Article

Gender differences in adult foot shape: Implications for shoe design

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Abstract

To analyze gender differences in foot shape in a large sample of young individuals. Univariate t-tests and multivariate discriminant analyses were used to assess 1) significant differences between men and women for each foot and leg dimension, standardized to foot length, 2) the reliability of classification into gender classes using the absolute and standardized variable sets, and 3) the relative importance of each variable to the discrimination between men and women. Men have longer and broader feet than women for a given stature. After normalization of the measurements by foot length, men and women were found to differ significantly in two calf, five ankle, and four foot shape variables. Classification by gender using absolute values was correct at least 93% of the time. Using the variables standardized to foot length, gender was correctly classified 85% of the time. This study demonstrates that female feet and legs are not simply scaled-down versions of male feet but rather differ in a number of shape characteristics, particularly at the arch, the lateral side of the foot, the first toe, and the ball of the foot. These differences should be taken into account in the design and manufacture of women's sport shoes.

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... Furthermore, previous studies showed males have a significantly larger plantar fascia and heel fat pad thickness compared to females [16,17]. Several investigations show that female feet were not just a scaled down version of male feet [18,19] and female feet were characterized by a higher arch, shallower first toe, shorter length of the outside ball and smaller instep circumference. Other etiological factors including hip Qangle, foot shape, body mass, muscle strength are different between genders [13], which results in distinct biomechanical alternations and thereby different footwear requirements between males and females [11]. ...
... It is generally believed that the correct shoe shape is obtained by matching shoe shape to foot shape [33]. Therefore, considerations of the gender differences in foot shape design is essential to the proper design of both male and female footwear [18]. However, it is still questionable if male and female athletes would demonstrate different footwear requirements, foot complaints and foot injury locations, since there are considerable anthropometrical and biomechanical differences between genders. ...
... Although shoe fit and comfort were ranked as important by both genders, the higher importance of fit and comfort was found in female players. One possible explanation is that females may have different foot shape, with wider forefoot and narrower heel, compared with males [18,19,44]. However, most female sports shoes are scaled down versions of male shoes [44], resulting in potential concerns on shoe fit. ...
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Abstract Background While the roles of injury prevention and performance enhancement have increasingly been investigated for badminton footwear, there is a lack of research on gender-specific badminton footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine the gender differences in footwear demands and foot injuries in badminton. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey, in which 326 recreational badminton players were recruited. The questionnaire was divided into four sections enquiring about the characteristics of (1) participant profiles, (2) importance of shoe properties (3) shoe complaints (4) and pain or discomfort in different foot regions. The Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test were performed to determine the differences between genders and the differences between leg dominance, respectively. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results Both males and females rated shoe fit as the most important features, followed by the overall comfort and injury protection. Females considered the shoe forefoot cushioning, comfort, breathability and colour as more important compared with the other properties, which showed distinct pattern differences from males. The shoe problem results indicated that plantar pain of the non-dominant foot was considered the most commonly reported footwear problem by both males and females. The problem of excessive arch-support on the dominant and non-dominant sides of male participants was significantly higher than females (p
... However, previous studies have concluded the feet of females is not simply scaled down of males. The gender differences showed in the axis of the metatarsal heads angle and the dimensions of the arch [41]. ...
... The males also have larger IG, LHD and BMW values than the females with the same FL. The result is consistent with that in Wunderlich and Cavanagh [41], in which males have a larger bimalleolar breadth and instep circumference with the same FL. These results indicate that the foot shape of males and females are not simply scaled for each dimension [41,73]. ...
... The result is consistent with that in Wunderlich and Cavanagh [41], in which males have a larger bimalleolar breadth and instep circumference with the same FL. These results indicate that the foot shape of males and females are not simply scaled for each dimension [41,73]. Males tend to weigh more so their contact area is significantly larger than their female counterparts under each weight bearing condition. ...
Article
In-depth analyses of foot surface measurements upon weight bearing are crucial to understand how the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the foot deform during motion to enhance the fit of footwear, which is particularly important for diabetic patients with stringent fit requirements to redistribute the plantar weight forces. This study analyzes diabetic foot deformations under 3 different weight bearing conditions (no weight bearing, half weight bearing, and 80% weight bearing) by using a novel foot scanning method that enables efficient scanning of the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the foot simultaneously. The feet of 48 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are scanned. With increased load on the feet, the width of the forefoot increases by 9.7%-10.4%, height of the midfoot decreases by 15.1%-18.2%, forefoot and midfoot rotate to the medial side by 16.9%-23.9% while the rearfoot rotates to the lateral side by 15.2% simultaneously, and the plantar of the foot increases contact with the floor by 11.4%-23.0%. Gender differences in foot shape are also found between males and females, males have a broader foot than females for the same foot length. Precise anthropometric information of foot changes and deformation therefore enables adequate foot protection, fit and comfort when designing footwear. This research contributes to shoe design considerations that focus on the deformation of the foot under different loads.
... Physiological characteristics, such as sexual dimorphism of the pelvis and lower limbs and sexually determined differences in ligament laxity and joint mobility [6], can affect MLA morphology. Differences in foot morphology between the sexes have been corroborated by studies aimed at improving the design of footwear [7,8] and anthropometric measurements using radiographic imaging [9]. Nevertheless, other studies involving clinical measurements of MLA morphology [10][11][12][13] have not found these differences between the sexes. ...
... Significant differences between the sexes were found for both feet in both absolute and normalized values (Table A4), with longer feet and higher MLA identified in men. These results accord with those reported by Hashimoto et al. [9], who used radiographic measurements, and Zaho et al. [32], who used 3D scanner measurements, and results from studies on footwear design [7,8], which have all pointed to existing differences between the sexes in MLA contour. Additionally, these results accord with those presented by Mc Poil et al. [24] regarding the AHI. ...
... Additionally, these results accord with those presented by Mc Poil et al. [24] regarding the AHI. These differences between the sexes were not identified in the studies of physically active populations with asymptomatic feet by Butler et al. [10], Zifchock et al. [11], Wunderlich and Cavanagh [7], or Xiong et al. [13]. The heterogeneous nature of the population for this study may explain the novel results not reported in previous studies whose populations were selected for certain characteristics. ...
Article
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The medial longitudinal arch height of the foot is linked to individual characteristics such as sex and body mass index, and these characteristics have been shown to be associated with conditions such as flat feet. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we examined the medial longitudinal arch morphology in an adult population to determine if there are differences related to sex and body mass index, and values were obtained for the foot posture index. Normalized anthropometric measurements and arch indices were calculated from footprints. Groups, defined by sex and body mass index, were compared, and the correlations between body mass index and the variables were determined. In the population studied (266 women and 177 men), significant differences between men and women for the foot posture index and normalized arch measurements were found. Analysis of the variables related to body mass index indicated there were significant differences in arch indices. Significant differences and positive correlations were also found between the arch index and body mass index for the left and right feet among the men and women studied. The results obtained allow us to reflect on and analyze whether the medial longitudinal arch morphology classification methods used in the clinical and research setting are adequate or whether the influence of factors such as body mass index can generate confusion.
... Foot anatomy and, hence, loading characteristics differ between sexes and ethnicities whilst boot moulds commonly replicate Caucasian male feet. Females have a wider forefoot and more proximal fifth metatarsal due a shorter outside ball of the foot (Krauss et al., 2008;Krauss et al., 2010;Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). The female foot is also different at the ankle region, with a greater ankle circumference and lower ankle height (Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). ...
... Females have a wider forefoot and more proximal fifth metatarsal due a shorter outside ball of the foot (Krauss et al., 2008;Krauss et al., 2010;Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). The female foot is also different at the ankle region, with a greater ankle circumference and lower ankle height (Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). Significant differences have been found in forefoot width between Caucasian Northern American males and Japanese-Korean males (Hawes et al., 1994), and Caucasian and Maori subjects have been found to have a wider forefoot than Pacific Islanders (Gurney et al., 2009). ...
... This highlights the need for more research in female football players. Female players commonly wear male football boots which may have a poorer fit due to anatomical differences between the male and female foot; females have a wider forefoot and a shorter lateral ball of the foot, resulting in a more proximal fifth metatarsal (Krauss et al., 2008(Krauss et al., , 2010Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). Female football players have also shown to be more susceptible to developing stress fractures (Wald en et al., 2018), and an increased risk of developing disordered eating, altered menstrual status and lower BMI (Prather et al., 2016). ...
Article
Football players are at risk of overuse injuries, discomfort and decreased performance due to the boot design and repetitive plantar loading of the sport. However, there is no agreement of normative values for plantar pressure in football or how these should be assessed. Therefore, the aims of this study were to systematically review plantar pressures obtained for male and female adult football players and the methodology applied in the literature. PubMed [MEDLINE], EmBase, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from inception to 19/11/2018 using key terms related to football, plantar, foot and pressure. Two independent reviewers reviewed each paper. Quality of included studies was assessed using The NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional studies. Fourteen studies were included, 10 looking at male players, and 4 at both male and female players. Out of the 14 studies, 2 were poor quality, 7 were fair quality and 5 were good quality. Heterogeneity was seen in test setup, assessment method and information provided on external impacting factors. The forefoot region most commonly resulted in the highest pressure in both male and female players, with the highest reported forefoot pressure occurring during side cut in both male (653 ± 131 kPa) and female (492 ± 86 kPa) players. Common pressures for males and females subdivided by movement was summarized. Yet, the heterogeneity in methodology and low number of studies decrease the strength of the data. Therefore, suggestions have been made for future research to improve evidence, and for application of standardized test protocols.
