Kris-Etherton P, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Engler M, Howard BV, Krauss RM et al.. AHA scientific statement: summary of the Scientific Conference on Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health. Conference summary from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. J Nutr 131, 1322-1326

Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 05/2001; 131(4):1322-6.
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Available from: Lawrence L Rudel
    • "However, the nutritional pattern is changing rapidly in the Middle East including our country in such a way that the Middle East is suffering from energy over-consumption and even more than other developing countries.[1314] Anyhow, this change can be created by the trend to saturated fat, cholesterol, sugary materials, energy-dense foods with attractive appearance but low nutritional value compounds, fatty or sugary snack foods and decreased fiber food that adds to the severity of the risk of non-communicable diseases.[15] On the other hand, many of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome are directly influenced by nutritional factors, such as dyslipidemia (blood fat disorders), high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is a collection of metabolic disorders, which can increase the mortality rates from 20% to 80%. One of strategies to control the disease is the attention to the dietary habits. Compliance with proper diet is one of the major challenges in the management of this syndrome. Due to this fact, that the patient is responsible for the adjustment of the daily diet, it is important to identify the factors affecting the adoption of nutritional self-care. Besides, self-efficacy is considered as an important pre-requisite for this behavior because it acts as an independent part of the basic skills. This study was carried out with the purpose of determining the predictive role of perceived self-efficacy on macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome. In this descriptive study with correlational nature in 2012, there were 329 patients with the metabolic syndrome. The patients were covered by Isfahan oil industry medical centers and selected by a systematic method. In order to gather information on perceived self-efficacy, the questionnaires constructed by the researchers were used and the validity and reliability had been confirmed by the calculation of content validity indexand content validity ratio values and the indices of internal consistency and stability of the tool. The 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was also used for 3 days in order to investigate the nutritional behavior. The obtained data from the dietary recall questionnaire were analyzed by the N4 nutritional software. In this study, AMOS software version 16 was used for the structural model fitting by using the generalized least squares method besides the SPSS statistical software version 16. THESE AVERAGES OBTAINED FROM THE RESULTS: 2512.37 kcal energy intake, 70.95 g protein, 420 g carbohydrates and 61.61 g of fat per day. The mean of perceived self-efficacy score was 47.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was indicated a significant inverse relationship between the perceived self-efficacy and intake of macronutrients in the metabolic syndrome. The most direct effect of the coefficient of perceived self-efficacy was observed on fat and carbohydrate intake (P < 0.05 and β = -0.592) and (P < 0.05 and β = -0.395). The amount of energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein were more than the recommended dietary allowances levels and the amount of self-efficacy was moderate. The present study showed that perceived self-efficacy provided a useful framework to understand and predict adherence to dietary self-care behaviors in patients with metabolic syndrome.
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    • "Previous research has shown that chronic ingestion of specific fats, such as saturated fats, increase cardiovascular disease risk while other fats, including long chained omega 3 fats (n-3FA), reduce risk [10,11]. The differential effect of these fats on chronic disease risk has been hypothesized to be mediated by unique effects on blood lipids, hemostasis, endothelial function, or inflammation [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA), saturated fat (SFA), or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA) in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)), and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG)). O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051), while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p < 0.05). CRP increased while TNF-α and 8-epi decreased with no difference between treatments. While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Nutrition Journal
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    • "Several lifestyle habits may predispose to the metabolic syndrome. Among them, there is evidence that quality and quantity of fatty acids could play a key role in the development of the metabolic syndrome (Grundy et al. 2004; Kris-Etherton et al. 2001). There is also evidence from family and twin studies for the involvement of genetic factors in the etiology of this condition (Bouchard 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic factors, alone or in interaction with components of the diet, are thought to be involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was first to compare the frequency of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha-L162V polymorphism in a sample of men with and without the metabolic syndrome as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) guidelines, and secondly, to evaluate gene-diet interaction effects on features of the metabolic syndrome. The PPARalpha-L162V genotype was determined in a sample of 632 men by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based method; fat as well as saturated fat intakes were evaluated by a dietitian-administered food frequency questionnaire. The frequency of the V162 allele was similar in men with ( n=281) and without ( n=351) the metabolic syndrome ( chi(2)=0.03, p=0.84) but was higher in subjects having simultaneously abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels ( chi(2)=3.73, p=0.05). Carriers of the V162 were characterized by higher plasma apolipoprotein B and triglyceride (TG) levels ( p=0.10, p=0.004). In a model including the PPARalpha-L162V polymorphism, fat or saturated fat, its interaction, and covariates (smoking habits, and energy and alcohol intake), the interaction explained a significant percentage of the variance observed in waist circumference ( p<0.05). In conclusion, the PPARalpha-L162V polymorphism alone or in interaction with dietary fat intake is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Human Genetics
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