Article

How not to be Seen: The Contribution of Similarity and Selective Ignoring to Sustained Inattentional Blindness

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Abstract

When people attend to objects or events in a visual display, they often fail to notice an additional, unexpected, but fully visible object or event in the same display. This phenomenon is now known as inattentional blindness. We present a new approach to the study of sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events in order to explore the roles of similarity, distinctiveness, and attentional set in the detection of unexpected objects. In Experiment 1, we found that the similarity of an unexpected object to other objects in the display influences attentional capture: The more similar an unexpected object is to the attended items, and the greater its differencefrom the ignored items, the more likely it is that people will notice it. Experiment 2 explored whether this effect of similarity is driven by selective ignoring of irrelevant items or by selective focusing on attended items. The results of Experiment 3 suggest that the distinctiveness of the unexpected object alone cannot entirely account for the similarity effects found in the first two experiments; when attending to black items or white items in a dynamic display, nearly 30% of observers failed to notice a bright red cross move across the display, even though it had a unique color, luminance, shape, and motion trajectory and was visible for 5s. Together, the results suggest that inattentional blindness for ongoing dynamic events depends both on the similarity of the unexpected object to the other objects in the display and on the observer's attentional set.

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... A substantial proportion of subjects-25-75%, depending on the precise nature of the experiment-miss a small square flashed for 200 ms in a static display [1]. About half of subjects also miss a cross drifting across the screen for 5 s in a multiple object tracking task [6] or a gorilla striding through a basketball game for 9 s [7]. However, few studies have systematically examined the effect of exposure time on noticing within a single task. ...
... Experiment 1 compared noticing of an unexpected object that was visible for either a long exposure of 5 s or a shorter exposure of 2.67 s, corresponding to the unexpected object crossing either 80% of the total width of the display or 40% of the total width display. A 5 s exposure is typical for this sort of sustained inattentional blindness task [6], and these exposure durations are similar to those used in previous studies of the influence of exposure time on noticing [8]. If noticing is a stochastic or accumulative process, with greater time leading to more noticing, then noticing rates should be lower in the 2.67 s condition because those participants have 2.33 fewer seconds to spot the unexpected event; if noticing is instead driven by an onset or offset event, then noticing rates should not differ between the conditions. ...
... Our results in Experiment 2 suggest that differences in noticing rates as a function of spatial attention probably would not interact with the exposure duration effects we examined. Similarity effects, wherein objects similar to the attended set tend to be noticed at high rates, whereas objects in the ignored set tend to be noticed at much lower rates [6], might interact with the effects of exposure duration we observed in these experiments. ...
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Article
People can show sustained inattentional blindness for unexpected objects visible for seconds or even minutes. Would such objects eventually be noticed given enough time, with the likelihood of noticing accumulating while the unexpected object is visible? Or, is there a narrow window around onset or offset when an object is most likely to be detected, with the chances of noticing dropping outside of that window? Across three experiments (total n's = 283, 756, 488) exploring the temporal dynamics of noticing in sustained inattentional blindness, subjects who noticed the unexpected object did so soon after it onset. Doubling or even tripling the time when the unexpected object was visible barely affected the likelihood of noticing it and had no impact on how accurately subjects reported its features. When people notice an unexpected object in these sustained inattentional blindness tasks, they do so soon after the unexpected object onsets.
... Consistent with this suggestion, many factors that are known to influence attention have also been shown to influence visual awareness. For example, both bottom-up factors, such as visual salience (Most, Clifford, Scholl, & Simons, 2005), and top-down factors, such as observers' task goals (Drew & Stothart, 2016;Most et al., 2005;Most et al., 2001), have been found to modulate the visual awareness of objects. ...
... One factor that strongly influences visual awareness is observers' attentional set, or the set of features that observers use to guide attention (e.g., Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). For example, when observers adopt an attentional set for a particular color, they are more likely to notice objects that share this color (Drew & Stothart, 2016;Most et al., 2005;Most et al., 2001; see also Simons & Chabris, 1999). However, in addition to adopting attentional sets for relatively simple features, such as color, observers can also adopt attentional sets for a particular semantic category, such as food or furniture (Nako, Wu, Smith, & Eimer, 2014;Wu et al., 2013;Wyble, Folk, & Potter, 2013;Yang & Zelinsky, 2009). ...