... In section 4.3 we computed a mean distance error of 0.3497 meters, which is roughly 1.5 times the average length of a human foot [84]. Moreover, based on Hall's work on proxemics and interpersonal interaction, this error is less than the size of intimate space [85]. ...
... Consequently, to our knowledge, our model is the first providing quantitative and interpersonal interaction, this error is less than the size of intimate space [85]. As discussed in section 2.4, to the best of our knowledge prior works do not provide quantitative times the average length of a human foot [84]. Moreover, based on Hall's work on proxemics and interpersonal interaction, this error is less than the size of intimate space [85]. ...
... In section 4.3 we computed a mean distance error of 0.3497 meters, which is roughly 1.5 In section 4.3 we computed a mean distance error of 0.3497 meters, which is roughly 1.5 times the average length of a human foot [84]. Moreover, based on Hall's work on proxemics analysis, and we describe how display providers and space owners can benefit from the In this section, we discuss the results of the field study and the subsequent statistical analysis, and we describe how display providers and space owners can benefit from the In this section, we discuss the results of the field study and the subsequent statistical not know the audience, they interact for a short time compared to when they know them. ...
Article
Knowledge about the expected interaction duration and expected distance from which users will interact with public displays can be useful in many ways. For example, knowing upfront that a certain setup will lead to shorter interactions can nudge space owners to alter the setup. If a system can predict that incoming users will interact at a long distance for a short amount of time, it can accordingly show shorter versions of content (e.g., videos/advertisements) and employ at-a-distance interaction modalities (e.g., mid-air gestures). In this work, we propose a method to build models for predicting users’ interaction duration and distance in public display environments, focusing on mid-air gestural interactive displays. First, we report our findings from a field study showing that multiple variables, such as audience size and behaviour, significantly influence interaction duration and distance. We then train predictor models using contextual data, based on the same variables. By applying our method to a mid-air gestural interactive public display deployment, we build a model that predicts interaction duration with an average error of about 8 s, and interaction distance with an average error of about 35 cm. We discuss how researchers and practitioners can use our work to build their own predictor models, and how they can use them to optimise their deployment.
... The most frequent category of each independent variable "Netball" and "ASICS" were set as the reference category *Indicates a significant difference at p < 0.05 **Indicates a significant difference at p < 0.001 Irrespective of whether footwear is designed correctly for a given sport, shoes must also properly fit the feet of athletes if the shoes are to achieve their desired function. To ensure shoes cater for foot shape and are comfortable to wear, it is imperative that the last upon which a shoe is constructed is based on the foot dimensions of individuals who are likely to wear the shoes [28]. Therefore, sex differences in foot shape must be considered. ...
... On average, men have longer and broader feet compared to women. The feet of men and women also differ in shape, especially in the angle formed by the axis of the metatarsal heads and the dimensions of the arch [22,23,28]. This size-difference in feet was supported by our findings, whereby male netball players reported wearing larger shoe sizes compared to the females (13.4 ± 2.7 vs 8.8 ± 1.6 US sizing, respectively). ...
Article
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Introduction We explored the footwear profiles and foot-related problems reported by netball players and whether these differed between males and females. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and twenty-five amateur, sub-elite and elite netball players (men n = 279; women n = 2646; age 26.4 ± 10.0 years) completed a custom-designed online survey with questions related to netball experience, current netball footwear habits and history of foot-related problems. Footwear profiles and foot-related problems were considered in logistic regressions against sex and competition level to ascertain significant relationships ( p < 0.05) and predictive values (odds ratio). Results Although 80.4% of respondents reported wearing netball-specific shoes, females were 13.2 times more likely to wear netball-specific shoes than males. Foot-related problems and foot pain were reported by 84.3% and 56.8% of netball players, respectively; with blisters, ankle sprain/strains and calluses being most common. Although women were significantly more likely to suffer from foot-related problems than men, males were significantly more likely to believe their foot pain was caused by the footwear they wore for netball. Conclusion The high prevalence of foot-related problems and pain reported by all netball players suggests that the shoes players are currently wearing for netball are not meeting the requirements of players, particularly regarding fit, comfort and functionality. As male netball players have significantly different footwear profiles to female players, men are likely to require netball-specific footwear that differs to the netball-specific shoes designed for female players.
... If this hypothesis were to be proven correct, ON traction in convergence, such as during prolonged near-reading in myopes, may stretch the globe significantly and accelerate myopic progression. A recent study [78] shows that, in high myopic eyes, eye elongation resulted in a higher ON tortuosity, which may protect the posterior globe against gaze induced mechanical strains. However, a longer eye may require the ONH to travel a larger distance for a certain magnitude of eye rotation, i.e., the deformation of the ON is larger for longer eyes. ...
... However, the stress of calcaneonavicular and talonavicular ligaments presented a slow growth or decline trend (Fig. 10.7a). This would avoid the occurrence of flatfoot complications such as plantar pain [77], foot arch pain [78], tenosynovitis [79], local ulcers [80] and other foot diseases. It played an important role in improving or reconstructing the internal tissue function of flatfoot patients [81]. ...
Chapter
Biomechanics plays a key role in occurrence, prevention and rehabilitation of the landing injuries. Some factors can affect the biomechanical performance of landing. To evaluate the effect of various factors, we measured kinematic, kinetic and EMG properties of 16 subjects while they land with changed conditions. We found that landing on level ground with two legs was stable, and the body would be injured before dynamic postural stability was impaired. Compared with the dominant lower limb, the non-dominant limb has a more effective protective mechanism in that the ankle motion is restrained by higher flexor activities. Women are prone to transform the landing energy to the joint motion, whereas men are more likely to transform it to friction. The semi-rigid stabilizer was helpful for men in increasing shank muscle activities. For women, high stabilizer rigidity had little influence on the muscle activities, and it could contribute to larger injury risk. Terrain stiffness did not appear to influence ankle biomechanics.
... The different anatomy and physiology of females has been reported to result in gender specific biomechanical and neuromuscular responses during cutting manoeuvres, which are related to their increased risk of injury (Beaulieu et al., 2008;Sigward & Powers, 2006). The anatomy of the female foot tends to be relatively slimmer at the instep and shorter from the heel to the outside ball of the foot, which should be considered for shoe design (Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). While certain companies do manufacture female specific footwear for team sports (e.g., Idasports), generally it is not clear if female shoes are based upon a female specific last. ...
... Sex specific adaptations to in-shoe frictional properties have not been investigated. We postulated that the slender instep of the female foot (Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001) would result in increased in-shoe motion due to there being more space within the shoe. Grip socks may therefore have an increased performance benefit in female sports players. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed whether grip socks reduce in-shoe foot motion and improve change of direction performance in team sports players and compared the effects between males and females. A sledge and pulley system confirmed the static coefficient of friction was increased in the grip socks (1.17) compared to the regular socks (0.60). Performance during a slalom course was faster in the grip socks compared to regular socks (p = .001). Yet, there was no difference in the utilised coefficient of friction between the shoe-floor interface during a side-cut and turn change of direction manoeuvre. Three-dimensional motion capture revealed the grip socks reduced in-shoe foot displacement during the braking phase, with greater effect during the sharper turn manoeuvre. The magnitude of natural foot spreading within the shoe was greater in the calcaneus region than the metatarsals which suggests in-shoe sliding may only occur at the forefoot. Males tended to have increased in-shoe displacement, which is associated with larger foot spreading due to their increased mass. Findings provide guidance for product developers to enhance the support inside the shoe at the forefoot, and change of direction performance.
... 8 Male feet are on average longer and broader than female thus the size of foot can be used to determine sex of the individual. 9 Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the foot index is an appropriate tool for gender estimation or not. ...
... Investigators also investigated in other population groups who found similar differences and suggested this could be because of heavier bone structure of the male skeleton causing increased weight bearing on the males foot compared to females. 9,16 The difference in foot dimensions between males and females could explain as part of genetic expression that males being larger than females, in addition differences in body dimension among population and ethnic origins may be due to differences in nutrition, traditional habits and degree of physical activity. 20 A study also quoted that males were found to be taller than females due to the puberty period. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The human foot shows variations in its dimensions and shape in different age group of both male and female. It can be used as gender predictor of an individual in forensic science investigations which may have a great value for identification of unknown deceased body. This study was aimed to measure the various dimensions of foot and derive a tool to predict gender of an individual. Methods: This study was the cross-sectional type which consisted of 556 individuals (268 males and 288 females). Foot dimensions (foot length and foot breadth) were measured in centimeter and the foot index was derived for both sexes separately. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics with SPSS vesion 20.0. Results: It was concluded that there were gender differences in foot length and breadth. The foot length and foot breadth were found to be higher among males than females. The bilateral differences of foot dimensions were not recorded in both male and female. There were gender differences in foot index. Conclusions: The male is found having longer and broader foot than female foot. The foot index is not used as an appropriate tool to determine gender.
