Bone marrow transplantation corrects osteopetrosis in the carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome

Department of Paediatric Haematology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, United Kingdom.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 05/2001; 97(7):1947-50. DOI: 10.1182/blood.V97.7.1947
Source: PubMed


Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), found in renal tubules, brain, and osteoclasts, is critical in acid-base homeostasis and bone remodeling. Deficiency of CAII gives rise to a syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification with associated developmental delay. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and found most frequently in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. We report 2 related Irish families with clinically severe CAII deficiency in whom the gene mutation has been fully elucidated. Two children, one from each family, have undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of severe progressive visual and hearing loss. The older 2 children had already developed cerebral calcification and marked visual loss at the time of diagnosis and were treated symptomatically. Post-transplantation evaluation at 2 and 3 years demonstrates histologic and radiologic resolution of their osteopetrosis with stabilization of hearing and vision. Both children remain developmentally delayed and continue to have RTA, and the older child has now developed cerebral calcification. Allogeneic bone marrow stem cell replacement cures the osteoclast component of CAII deficiency and retards the development of cerebral calcification, but it appears to have little or no effect on the renal lesions. (Blood. 2001;97:1947-1950)

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    • "The eleven patients with novel mutations reported here come from ten families. Patient #022098A from England is of Irish Traveller origin (McMahon et al., 2001). Two siblings, #101298A and #101298B, are from a Turkish family of non-Arabic descent. "
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    ABSTRACT: The carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) deficiency syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that produces osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. Other features include developmental delay, short stature, cognitive defects, and a history of multiple fractures by adolescence. With one exception, all patients with osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis examined have proven to have CA II deficiency. All CA II-deficient patients analyzed have been found to have mutations in the CA2 gene. Previously, we used single strand conformational (SSCP) analysis to identify exons to be sequenced from CA II-deficient patients. In this report, we amplified all seven exons by PCR from genomic DNA and directly sequenced the amplified products. Application of this method allowed identification of eleven new mutations in 21 patients referred for confirmation of the diagnosis of CA II deficiency. These mutations were scattered over the genome from exon 2 to 7. In two opportunities for prenatal diagnosis, one from cultured amniocytes and one from chorionic villus biopsy, we demonstrated the general utility of the direct sequencing method for prenatal DNA diagnosis. These studies expand our knowledge of the heterogeneity in mutations underlying the CA II deficiency syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic disorders of acid-base transporters involve plasmalemmal and organellar transporters of H(+), HCO3(-), and Cl(-). Autosomal-dominant and -recessive forms of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) are caused by mutations in ion transporters of the acid-secreting Type A intercalated cell of the renal collecting duct. These include the AE1 Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger of the basolateral membrane and at least two subunits of the apical membrane vacuolar (v)H(+)-ATPase, the V1 subunit B1 (associated with deafness) and the V0 subunit a4. Recessive proximal RTA with ocular disease arises from mutations in the electrogenic Na(+)-bicarbonate cotransporter NBC1 of the proximal tubular cell basolateral membrane. Recessive mixed proximal-distal RTA accompanied by osteopetrosis and mental retardation is associated with mutations in cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase II. The metabolic alkalosis of congenital chloride-losing diarrhea is caused by mutations in the DRA Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger of the ileocolonic apical membrane. Recessive osteopetrosis is caused by deficient osteoclast acid secretion across the ruffled border lacunar membrane, the result of mutations in the vH(+)-ATPase V0 subunit or in the CLC-7 Cl(-) channel. X-linked nephrolithiasis and engineered deficiencies in some other CLC Cl(-) channels are thought to represent defects of organellar acidification. Study of acid-base transport disease-associated mutations should enhance our understanding of protein structure-function relationships and their impact on the physiology of cell, tissue, and organism.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Annual Review of Physiology
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