... Because typical and atypical objects were visually dissimilar from each other, it is possible that these findings were due to differences in visual similarity. Specifically, participants may have been more likely to notice atypical objects because they were visually dissimilar from the untracked objects (Drew & Stothart, 2016;Most et al., 2001). In Experiment 2, we assessed whether this was the case. ...
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Article
In the present study, we assessed whether typicality can influence the visual awareness of objects. Participants tracked moving images of objects and counted how often members of one category bounced off the edges of the display. On the last trial, an unexpected object moved across the display. In our first two experiments, this object could belong to the same category as the tracked or untracked objects. While participants were more likely to notice atypical members of the untracked category, this pattern of results reversed when participants tracked atypical objects. In our last two experiments, the unexpected object could belong to the same category as the tracked objects or a new category of objects. In this case, participants were more likely to notice typical members of both the tracked category and the new category. Together, these findings suggest that typicality can modulate the visual awareness of objects.
... This full attention trial was to act as a control to ensure that failures in detection were attention based. Subsequently, numerous IB paradigms based on Mack and Rock (1998) founding work, have been developed in order to investigate why only up to 50% of people experience IB (Most et al., 2001, Simons & Chabris, 1999Kreitz et al., 2015;. ...
... What stimulus features might cause IB has been a focus of several lines of research. It has been found that in general, an increase in the primary task demands has led to a subsequent increase in experience of IB (Simons & Chabris, 1999;Most et al., 2001;. This suggests the limitations of working memory capacity in individuals, for when working memory is engaged in a primary task, there are limited resources available to detect any subsequent unexpected stimuli. ...
... Low WMC was found to predict IB in a study by Richards, Hellegren and French (2014) using an IB task designed by Most et al., (2001). This IB task involved white (target) and black (distractor) letters (L's and T's) which moved across the display and bounced off the display frame for 25s. ...
... Relevant attributes of the unexpected object seem to include physical properties like its size (Mack & Rock, 1998) or conspicuity (Mack & Rock, 1998) as well as its semantic content (Calvillo & Jackson, 2014;Downing, Bray, Rogers, & Childs, 2004;Mack, Pappas, Silverman, & Gay, 2002). Regarding context factors, the probability that an unexpected object is noticed depends on the degree of its unexpectedness (Beanland & Pammer, 2010;Mack & Rock, 1998;Ward & Scholl, 2015), on the amount of attentional resources that are available beyond the primary task (i.e., difficulty of the primary task; Macdonald & Lavie, 2008;Simons & Chabris, 1999;Simons & Jensen, 2009), on the similarity of the unexpected object to the content of the attentional focus (i.e., attentional set; Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2007;Most et al., 2001), and on the position of the critical stimulus in relation to the focus of attention (Most, Simons, Scholl, & Chabris, 2000;Newby & Rock, 1998). ...
... Kreitz, et al. Consciousness and Cognition 78 (2020) 102878 Hüttermann, Memmert, & Simons, 2014) with an inattentional blindness paradigm (Mack & Rock, 1998;Most et al., 2001). In the attention window task, participants have to report the number of targets in each of two stimulus clusters presented left and right from fixation. ...
... Participants were coded as inattentionally blind if they did not report noticing the unexpected object or claimed to have seen something but could not unequivocally define its position 2 . As typically done in inattentional blindness research (Most et al., 2001;White, Davies, & Aimola Davies, 2018), only data from participants who noticed the additional square in the control trial (fullattention trial) and correctly described its characteristics were included in the analyses. Thus, missing the unexpected object in the critical trial cannot be attributed to basal visual problems or a poor contrast. ...