... Foot shape is known to be highly variable throughout the population, including by sex (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001;Krauss et al., 2008;Krauss et al., 2010), age (Tomassoni et al., 2014), and weight (Price and Nester, 2016). This variability is often not captured in footwear sizing, as current footwear fitting standards only use foot length, foot width, and arch length to fit to standardized shoe sizes (ASTM F539-01, 2017). ...
... Therefore, the presented model may not be valid for predicting changes in morphology from independent changes in joint angles outside of stance phase, or from variance in foot width or weight compared to foot length not captured in the subject population. The model did not capture sex differences in foot shape; studies found that these differences after scaling for foot length were not significant (Kouchi et al., 2009;Conrad et al., 2019), or were small in magnitude (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001;Krauss et al., 2008). No data was collected to analyze foot shape differences due to ethnicity (Jurca et al., 2019). ...
Article
A detailed understanding of foot morphology can enable the design of more comfortable and better fitting footwear. However, foot morphology varies widely within the population, and changes dynamically as the foot is loaded during stance. This study presents a parametric statistical shape model from 4D foot scans to capture both the inter- and intra-individual variability in foot morphology. Thirty subjects walked on a treadmill while 4D scans of their right foot were taken at 90 frames-per-second during stance phase. Each subject’s height, weight, foot length, foot width, arch length, and sex were also recorded. The 4D scans were all registered to a common high-quality foot scan, and a principal component analysis was done on all processed 4D scans. Elastic-net linear regression models were built to predict the principal component scores, which were then inverse transformed into 4D scans. The best performing model was selected with leave-one-out cross-validation. The chosen model predicts foot morphology across stance phase with a root-mean-square error of 5.2 ± 2.0 mm and a mean Hausdorff distance of 25.5 ± 13.4 mm. This study shows that statistical shape modeling can be used to predict dynamic changes in foot morphology across the population. The model can be used to investigate and improve foot-footwear interaction, allowing for better fitting and more comfortable footwear.
... There is also extensive research confirming that the male foot shape differs to females. Wunderlich and Cavanagh demonstrated that female feet and legs when compared with males are not simply extrapolated versions but have significantly different morphologies, noting in particular, "the arch, the lateral side of the foot, the first toe, and the ball of the foot" (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001) and a further five ankle variables. This confirmed the earlier work of Kouchi, who concluded that differences in skeletal make-up led to foot shape variations that were "not negligible" (Kouchi, 1995). ...
... As such, it is clear that women's footwear should not be manufactured as scaled-down editions of men's footwear if an appropriate fit is to be achieved (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001). Some footwear is even presented as 'unisex'. ...
Article
This paper presents the results of an extensive survey concerning the experience of safety footwear end-users. Safety footwear has been in widespread use across many industries worldwide since the 1970s, and has become an essential part of industrial Personal Protective Equipment. The number of women entering predominantly male industrial environments, and requiring safety footwear is rising, and this is accompanied by anecdotal reports of ill-fitting and uncomfortable footwear. This research proactively compares the opinions of women and men regarding their experience of safety footwear. A systematically designed survey aims to substantiate previously anecdotal knowledge around safety footwear, including key drivers for end-user purchases, wear habits and comfort issues (establishing any differences between women and men). Chi-squared testing was used to assess statistical significance and ensure robustness of findings. The responses and resulting analysis confirmed that comfort and fit were key drivers for all end users; women and men have different wear habits (women wear their safety footwear less frequently and for shorter periods of time than men – likely due to the reported comfort issues); a significant proportion of women (60%) found their safety footwear less comfortable than their regular footwear, however, 45% of men also reported the same, which has not been reported anecdotally. In general, the users of safety footwear accepted a level of discomfort in at least one area of the foot before deeming footwear ‘uncomfortable’. The significant analysis performed on the captured data has, to the authors knowledge, never before been undertaken for this breadth of industry, age and gender with 632 responses received. This makes it the largest study of this field to date.
... Running shoes are designed for performance and protection (Lake, 2000). Female running shoes have been frequently based upon a scaled down version of male shoe lasts (Krauss et al., 2008;Sinclair et al., 2012;Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). However, shoes should be constructed differently to account for differences between male and female feet and different running characteristics. ...
... However, shoes should be constructed differently to account for differences between male and female feet and different running characteristics. Wunderlich and Cavanagh (2001) suggested expanding the lateral side of the shoe in a more proximal location to allow for the smaller outside ball of foot length in females. Due to larger joint movements, indicating reduced joint stability regarding lower limb kinematics between males and females it has been suggested that female running shoes feature improved protection against comparatively increased rearfoot eversion (Hennig, 2001;Sinclair et al., 2012). ...
Article
Running locomotion of western runners has been extensively researched, with biomechanical differences and variation in injury patterns found due to gender. Running popularity has severely increased in China over the past decade, but still little is known on Chinese running biomechanics. This indoor laboratory study compared continuous running biomechanics of 20 Chinese male and 20 Chinese female runners while running in the same running shoe model. Analysis included ground reaction forces (GRF), lower limb kinematics and joint moments, as well as shoe ground pressure, while running at 3.3 m/s. Additionally, a 9-point-Likert scale assessed shoe feature perception during outdoor field running in the same shoe model. Biomechanical variable magnitudes were compared between groups using independent t-tests, Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed on perception variables. At foot strike, females showed significantly increased internal hip rotation (9.6–3.0°), significantly increased knee flexion (18.6–15.5°) and abduction (4.0–1.8°), significantly reduced ankle inversion (1.6–4.2°), and a significantly reduced sagittal shoe ground angle (13.1–17.2°). Females exhibited significantly higher maximal (138.7–119.0 bw/s) and mean vertical force 1 and 2 loading rates (88.1–63.8 bw/s). Females showed significantly lower sagittal plane ankle (2.3–2.5 Nm/kg), knee (2.4–2.7 Nm/kg), and hip (1.7–1.9 Nm/kg) joint moments. Females showed significantly higher relative loads at the medial heel (4.3–3.3%), first metatarsal (11.1–9.3%) and toe 1 (8.6–4.7%). Despite the biomechanical loading differences observed females did not perceive rearfoot cushioning worse than males. Chinese females have a flatter foot strike, a more medial roll-over and push-off process than their male counterparts. Chinese female running shoe design may focus on these aspects to improve gender specific performance and comfort.
... 8 Male feet are on average longer and broader than female thus the size of foot can be used to determine sex of the individual. 9 Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the foot index is an appropriate tool for gender estimation or not. ...
... Investigators also investigated in other population groups who found similar differences and suggested this could be because of heavier bone structure of the male skeleton causing increased weight bearing on the males foot compared to females. 9,16 The difference in foot dimensions between males and females could explain as part of genetic expression that males being larger than females, in addition differences in body dimension among population and ethnic origins may be due to differences in nutrition, traditional habits and degree of physical activity. 20 A study also quoted that males were found to be taller than females due to the puberty period. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The human foot shows variations in its dimensions and shape in different age group of both male and female. It can be used as gender predictor of an individual in forensic science investigations which may have a great value for identification of unknown deceased body. This study was aimed to measure the various dimensions of foot and derive a tool to predict gender of an individual. Methods: This study was the cross-sectional type which consisted of 556 individuals (268 males and 288 females). Foot dimensions (foot length and foot breadth) were measured in centimeter and the foot index was derived for both sexes separately. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics with SPSS vesion 20.0. Results: It was concluded that there were gender differences in foot length and breadth. The foot length and foot breadth were found to be higher among males than females. The bilateral differences of foot dimensions were not recorded in both male and female. There were gender differences in foot index. Conclusions: The male is found having longer and broader foot than female foot. The foot index is not used as an appropriate tool to determine gender.
... Foot shape is known to be highly variable throughout the population, including by sex (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001;Krauss et al., 2008Krauss et al., , 2010, age (Tomassoni et al., 2014), and weight (Price and Nester, 2016). This variability is often not captured in footwear sizing, as current footwear fitting standards only use foot length, foot width, and arch length to fit to standardized shoe sizes (ASTM F539-01, 2017). ...
... The model did not capture differences between male and female feet. Studies found that sex differences in foot shape after scaling for foot length were not significant (Kouchi et al., 2009;Barisch-Fritz et al., 2014b;Conrad et al., 2019), or were small in magnitude (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001;Krauss et al., 2008). No subject demographic data was collected to account for differences in foot shape due to ethnicity (Jurca et al., 2019). ...
