Fish Consumption and Depressive Symptoms in the General Population in Finland

Department of Psychiatry, University of Kuopio, Finland.
Psychiatric Services (Impact Factor: 2.41). 05/2001; 52(4):529-31. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


Fish contains high concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Several studies have reported depletions of omega-3 fats among depressed patients, and a cross-national comparison has revealed a significant inverse correlation between annual prevalence of major depression and fish consumption. In a sample of 3,204 Finnish adults, depressive symptoms were estimated with the Beck Depression Inventory. A frequency question was used to measure fish consumption. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between depression and fish consumption. After the analysis adjusted for potential confounders, the likelihood of having depressive symptoms was significantly higher among infrequent fish consumers than among frequent consumers.

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    • "It is interesting to note that stratified analyses by sex revealed a slightly stronger association in women than men in this study. Previous cross-sectional [37] [39] and longitudinal studies [31] [34] also revealed an association in women not men, although both types of study have also reported the opposite result of an association in men not women [36] [21]. There is no clear answer for this sex difference. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Emerging evidence suggests that fish consumption may have beneficial effects on mood disorders. However, no study has been reported on this issue in young adults to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in Japanese undergraduate students. Methods: The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. A total of 4190 completed questionnaires (from 2124 men and 2066 women) were received for analysis. Results: Multivariate logistic analysis showed that fish intake was inversely associated with risk of depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. After adjustment for possible confounders, the odds-ratios (95% confidence intervals) for fish intake 1-2 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week, and almost every day (compared with "almost never") were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.70 (0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.53-0.85) and 0.65 (0.46-0.92), respectively. This association tended to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusions: Frequent fish consumption in undergraduate students seems to moderate depressive symptoms. Further research is warranted to clarify the causality.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · European Psychiatry
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    • "However, the prevalence of mood disorders, including depression, has increased over the last decade, especially among the young and middle-aged population35363738 . Although this increase is considered a consequence of the recession in Japan [39], taking into account the previous studies [13,16,25] , which showed a high consumption of fish could be correlated with a lower prevalence of major depression, dietary changes, mainly among young people, may also be a contributing factor. The present study investigated the effects of fish consumption on brain functional activity in young-to-middle-aged male Japanese workers. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects' self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The BDI-II emphasizes the cognitive symptoms of depression, unlike the CES-D which emphasizes more affective symptoms. Studies using various versions of the BDI have reported associations between more depressive symptoms and lower serum ferritin levels (Vahdat Shariatpanaahi, Vahdat Shariatpanaahi, Moshtaaghi, Shahbaazi, & Abadi, 2007), and infrequent fish consumption (Tanskanen et al., 2001). "
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2015
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