The inhibitory effect of guava leaf polyphenols (GLP) on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of frozen chicken meatballs (−18 °C) and its possible inhibitory mechanism was investigated. Compared with control samples after freezing for 6 months, acidic value (AV), lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), A294, A420, glyoxal (GO), Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), pentosidine, and fluorescent AGEs of chicken meatballs with GLP decreased by 11.1%, 22.3%, 19.5%, 4.30%, 8.66%, 8.27%, 4.80%, 20.5%, and 7.68%, respectively; while free sulfhydryl groups the content increased by 4.90%. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between meatballs with GLP and TP in AV, A294, GO, and CML (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that GO, CML, pentosidine, and fluorescent AGEs positively correlated with AV, TBARS, A294, and A420, while GO, CML, pentosidine, and fluorescent AGEs negatively correlated with free sulfhydryl groups. These results manifested GLP could inhibit AGEs formation by inhibiting lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, and Maillard reaction. The possible inhibitory mechanism of GLP on the AGEs included scavenging free radicals, capturing dicarbonyl compounds, forming polyphenol–protein compounds, and reducing the formation of glucose. Therefore, the work demonstrated that the addition of plant polyphenols may be a promising method to inhibit AGEs formation in food.