Preprint
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A detailed understanding of foot morphology can enable the design of more comfortable and better fitting footwear. However, foot morphology varies widely within the population, and changes dynamically during the loading of stance phase. This study presents a parametric statistical shape model from 4D foot scans to capture both the inter- and intra-individual variability in foot morphology. Thirty subjects walked on a treadmill while 4D scans of their right foot were taken at 90 frames-per-second during stance phase. Each subject's height, weight, foot length, foot width, arch length, and sex were also recorded. The 4D scans were all registered to a common high-quality foot scan, and a principal component analysis was done on all processed 4D scans. Elastic-net linear regression models were built to predict the principal component scores, which were then inverse transformed into 4D scans. The best performing model was selected with leave-one-out cross-validation. The chosen model was predicts foot morphology across stance phase with a root-mean squared error of 5.2 +/- 2.0 mm. This study shows that statistical shape modeling can be used to predict dynamic changes in foot morphology across the population. The model can be used to investigate and improve foot-footwear interaction, allowing for better fitting and more comfortable footwear.
... 13,14 An absolute comparison of the foot dimensions was used to describe the difference between groups. [15][16][17] If there is a significantly different absolute FL between groups, 15,16 the foot dimensions relative to the foot length %FL (a normalization of the measurement data based on the FL) can be further applied to explore the differences in the foot shapes of each group. 18,19 Three-dimensional (3D) scanner system has been widely used to collect anthropometric data, [19][20][21] including the measurements of human bodies 22,23 and foot sizes. ...
... 13,14 An absolute comparison of the foot dimensions was used to describe the difference between groups. [15][16][17] If there is a significantly different absolute FL between groups, 15,16 the foot dimensions relative to the foot length %FL (a normalization of the measurement data based on the FL) can be further applied to explore the differences in the foot shapes of each group. 18,19 Three-dimensional (3D) scanner system has been widely used to collect anthropometric data, [19][20][21] including the measurements of human bodies 22,23 and foot sizes. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the foot morphology of recreational marathon runners. We compared the foot dimensions data of recreational marathon runners with the data of non-habitual exercisers. The results indicated that the recreational marathon runners had significantly shorter feet and shorter fibulare instep. The lengths of the toes and halluces on their right feet were significantly shorter than those of the non-habitual exercisers. Based on the analysis of relative foot length, the recreational marathon runners had wider foot breadth, heel breadth, and ball girth circumference. In addition, the arches of recreational marathon runners had a higher arch height index value for both feet.
... However, an increased peak pressure and P*t in the heel and medial forefoot of men and in the medial mid-foot of women as well as a larger contact area in men compared to women have been identified in the literature [12,52,53]. These differences are likely driven by differences in foot structure, shape and size [54], vertical centre of mass displacement, body weight [55], ligament laxity and joint stiffness [56,57] between sexes. ...
Article
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In-shoe systems and pressure plates are used to assess plantar pressure during gait, but additional tools are employed to evaluate other gait parameters. The GAITRite® system is a clinical gait evaluation tool. Extensive literature is available for spatiotemporal parameters, but it is scarce for relative plantar pressure data. Therefore, we investigated whether, when controlling for age, the GAITRite® system is able to distinguish the effects of walking velocity on plantar pressure parameters in six plantar regions in a large sample of adults. Participants (83 women and 87 men, aged 18–85 years) walked at three self-selected velocities (slow, preferred, fast) on a 6-m long GAITRite® walkway. Relative peak pressure, pressure-time integral, peak time and contact area were computed for six zones (lateral and medial heel, mid- and forefoot). The impact of age (covariate), sex, side, velocity, pressure zone and their interactions on pressure variables was evaluated. Velocity affected peak pressure, pressure-time integral, peak time and contact area (p < 0.001). With increasing self-selected gait velocity, medial forefoot peak pressure and pressure-time integral increased (p < 0.001), while heel and lateral forefoot regions displayed a nonlinear plantar pressure evolution. These results suggest lower (heel strike) or more equally distributed (push-off) loads at preferred gait velocity.
... This prescription is especially relevant to female basketball players, a population that experiences non-contact anterior cruciate ligament ruptures at a rate 2-4 times greater than their male counterparts (Gray et al., 1985;Owusu-Akyaw et al., 2018). Therefore, it is problematic that athletic footwear is designed primarily based on men (Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). Whether the traction requirements of female athletes are the same as male athletes is unknown. ...
Article
Despite basketball being a popular sport among both genders, basketball footwear is designed primarily based on men. This may be problematic for women as the footwear they utilize may not be optimized for female performance and excessive traction may increase the risk of lower extremity non-contact injuries. While there are known sex-associated differences in the execution of basketball-related movements, the traction requirements of women have yet to be determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the traction requirements of women and men performing basketball-related movements. Twenty collegiate-level basketball players (10 women and 10 men) participated in this study performing five basketball-related movements (Cross Cut, Lateral Cut, Quick Start, Jump Stop and Side Shuffle). Women and men were found to have similar traction requirements across many of movements, but significant differences were found during phases of the Quick Stop, Lateral Cut and Cross Cut. Overall, while the traction requirements of women and men appear similar, subtle differences exist at specific time points, which may be utilized to optimize gender-specific outsole design.
... It is interesting to notice that studies have found higher mean torque of all major muscle groups in the lower extremity in men (women < 62-70% of men), but when measurements are standardized by size (i.e., bone mass index or body weight), no significant differences in strength, endurance, or torque between sexes have been found [78]. However, when body surfaces and dimensions are evaluated aside from muscle attachments, the relationship between sex, shape, and size is more complex: Wunderlich and Cavanagh [79] stressed that female lower limbs are not solely scaled-down versions of the male lower limb. Particularly, the lateral side of the foot, directly involved in eversion, showed marked sex-related differences even after standardization of size [60]. ...
Article
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Fibular metric variations have revealed their potential in distinguishing between males and females; however the fibula remains scarcely analyzed in studies of sexual dimorphism. This work aims at investigating sexually dimorphic features in fibular proximal and distal epiphyses through geometric morphometrics methods. A total of 136 left fibulae, from two Italian and one South African identified skeletal collections were virtually acquired through CT and laser scanning and analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Statistical analyses were performed on shape, form, and size variables. Results show that fibular epiphyses are smaller with narrower articular surfaces in females than in males in both extremities. Relevant sexual differences emerge in fibular form and size for the two Italian samples but not for the South African one, likely for its small sample size. Discriminant analysis on form principal components (PCs) offers accuracy above 80% when the samples are pooled, and reaches accuracy of 80–93% when the Italian samples are considered separately. However, our method on form PCs was not successful for the South African sample (50–53% accuracy), possibly due to the small sample size. These results show relevant morphological variation in relation to fibular form and size, with a degree of accuracy that indicates the utility of the present method for sexing human fibulae in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts for Italian samples.
... The average FW of males is higher than females [25] but differs only around 0.9 mm. The average AI for FW ≥ median and FW < median values for all subjects are approximately the same, i.e., 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.06 (median = 95.2 ...
Article
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A type of flatfoot can be analyzed accurately using the footprint when a human is standing; however, this method cannot be applied when a human is wearing orthotic shoes. This study aims to analyze flatfoot using the rearfoot angle (RFA) measurement. The result is then compared to a footprint measurement known as Cavanagh’s Arch Index (AI). A total of 31 static footprints of the participants consisting of 14 males and 17 females aged 18 to 25 years were collected. According to Cavanagh’s AI as a gold standard, the correlation equation was obtained as RFA = 46.04AI − 6.41 and RFA = 45.32AI − 6.26 for left and right foot, respectively. The correlation coefficient R2 for the left and the right foot is 0.63 and 0.73, respectively. Other statistical analyses using ANOVA and t-tests are presented in this paper. The correlation results obtained from this study are necessary for estimating the reduction in the degree of flatfoot when using orthotic shoes, which is difficult to calculate using the typical AI method from footprint measurements.
... Although identification is one of the most important processes in dealing with disasters, the applicable items for identification are greatly limited when the human body is severely damaged or the skeleton is separated [1]. Sex, age, weight, and stature are important factors for personal identification of the remains of human skeletal [2][3][4][5]. In particular, the estimation of stature or living height has the main role in the analysis of unidentified human remains, since a person's height is a unique biological profile [6]. ...
Article
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The ability to estimate stature can be important in the identification of skeletal remains. This study aims to develop a Korean-specific equation predicting stature using radiographic measurements in the contemporary Korean population. 200 healthy Korean adults, including 102 males and 98 females, were randomly selected (age, range 20–86 years). The first and second metatarsals of the foot were measured by a standing X-ray using a digital medical image viewer. The result showed a statistically significant correlation between metatarsal length and stature in Korean populations (male, R = 0.46, p < 0.001; female, R = 0.454, p < 0.001). Values of correlation coefficients (R) of the equations were 0.431 to 0.477. Compared to equations derived from other races, the Korean-specific equation showed significantly lower error values for estimating the actual height of Koreans through cross-validation. In conclusion, this study is the first to propose a Korean-specific regression formula for estimating stature using metatarsal length and a verified formula for precise application to the Korean population. However, given the relatively low correlation coefficient, the stature estimation formula derived from this study can be utilized when other bones that allow more accurate stature estimation are not available.
... All studies included in this review focused on modelling the healthy foot of a male subject(s), with none modelling female foot geometry. It is well documented that PUs affect both men and women and that men have longer and broader feet than women and it is not correct to assume that this is algebraically scalable (i.e. a female foot is a smaller version of a male) [51,52]. Secondly, with the exception of the diabetic foot modelling by Levy et al. none of the studies assessed the implication of other foot deformities (e.g. ...
