Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transition in the British Isles

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 05/2001; 98(9):5078-83. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.071036898
Source: PubMed


Human history is punctuated by periods of rapid cultural change. Although archeologists have developed a range of models to describe cultural transitions, in most real examples we do not know whether the processes involved the movement of people or the movement of culture only. With a series of relatively well defined cultural transitions, the British Isles present an ideal opportunity to assess the demographic context of cultural change. Important transitions after the first Paleolithic settlements include the Neolithic, the development of Iron Age cultures, and various historical invasions from continental Europe. Here we show that patterns of Y-chromosome variation indicate that the Neolithic and Iron Age transitions in the British Isles occurred without large-scale male movements. The more recent invasions from Scandinavia, on the other hand, appear to have left a significant paternal genetic legacy. In contrast, patterns of mtDNA and X-chromosome variation indicate that one or more of these pre-Anglo-Saxon cultural revolutions had a major effect on the maternal genetic heritage of the British Isles.

Download full-text


Available from: Mark G Thomas
  • Source
    • "Patterns of migration between men and women generally suggest greater patrilocality and female-biased dispersal on local and regional scales (e.g. Salem et al., 1996; Seielstad et al., 1998; Mesa et al., 2000; Thomas et al., 2000; Oota et al., 2001; Wilson et al., 2001; Wen et al., 2004). By contrast, the demographic data presented here indicates that, whereas patterns of male and female individual migration to Tehran and overall are similar (Figure 2) there is a slight tendency for men to migrate more often and further than women (over all populations w 2 ¼ 4.77, 1 d.f., Po0.05). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
  • Source
    • "Principal Coordinates Analysis was conducted on similarity matrices based on F ST genetic distances with the use of the GenStat program. Signature haplotype analysis— high-frequency modal haplotypes (MHs) and modal clusters (MCs) (Thomas et al. 1998, 2000; Wilson et al. 2001)—was performed with Microsoft Excel. The admixture proportions of the three hypothesized populations (four groups) in the Hamshenis gene pool were assessed with the ADMIX 2.0 program (Dupanloup and Bertorelle 2001). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The Hamshenis are an isolated geographic group of Armenians with a strong ethnic identity who, until the early decades of the twentieth century, inhabited the Pontus area on the southern coast of the Black Sea. Scholars hold alternative views on their origin, proposing Eastern Armenia, Western Armenia, and Central Asia, respectively, as their most likely homeland. To ascertain whether genetic data from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome are supportive of any of these suggestions, we screened 82 Armenian males of Hamsheni descent for 12 biallelic and 6 microsatellite Y-chromosomal markers. These data were compared with the corresponding data set from the representative populations of the three candidate regions. Genetic difference between the Hamshenis and other groups is significant and backs up the hypothesis of the Armenian origin of the Hamshenis, indicating central historical Armenia as a homeland of the ancestral population. This inference is further strengthened by the results of admixture analysis, which does not support the Central-Asian hypothesis of the Hamshenis' origin. Genetic diversity values and patterns of genetic distances suggest a high degree of genetic isolation of the Hamshenis consistent with their retention of a distinct and ancient dialect of the Armenian language.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Human Biology
  • Source
    • "DYS393*12/DYS461*11 in Eastern Europe). The majority of Anatolian R1b samples are of the Eastern European type, while those in Sardinia are predominantly Western European and belong to the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (Wilson et al. 2001). In addition, this analysis estimated TMRCA for R1b ranging from 32,600 YA in Iberia (95% CI: 25,000 – 80,700) to 19,600 YA in Anatolia (95% CI: 19,400 – 44,400), well before the advent of agriculture (Morelli et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the genetic variation in Basque Y chromosome lineages using data on 12 Y-short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a sample of 158 males from four Basque provinces of Spain (Alava, Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, and Navarre). As reported in previous studies, the Basques are characterized by high frequencies of haplogroup R1b (83%). AMOVA analysis demonstrates genetic homogeneity, with a small but significant amount of genetic structure between provinces (Y-short tandem repeat loci STRs: 1.71%, p = 0.0369). Gene and haplotype diversity levels in the Basque population are on the low end of the European distribution (gene diversity: 0.4268; haplotype diversity: 0.9421). Post-Neolithic contribution to the paternal Basque gene pool was estimated by measuring the proportion of those haplogroups with a Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) previously dated either prior (R1b, I2a2) or subsequent to (E1b1b, G2a, J2a) the Neolithic. Based on these estimates, the Basque provinces show varying degrees of post-Neolithic contribution in the paternal lineages (10.9% in the combined sample).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Human Biology
Show more