (GS) of the left coronary artery, they were classified into three groups: group C (no organic stenosis, score 0, n=14), group M (mild organic stenosis, score 1-13, n=39) and group S (severe organic stenosis, score ≥14, n=26). Blood samples were taken from the aorta (Ao) and coronary sinus (CS), and plasma levels of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These levels were then compared between groups. There were no significant differences in plasma sICAM-1 levels in the Ao or CS between the three groups. The difference in sICAM-1 levels between the CS and Ao (CSAo) also showed no significant difference. Plasma sE-selectin levels in both the Ao and CS were significantly higher in group S than in groups C and M (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in CS-Ao. There was a weak but significant correlation between the plasma levels of these adhesion molecules and the number of coronary risk factors present. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of coronary risk factors was the only positive predictor (p=0.0048) of the GS; there was no association between the plasma level of either adhesion molecule and the GS. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, sICAM-1 plasma levels do not indicate the severity of coronary atherosclerosis, while sE-selectin plasma levels appear to reflect the severity of systemic rather than coronary atherosclerosis.
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