Article
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a major public health challenge, having a significant impact on healthcare service and patient quality of life. Computational biomechanical modelling has enhanced PU research by facilitating the investigation of pressure responses in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. Extensive work has been undertaken on PUs on patients in the seated posture, but research into heel ulcers has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review was to address the key challenges that exist with developing an effective FE foot model for PU prevention and the confusion surrounding the wide range of outputs reported.Nine FE foot studies investigating heel ulcers in bedrest were identified and reviewed. Six studies modelled the posterior part of the heel, two included the calf and foot, and one modelled the whole-body. Due to the complexity of the foot anatomy, all studies involved simplification or assumptions regarding parts of the foot structure, boundary conditions and material parameters. Simulations aimed to better understand the stresses and strains exhibited in the heel soft tissues of the healthy foot. The biomechanical properties of soft tissue derived from experimental measurements are critical for developing a realistic model and consequently guiding clinical decisions.Yet, little to no validation was reported in each of the studies. If FE models are to address future research questions and clinical applications, then sound verification and validation of these models is required to ensure accurate conclusions and prediction of patient outcomes. Recommendations and considerations for future FE studies are therefore proposed.
... Since more women are entering first-response roles, this adds another dimension to our considerations (McLennan et al., 2008). For instance, the average woman's foot is not just smaller, but differs significantly in shape from a man's foot (Wunderlich and Cavanagh 2001;Jurca et al., 2019). There are also ethnic differences, with Asian feet being significantly shorter, but wider, and they differ significantly in heel width and have a lower instep height than European and North American feet (Jurca et al., 2019). ...
Article
The Asia-Pacific contains over half of the world's population, 21 countries have a Gross Domestic Product <25% of the world's largest economy, many countries have tropical climates and all suffer the impact of global warming. That ‘perfect storm’ exacerbates the risk of occupational heat illness, yet first responders must perform physically demanding work wearing personal-protective clothing and equipment. Unfortunately, the Eurocentric emphasis of past research has sometimes reduced its applicability to other ethnic groups. To redress that imbalance, relevant contemporary research has been reviewed, to which has been added information applicable to people of Asian, Melanesian and Polynesian ancestry. An epidemiological triad is used to identify the causal agents and host factors of work intolerance within hot-humid climates, commencing with the size dependency of resting metabolism and heat production accompanying load carriage, followed by a progression from the impact of single-layered clothing through to encapsulating ensembles. A morphological hypothesis is presented to account for inter-individual differences in heat production and heat loss, which seems to explain apparent ethnic- and gender-related differences in thermoregulation, at least within thermally compensable states. The mechanisms underlying work intolerance, cardiovascular insufficiency and heat illness are reviewed, along with epidemiological data from the Asia-Pacific. Finally, evidence-based preventative and treatment strategies are presented and updated concerning moisture-management fabrics and barriers, dehydration, pre- and post-exercise cooling, and heat adaptation. An extensive reference list is provided, with >25 recommendations enabling physiologists, occupational health specialists, policy makers, purchasing officers and manufacturers to rapidly extract interpretative outcomes pertinent to the Asia-Pacific.
... Sex differences in foot morphology have important applications in footwear design (Wunderlich and Cavanagh, 2001;Hemy et al. 2013). Some authors have reported that in mass disasters such as aircraft crashes, explosions, and warfare, body particles and extremities are often the only remains recovered (Fernando and Vanezis, 1998;Robb, 1999). ...
Article
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Impressions of shoe and footprints are commonly found in crime scenes. Examination of these prints provide useful insights in crime scene investigation. This study attempts to determine genderusing discriminant function models of shoe and footprints dimensions in a Cross River State population. A total sample size of 260 subjects, (145 females and 115 males) were taken.Shoe and footprints parameters were taken by first, making an outline onwhite A4 paper smeared with removable ink. Followed by highlighting the various landmarks of foot lengths (from hill to first, second, third, fourth and fifth toe) and breadths (at ball and hill). This results showed that shoe and footprints dimensions recorded statistical significant difference (p < 0.05) as seen in the outcome of independent sample t-test for sexual dimorphismfor right shoe and footprints. Moreso, the analysis of paired sample test between the left and right shoe and footprints dimensions showed statistical significant difference (P<0.05) in most of the parameters except LT3, LT4 and LT5.Group centroids which is a function of group membership with cut off functions for the males and females are 0.650 and -5.16 respectively, canonical discriminant function showed skewness with a cluster of the male and female determine sex tilting to the opposite direction respectively. This present study has demonstrated the utility and precision of sex determination models developed from shoe and footprints dimensions. Therefore, this study has provided a baseline data upon which further studies will thrive. Hence, this data will be useful to a forensic expert saddled with investigations involving human identity.
... It contains the prescription variables 17 which are used as input parameters of the parametric design, -"product design principles" means all the technical principles used for designing the medical footwear. Essential information for the Pedorthic Information Modeling is the anthropometric correlations between different dimensions of the foot 18 . These correlations, expressed as a function of different foot's dimensions by its length or width, are used for the generation of an initial virtual solution which will be later modified according to the prescription file and aesthetically requirements. ...
Article
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Medical footwear and foot orthoses are medical devices used in the conservative treatment of foot pathomechanics. Numerous medical evidences demonstrate their efficiency but, in the same time, highlight the problems of acceptance by the patient because of their aesthetic appearance. With a few exceptions the traditional design process is based mainly on the manual skills of the pedorthist. Even if the "hand-made" process is a landmark and a valuable quality of the pedorthic devices, it doesn't mean it offers an efficient management of the large variations of design options. More than that, some processes such as the last manufacturing, which are based on the manual skills of the pedorthist, seem to be in decline because of the master's age and lack of interest for the new generations. On the other hand, other industries like building and architecture rely on modern design processes based on the parametric thinking, which allow an optimum management of the variation in the input and output data. The parametric design is the core of the Pedorthic Information Modeling allowing the propagation of any modification of the input parameters with an instant updating of the outputs. The current work is presenting the concept of Pedorthic Information Modeling.
... It contains the prescription variables 17 which are used as input parameters of the parametric design, -"product design principles" means all the technical principles used for designing the medical footwear. Essential information for the Pedorthic Information Modeling is the anthropometric correlations between different dimensions of the foot 18 . These correlations, expressed as a function of different foot's dimensions by its length or width, are used for the generation of an initial virtual solution which will be later modified according to the prescription file and aesthetically requirements. ...
... Statistically significant sexual dimorphism was observed in all the foot dimensions except heel-ball indices. The finding is in agreement with other investigators [14,37,38]. Genetics and lifestyle are factors that could affect foot morphology [39]. ...
... However, a limitation of this study is that only 2 foot dimensions (foot length and width) were measured using a 2-dimensional technique [8], which may not fully represent the complex shape of the foot. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning technology is a valid and reproducible means of obtaining detailed data on foot shape [16] and has been used to study the variations in foot shape in a number of different populations [17][18][19]. However, no studies have used 3D scanning to evaluate the foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and the reproducibility of performing these measurements is unknown. ...
Article
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Background: Children and adolescents with Down syndrome have a distinctive foot shape (such as wide and flat feet) that often leads to difficulty with footwear fitting. 3-dimensional (3D) scanning can accurately measure the foot dimensions of individuals with Down syndrome, which may assist shoe fit. However, the reproducibility of measuring foot dimensions using 3D scans in children and adolescents with Down syndrome is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of measuring foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome using 3D scanning. Methods: 3D foot scans of 30 participants with Down syndrome aged 5 to 17 years were obtained using the FotoScan 3D scanner. Foot dimensions assessed were foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, diagonal foot width, horizontal foot width, heel width, ball girth, instep girth, first and fifth toe height, and instep height. Additionally, the Wesjflog Index and forefoot shape were determined. Measurements were completed by two raters independently on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed using intra-class coefficients (ICCs) and Gwet's AC1 statistics with 95% confidence intervals. Agreement was determined by calculating limits of agreement (LOA) and percentage agreement. Results: Eighteen participants were female and 12 were male (mean age 10.6 [3.9] years). Intra-rater reproducibility (ICCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, 95% LOA from - 13.7 mm to 16.3 mm) and inter-rater reproducibility (ICCs ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, 95% LOA from - 18.8 mm to 12.7 mm) was good to excellent, although some measurements (ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, heel width and girth measurements) displayed wider LOAs indicating relatively poorer agreement. Forefoot shape displayed substantial to almost perfect reliability (Gwet's AC1 0.68 to 0.85) and percentage agreement ranged from 73 to 87%, indicating acceptable agreement. Conclusions: The measurement of specific foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome using 3D scans is reproducible. Findings of this study may be used to support future research measuring specific foot dimensions of children and adolescents with Down syndrome using 3D foot scans.
... The dimensions reported in this paper should be considered in the construction of foot lasts (Rodrigo et al., 2012) and footwear intended for use in the NFL. Specific information such as that reported in this paper is preferred over template scaling or other less-specific methods of developing foot lasts (Wunderlich & Cavanagh, 2001). Furthermore, the methodology developed here may provide a framework for quantifying foot shape among other populations that may have specific footwear sizing requirements. ...
Article
The goal of this paper is to quantify the shape of National Football League (NFL) players’ feet and to identify foot shape characteristics that facilitate the development and refinement of position-specific footwear for NFL players. Statistical shape analysis was performed on three-dimensional (3 D) scans of 290 NFL players’ feet obtained from 4 NFL teams during preseason training camps to identify the principal components that explain characteristics of the shape variability. Eight foot shape measurements were then defined to reflect the main principal components and were quantified. The foot volume, the arch shape in conjunction with the foot length, and the foot curvature explained more than 80% of the foot shape variation. The average foot length was 293 ± 13.7 mm and width was 110.6 ± 6.8 mm. Significant differences were observed between position groupings, primarily with regard to size. The prevalence of flat feet (defined as 0 arch depth) was greater in linemen and hybrid position groups than in the skill group. This information can facilitate improvements in the lasts used to create shoes for elite-level players and can also help inform footwear selection.
... The foot shapes of men and women are different [54]. In future work, we will conduct separate analysis of male and female foot shapes to improve the accuracy of the system. ...
Conference Paper
Capturing 3D foot models is important for applications such as manufacturing customized shoes and creating clubfoot orthotics. In this paper, we propose a novel prototype, Sensock, to offer a fully wearable solution for the task of 3D foot reconstruction. The prototype consists of four soft stretchable sensors, made from silk fibroin yarn. We identify four characteristic foot girths based on the existing knowledge of foot anatomy, and measure their lengths with the resistance value of the stretchable sensors. A learning-based model is trained offline and maps the foot girths to the corresponding 3D foot shapes. We compare our method with existing solutions using red–green–blue (RGB) or RGBD (RGB-depth) cameras, and show the advantages of our method in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. In the user experiment, we find that the relative error of Sensock is lower than 0.55%. It performs consistently across different trials and is considered comfortable and suitable for long-term wearing.
... Ukierunkowane są one głównie na dobór wkładek ortopedycznych dla stóp wrażliwych oraz na różnice płciowe i etniczne. Uwzględnienie powyższych czynników może mieć istotne znaczenie w zapobieganiu deformacjom oraz produkcji obuwia sprzyjającego kształtowaniu się stóp u osób w różnym wieku [65,[80][81][82][83][84][85][86]. Specjaliści w zakresie ergonomii, zajmujący się badaniem stóp dla celów określenia prawidłowych zasad konstrukcji kopyta są zgodni, że niewłaściwy kształt przedniej części obuwia wpływa na powstawanie zniekształceń palców, jak również, że nieprawidłowa długość obuwia może być przyczyną ich deformacji. ...
Article
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In this work have been presented the history of feet research. Their problems also consider the efficiency of the foot in static and dynamic conditions, frequency of deviations below the norm, variability in structure in different periods of ontogeny and difference of sexual dimorphism in selected features of its structure. Part of the study is an attempt to standardize criteria of the evaluation of feet and the way of the results interpretation. Others are focused on searching optimal solutions for manufacture of footwear which prevent deformations and promote development of feet in different ages and also analysis of selected morphofunctional characteristics of feet and morphological characteristics of the body and feet arches. The review of scientific publications showed that over the decades research concepts have been changing, evolving from a relatively simple diagnostic methods to more and more complex and objective in order to obtain accurate results burdened with the lowest risk of measurement errors. Key words: foot, diagnostics, variability in ontogeny, development norms, sexual dimorphism, deformations of feet, manufacture of footwear.
... Using footwear often becomes difficult and creates many problems. Most of these problems are associated with wearing of ill-fitting footwear, as it leads to biomechanical imbalance and ultimately gives rise to different foot problems 7 . Similarly, the use of fingerprints in crime detection becomes difficult if the wrong data is presented. ...
Article
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The hand and foot dimensions are important in forensics and ergonomics as they can be used to identify victims of mass disasters, estimate height of individuals and also to produce good fitting hand gloves and foot wears. The aim of this study was to correlate and compare the hand and foot dimensions of Obudu people of Cross River State. A total of 500 subjects (300 males and 200 males), aged 20-40 years were used for this study. Hand length was measured from the wrist to the tip of the longest finger, with hand extended. Hand breadth was measured from the head of the first metacarpal to the head of the fifth metacarpal. Foot length was measured in centimeters using a meter rule from the traced foot outline of the subject, which was traced with the subjects standing erect and their foot placed on a flat surface; the foot breadth was measured using a sliding calipers with the foot placed on a flat surface. Data obtained were analysed statistically using GraphPad Prism 5. The independent T-test was used to compare the mean within and between sexes, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to correlate the parameters of males and females. The results of T-test were expressed as mean ± standard deviation using tables, and those of Pearson correlation coefficient were expressed as Pearson correlation (r)using tables. The results showed that at P<0.05 the males have significantly longer and broader hands and feet than females and there was a significant correlation between males and females. Key words: Hand, foot, dimensions, anthropometry, Obudu
... According to the results of the present study, the contact time was highest in the region of the third to fifth metatarsal bones, while the lowest value was observed in the medial midfoot of the right foot and lateral midfoot of the left foot. The higher contact time in the forefoot could be attributed to the higher flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch, as well as the weakness of the ligaments in this region (25) due to the degree of flatfoot present in all athletes to some extent. On the other hand, the low contact time in the mid-foot could be due to the rapid passage of the body weight after the heel from the midfoot (regions three and four) to the forefoot (metatarsal bones) (26,27). ...
Article
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Abstract Background: Sports activities may alter the parameters of plantar pressure distribution while walking. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the peak pressure, maximum force, contact area, and contact time between the right and left foot and their correlations with height and weight in elite weightlifters. Methods: This study was conducted on 12 elite weightlifters with the mean age of 23.2±2.26 years. The parameters of plantar pressure distribution were measured using the Emed platform during barefoot walking. In addition, the Auto Mask software was used to divide the sole into 10 anatomical regions. The parameters of peak pressure, maximum force, contact area, and contact time in each region were also estimated using the Multi Mask evaluation software. Data analysis was performed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation-coefficient (P≤0.05).Results: Significant differences were observed in the peak pressure parameter in the third region (medial midfoot) and maximum force parameter in the ninth region (9th toe) between the right and left foot. Moreover, positive, significant correlations were de-noted between height and weight with the peak pressure, maximum force, contact area, and contact time (P < 0.01). In the left foot ,an inverse, significant correlation was observed between the maximum force and height in the fifth region (first metatarsal bone)(P < 0.05).Conclusions: According to the results, the functional demand for both feet is very close in weightlifting. Therefore, insole designers must pay special attention to the reduction of the load on the third to fifth metatarsal bones in order to prevent complications such as metatarsalgia in athletes in the long run. Keywords: Peak Pressure, Maximum Force,
... Identifying foot shapes has a significant impact on design [8][9][10]. A small group of human models that represents the anthropometric variability of the target population is commonly used in ergonomic design and evaluation. ...
Article
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The taxonomy of foot shapes or other parts of the body is important, especially for design purposes. We propose a methodology based on archetypoid analysis (ADA) that overcomes the weaknesses of previous methodologies used to establish typologies. ADA is an objective, data-driven methodology that seeks extreme patterns, the archetypal profiles in the data. ADA also explains the data as percentages of the archetypal patterns, which makes this technique understandable and accessible even for non-experts. Clustering techniques are usually considered for establishing taxonomies, but we will show that finding the purest or most extreme patterns is more appropriate than using the central points returned by clustering techniques. We apply the methodology to an anthropometric database of 775 3D right foot scans representing the Spanish adult female and male population for footwear design. Each foot is described by a 5626 × 3 configuration matrix of landmarks. No multivariate features are used for establishing the taxonomy, but all the information gathered from the 3D scanning is employed. We use ADA for shapes described by landmarks. Women’s and men’s feet are analyzed separately. We have analyzed 3 archetypal feet for both men and women. These archetypal feet could not have been recovered using multivariate techniques.
Article
Footwear-to-feet examination and analysis refers to the process of examining and analyzing footwear in regard to criminal matters. This examination and analysis has been done to include or exclude an individual as the wearer of the footwear in question and to help associate or disassociate human remains to footwear. This review of the subject describes its investigative applications, the research that underpins the process, and considers its legal admissibility. The process of footwear-to-feet examination and analysis is scientifically valid and has been widely accepted. As a result, law enforcement and forensic scientists should be aware of the use of this process to assist in criminal investigations.
Article
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Background and Aims One of the treatment methods in the old age is to strengthen the sensory inputs. This study aims to evaluate the effect of knee brace on the electric activity of selected lower limb muscles during walking in older adults. Methods The is a quasi-experimental and laboratory study. Participants were 30 older adults, 15 females (Mean age=62.66±3.84 years, mean height= 159.93±0.02 cm, mean weight= 73.86±11.56 kg, body mass index=28.82±4.17 kg/m2) and 15 males (Mean age= 68.93±5.88 years, mean height=175.07±0.03 cm, mean weight= 81.20±11.07 kg, body mass index= 26.44±3.19 kg/m2). The intervention was the use of a type of brace by restricting knee flexion and extension movements or knee support. Electromyography (EMG) data were analyzed in DataLITE and MATLAB applications using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, and considering the significance level at P
Chapter
Foot injuries such as fractures, ligaments tear, ankle instability often occur often occurred in sports and work. This chapter described protective issues from the perspective of the objective data in the context of customized insole. The foot-related injuries issues were approached from the aspects of material, structure and effect of insole. For the foot deformity of flatfoot patients, to avoid the future injuries of foot, the lower material hardness of insole was more suitable for the plantar pressure release of severe flatfoot. The higher material hardness of insole was conducive to improve structure of the medial longitudinal arch. In addition, the biomechanical effect of orthopedic insole on correction of flatfoot had been investigated in comparison data of subject. The effective correction was very helpful for flatfoot patients and even affect loading on the internal tissue. The biomechanical behavior on foot tissue was studied by finite element simulation and experiments. This would be helpful for foot injury patients to avoid future complications and reasonable rehabilitation.
Article
Bu çalışma, Türkiye insanı ayak antropometrik özelliklerini tespit etmek ve Türk Ayak Numaralandırma Sistemini oluşturmak için 3B görüntüleme teknikleri ile yürütülen öncü bir araştırmanın, 42 numara erkek ayak veri analizinin sonuçlarını sunmaktadır. 15-77 yaş aralığında erkek ayağının sağ ve sol 11 boyutta (toplam 22 adet) antropometrik verileri, %95 güven aralığında %5 doğruluk için gerekli 240 örneklem büyüklüğünde incelenmiştir. Ayak topuk genişliği ve çevresi, ayak konturpiye çevresi ve ayak kısa topuk çevresi değişkenleri etkisiyle sağ ve sol ayakta bu boyutlarda farklılık olduğu görülmüştür. 11 boyuttaki orta değer verileri, uluslararası veri tabanları ve Mondopoint numaralandırma sistemi ile karşılaştırıldığında, özellikle genişlik boyutlarında standartların üzerindedir. Bulgular, Türkiye’de yaşayan insanlara özel numaralandırma siteminin gerekliğini hem toplum sağlığı hem de ekonomik açıdan önemini bir kez daha vurgular niteliktedir.
Article
Autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) is used in the treatment of osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the talus. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the presentation of talar OCLs and outcomes following AOT between male and female patients. Eighty-seven consecutive patients, ages 16-65 years, who underwent AOT were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on sex. Demographic data and OCL defect characteristic data were recorded. Functional outcomes were assessed pre- and post-operatively using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). The Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score was used to assess cartilage incorporation. Fifty-six (64%) males and 31 (36%) females with mean clinical follow-up of 47.2 months were included in this study. OCL defect size was significantly larger in male patients (112.8 mm²) when compared with female patients (88.7 mm2) (p<0.001). Male patients presented with a lesion associated with a recognized trauma (p<0.006) when compared with female patients who typically presented with associated chronic ankle instability. Mean FAOS improved pre- to postoperatively from 50 to 81 (p< 0.001) with a statistically significant increase found in male patients (p<0.001). The mean MOCART score was 82.1 in male and 86.7 female patients (p<0.001). Our study demonstrates potential gender related differences in the presentation and mechanism of injury in the development of OCLs. It is also not unreasonable to suggest that there may also be differences in treatment and rehabilitation strategies to reduce the risk of developing OCLs in men and women.
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Background: While the roles of injury prevention and performance enhancement have increasingly been investigated for badminton footwear, there is a lack of research on gender-specific badminton footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine the gender differences in footwear demands and foot injuries in badminton. Methods: A supervised questionnaire survey of 326 recreational badminton players was collected. The questionnaire was divided into four sections enquiring about the characteristics of (1) participant profiles, (2) importance of shoe properties (3) shoe complaints. (4) and pain or discomfort in different foot regions. The Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test were performed to determine the differences between genders and the differences between leg dominance, respectively. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Both males and females rated shoe fit as the most important features, followed by overall comfort, and injury protection. Females considered forefoot cushioning, comfort, breathability and color as the more important compared with other properties, which showed distinct pattern differences from males. The shoe problem results indicated that plantar pain of the non-dominant foot was considered the most commonly reported footwear problem by both males and females. The problem of excessive arch-support on the dominant and non-dominant sides of male participants was significantly higher than females (p < 0.05). Occasional pain or frequent pain were mainly distributed in the forefoot, followed by the rearfoot and midfoot regions. Conclusion: There were small differences in footwear demand between the dominant and non-dominant sides, but several differences existed between females and males. The results from gender differences suggested that female specific shoes prefer a specific better fit, rather than a modified version of male shoes. In the future, the design of badminton shoes should consider footwear demands and foot discomfort profiles in respective male and female badminton players.
Chapter
The ankle is a complex joint composed of a network of osseous and soft tissue structures that provide an inherent balance between structure and function, allowing transmission of forces through the ankle during weight-bearing activities. Each component works together biomechanically playing a critical role in the gait cycle. Therefore a thorough understanding of ankle anatomy and biomechanics, as well as an appreciation of the differences in these related to gender, is important when evaluating and treating athletic injuries involving the ankle joint. This chapter will review the ankle bony, soft tissue, and neurovascular anatomy; the biomechanics underlying the gait cycle; and gender-related differences within the ankle joint.
Article
Objectives Foot and ankle dysfunction in barefoot/minimally shod populations remains understudied. Although factors affecting musculoskeletal pain in Western populations are well-studied, little is known about how types of work, gender, and body shape influence bone and joint health in non-Western and minimally shod communities. This study examines the effect of human variation on locomotor disability in an agrarian community in Madagascar. Materials and methods Foot measurements were collected along with height, weight, age, and self-report data on daily activity and foot and ankle pain from 41 male and 48 female adults. A short form revised foot function index (FFI-R), that measures functional disability related to foot pain, was calculated. Raw and normalized foot measurements were compared by gender and used in a multiple linear regression model to determine predictors of FFI-R. Results Compared to men, women reported higher FFI-R scores (p = 0.014), spent more time on their feet (p = 0.019), and had higher BMIs (p = 0.0001). For their weight, women had significantly smaller and narrower feet than men. Bimalleolar breadth (p = 0.0005) and foot length (p = 0.0223) standardized by height, time spent on feet (p = 0.0102), ankle circumference standardized by weight (p = 0.0316), and age (p = 0.0090) were significant predictors of FFI-R score. Discussion Our findings suggest that human variation in anatomical and behavioral patterns serve as significant explanations for increased foot and ankle pain in women in this non-Western rural population. Foot and ankle pain were prevalent at similar levels to those in industrialized populations, indicating that research should continue to examine its effect on similar barefoot/minimally shod communities.
Chapter
This study aims out the purpose and outcomes of research performed to evolve a reasoned categorization method of the elderly foot assortment, and it is rooted on framework derived from the plantar footprint. DIERS Pedoscan pressure plate and the corresponding system including DIERS Statico-3D systems were used to obtain plantar footprints from 30 men, aged between 18 and 25 years. Hallux-Valgus (HV) Angle and Chippaux-Simark Index (CSI) have been utilized, and foot assortment has been categorized. Mainly five disciplines were separated into groups, disciplines with Hallux-Varus Foot, Normal Foot, HV Foot, High Arched Foot, Normal foot and Flat Foot, grounded on the acquired result. For a more precise calculation, being able to record it in the identical method, for all disciplines, the authors have evolved a process to assess the mid-plantar footprint middle area for a more precise calculation. Distinctions between different age batches have been controlled by having defined age group and revealing the unavoidable modelling with crafting shoe shapes, protective constituents and footwear accordingly. The superior apt of the shoe on foot in young age can be attained under definite levels and requires reforming of shoe shape. The customization of the product is rationalized by incorporating having biomechanics-based foot data and distinguishes categorization of this, decreased tests numbers and expanding a footwear technological operation effectiveness.
Article
Although many studies relating stature to foot length have been carried out, the relationship between foot size and body mass remains poorly understood. Here we investigate this relationship in 193 adult and 50 juvenile habitually unshod/minimally shod individuals from five different populations—Machiguenga, Daasanach, Pumé, Hadzabe, and Samoans—varying greatly in body size and shape. Body mass is highly correlated with foot size, and can be predicted from foot area (maximum length × breadth) in the combined sample with an average error of about 10%. However, comparisons among populations indicate that body shape, as represented by the body mass index (BMI), has a significant effect on foot size proportions, with higher BMI samples exhibiting relatively smaller feet. Thus, we also derive equations for estimating body mass from both foot size and BMI, with BMI in footprint samples taken as an average value for a taxon or population, estimated independently from skeletal remains. Techniques are also developed for estimating body mass in juveniles, who have relatively larger feet than adults, and for converting between foot and footprint size. Sample applications are given for five Pliocene through Holocene hominin footprint samples from Laetoli (Australopithecus afarensis), Ileret (probable Homo erectus), Happisburgh (possible Homo antecessor), Le Rozel (archaic Homo sapiens), and Barcin Höyük (H. sapiens). Body mass estimates for Homo footprint samples appear reasonable when compared to skeletal estimates for related samples. However, estimates for the Laetoli footprint sample using the new formulae appear to be too high when compared to skeletal estimates for A. afarensis. Based on the proportions of A.L. 288-1, this is apparently a result of relatively large feet in this taxon. A different method using a ratio between body mass and foot area in A.L. 288-1 provides estimates more concordant with skeletal estimates and should be used for A. afarensis.
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Background The human foot typically changes temperature between pre and post-locomotion activities. However, the mechanisms responsible for temperature changes within the foot are currently unclear. Prior studies indicate that shear forces may increase foot temperature during locomotion. Here, we examined the shear-temperature relationship using turning gait with varying radii to manipulate magnitudes of shear onto the foot. Methods Healthy adult participants ( N = 18) walked barefoot on their toes for 5 minutes at a speed of 1.0 m s ⁻¹ at three different radii (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m). Toe-walking was utilized so that a standard force plate could measure shear localized to the forefoot. A thermal imaging camera was used to quantify the temperature changes from pre to post toe-walking (ΔT), including the entire foot and forefoot regions on the external limb (limb farther from the center of the curved path) and internal limb. Results We found that shear impulse was positively associated with ΔT within the entire foot ( P < 0.001) and forefoot ( P < 0.001): specifically, for every unit increase in shear, the temperature of the entire foot and forefoot increased by 0.11 and 0.17 °C, respectively. While ΔT, on average, decreased following the toe-walking trials (i.e., became colder), a significant change in ΔT was observed between radii conditions and between external versus internal limbs. In particular, ΔT was greater (i.e., less negative) when walking at smaller radii ( P < 0.01) and was greater on the external limb ( P < 0.01) in both the entire foot and forefoot regions, which were likely explained by greater shear forces with smaller radii ( P < 0.0001) and on the external limb ( P < 0.0001). Altogether, our results support the relationship between shear and foot temperature responses. These findings may motivate studying turning gait in the future to quantify the relationship between shear and foot temperature in individuals who are susceptible to abnormal thermoregulation.
Article
When found at crime scenes, footprints may be evidentially valuable and can assist with the identity of a perpetrator based on their features and/or measurements. Footprints can be either static (made standing) or dynamic (made while walking). While extensive research has been performed on the linear measurements obtained from static and dynamic footprints, research on the comparisons between the contact area of static and dynamic footprints in the forensic context are limited. The present study compares the contact area of static and dynamic bare footprints to determine if statistically significant differences exist between the two. Static and dynamic footprints were obtained from a sample of randomly-selected 461 Jatt Sikh adults (230 males and 231 females) of Indian origin between the ages of 19 and 32 years. The footprint contact area was calculated from each footprint (excluding the toes) using a PedoGRID® sheet. No statistically significant differences were observed between the contact area of static and dynamic footprints for each foot among males and females. However, statistically significant differences between both the sexes were found in the footprint contact areas of both footprint types. The right dynamic footprint contact area was found to be the most predictive measurement for classifying and estimating sex from a footprint’s contact area. The study has implications in the analysis of footprints recovered from the crime scenes.
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Digital techniques are a strategic tool to design new commercial products, reducing time and waste. This is particularly relevant for shoe manufacturing and, in particular, for high-heeled shoes, for which a trade-off between comfort and attractiveness is difficult to achieve. This paper offers a new set of tools to design high-heeled shoes that exploits the synergies between modeling and experiments, aiming at predicting the comfort of such products, improving the manufacturing process by optimizing the design step. As a case study, two actual commercial 11-cm-heel shoe models, differentiated by the openness of the front side, were used to deploy the digital design procedure. A finite-element model was implemented by combining the outcomes from reverse engineering techniques, to reconstruct the foot and shoe topologies, and the experimental characterization of the materials used for the final shoe products. Pressure maps on the toes and the footbed were used as benchmarks for a comparison with experiments, made with commercial sensorized insoles. Non-uniform pressures for both shoe models were observed, with highest values for the closed-shaped specimen that presented peaks of ≈ 160 kPa on the footbed and ≈ 140 kPa on the external toes. The here presented digital approach has the potential to improve the design process that will not require the traditional fabrication of countless handicraft prototypes, saving time and the associated prototyping costs. Finally, although this work focused on a niche of the shoe market, this approach may be extended to other products, which customization has a key role in the manufacturing process. Graphical abstract
Article
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that lower extremity amputation (LEA) rate of per 1000 diabetic patients is 18.4 because of the complications that first appeared in the foot. A second amputation is also required for 9% to 17% of these patients within the same year although LEA may be preventable. Most of the diabetic foot conditions may be prevented and treated by a therapeutic footwear or a medical device such as an insole or an orthotic shoe. Traditional insole manufacturing is a laborious work that requires specific skills. Moreover, traditional approaches contain harmful material particles that may cause respiratory failure. Unfortunately, manufactured insoles may not be suitable for any mass‐produced footwear in all cases. Therefore, patient requires to get insole‐specific footwear. In this study, a diabetic insole was manufactured by means of a fused deposition modeling‐(FDM) based system and a thermoplastic polymer. Biomechanical functionality was determined according to the applied polymer analysis on each produced sample and foam material. Subsequently, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to target insole geometry to ensure the quality of the final medical product. Additive and traditional manufactured insoles are compared according to the cost and function. As a result, fabrication of an insole, based on the FDM method, was improved down to 8 h and 9 m. The weight of an insole prototype was 74.74 g, and the material cost was $3.44 while total cost of the traditional foam casting was determined as $35.37 and weight of the insole was 72.6 g for this study. Consequently, benefits of the applied method are evaluated.
Article
A comprehensive series of variables that describe the essential three dimensional characteristics of the human foot is presented together with descriptive statistics derived from a diverse civilian population (n = 1197), representing a wide age range (18-85 years) and randomly selected in terms of physical demands placed upon the foot in the course of a normal working day. The paper illustrates the effect of linear scaling of the first, second and fifth digit lengths upon forefoot shape. The ratio of the pternion to metatarsale tibiale and fibulare lengths determine the angle and position of the axis across the metatarsal-phalangeal joint (MPJ). The height of the hallux, MPJ, dorsum, and arch are shown to vary independently from all other variables and in conjunction with akropodion to dorsum length and dorsum to distal heel length, provide the necessary information for describing the characteristics of the foot in the sagittal plane. Girth measures provide serial information across the foot in the coronal plane to complete comprehensive data on the three dimensional shape of the foot.
Article
The kinanthropometric aspects of comfort of fit of sport shoes has not been subjected to any great scrutiny. It is suggested that comfort of fit is largely determined by the match of foot shape to shoe shape and consequently there is a need for normative data that describe foot shape, dimension and proportion for discrete populations. A study of 708 second generation Caucasian N. American (NA) and 513 Japanese and Korean (JK) male subjects was conducted to determine normative data with respect to forefoot shape and dimension. A series of 2 height, 7 length, 1 breadth and 1 girth measures of the right foot bearing full body weight was recorded using a modified Mitutoyo digital caliper interfaced with a micro-processor. Substantial differences were noted in the incidence of digital patterning. The relative proportion of digital patterns I (1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5) and II (2 > 1 > 3 > 4 > 5) were NA 76.09%, 23.91%; JK 50.80% and 49.20% respectively. The distance between the pternion and the distal extremity of the second digit expressed as a percentage of the maximum foot length (MFL) was found to be 98.60% (NA) and 99.60% (JK). In addition, the distance between the pternion and the distal extremity of the fifth digit relative to MFL was 82.60% (NA) and 85.00% (JK). The implication of these data is that the anterior margin of the JK foot makes a less acute angle with the long axis of the foot than the NA population. Additional information with respect to foot breadth leads to the conclusion that the shape of the JK forefoot differs from that of the NA, with the implication that unique shoe lasts for both populations are required for optimal shoe comfort.
Article
Stature, body weight, left foot length and breadth were measured on East Javanese, Filipinas in Northern Luzon, and Japanese in Tokyo. No footwear is used by the Javanese, rubber sandals are used by the Filipinas, and sneakers or leather shoes by the Japanese group. Regression lines regardless of age were obtained among these four measurements, body mass index (BMI), and relative foot breadth to foot length. The relationships between general body size and foot size/shape were examined with regard to footwear. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) in either sex, compared with the Japanese, the East Javanese have a longer foot for the same stature and body weight, and a wider foot for the same BMI and the same foot length; (2) the relationship between BMI and foot shape (breadth/length) is nearly the same in the Filipinas and the Japanese females, (3) sexual dimorphism of the foot is greater among the East Javanese than among the Japanese; (4) as body size/weight increases sexual dimorphism diminishes among the East Javanese, whereas it is more emphasized among the Japanese; (5) the appropriateness of the regression equation obtained from measurements of present-day barefoot peoples for estimation of the stature of prehistoric humans is supported.