Article
Inattentional blindness - the phenomenon that we sometimes miss salient stimuli in our direct view when they appear unexpectedly and attention is focused on something else - is modulated by various parameters, including distance of the unexpected stimulus from the attentional focus. In two experiments, we expanded the existing literature on spatial factors influencing inattentional blindness as well as theories on the spatial distribution of attention. Noticing rates of unexpected objects were significantly higher when they appeared outside instead of inside the bounds of primary task stimuli. Thus, our results do neither support the account that spatial attention is tuned as a spotlight that includes relevant targets and everything in between nor an account of purely object-based attentional orientation. Instead, the results speak in favor of an inhibitory area between two attended targets. Experiment 2 replicated these surprising findings and additionally demonstrated that they were not confounded by task.
... Gorilla missing with more controlled displays was measured in a program of experiments led by Steve Most, who was a graduate student drafted onto the Simons and Chabris gorilla team. Together, they directed an army of researchers with laptops far and wide across campuses, to conduct dozens of short experiments [29,63]. ...
... In a number of experiments, the stimuli were 8 smallish black or white circles and squares, about the size of a large-ish coin [29,63]. The shapes moved haphazardly across the display screen over seconds. ...
... The missed gorillas and shapes show that when participants are set for one task, unexpected information can be missed [29,58,63]. The missed gorilla walked and thumped its chest for over 5 s in the middle of the video [58]. ...
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Article
This article provides an introduction to experimental research on top-down human attention in complex scenes, written for cognitive scientists in general. We emphasize the major effects of goals and intention on mental function, measured with behavioral experiments. We describe top-down attention as an open category of mental actions that initiates particular task sets, which are assembled from a wide range of mental processes. We call this attention-setting. Experiments on visual search, task switching, and temporal attention are described and extended to the important human time scale of seconds.
... Many studies in cognitive psychology found that the individual's attention to the main task is the main cause of inattentional blindness. Moreover, researchers already discovered several factors that affect inattentional blindness (Mack & Rock, 1998;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999), including the location, shape, color, and size of unpredictable stimuli (Hyman et al., 2010;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999), the eye movement effects (Beanland & Pammer, 2010b), previous experience of drivers (Beanland & Pammer, 2010a), and the difficulty of the main task (Cartwright-Finch & Lavie, 2007;Lavie, 1995). Some studies also found that although the incidence rate is relatively low, individuals still experience inattentional blindness even without the main task. ...
... Many studies in cognitive psychology found that the individual's attention to the main task is the main cause of inattentional blindness. Moreover, researchers already discovered several factors that affect inattentional blindness (Mack & Rock, 1998;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999), including the location, shape, color, and size of unpredictable stimuli (Hyman et al., 2010;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999), the eye movement effects (Beanland & Pammer, 2010b), previous experience of drivers (Beanland & Pammer, 2010a), and the difficulty of the main task (Cartwright-Finch & Lavie, 2007;Lavie, 1995). Some studies also found that although the incidence rate is relatively low, individuals still experience inattentional blindness even without the main task. ...
... That is to say, a driving task may be much more difficult than the full attention task in the cognitive study. In the inattentional blindness paradigm used in cognitive studies, participants only need to detect certain stimuli while performing rather simple main tasks (Mack & Rock, 1998;Most et al., 2005Most et al., , 2001. For example, in Mack and Rock (1998) study, participants needed to detect a simple geometric shape (unexpected stimuli) while discriminating the longer arm of a cross (main task). ...
Article
Augmented reality head-up display (AR HUD) is a new technology in assisted driving, which can add extra information to the driving environment in real-time to help the driver better perceive road situation. AR HUD can enhance driving safety but may also encourage inattentional blindness. Hence, this study aims to examine whether AR HUD-induces inattentional blindness and determine whether workload intensifies their relationship. In experiment 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to three groups and watched three types of augmented reality (AR)-augmented driving videos, respectively. They were instructed to respond to any critical events, but only their responses to road-crossing pedestrians were recorded. Results show that AR HUD reduces inattentional blindness when pedestrians are augmented but encourages inattentional blindness when pedestrians are not augmented. In experiment 2, 20 participants viewed AR-augmented driving videos of high and low workloads. Pedestrians were not augmented in all videos. Result reveals that a high workload induces more inattentional blindness than low workload. The finding confirms that AR HUD induces inattentional blindness, and a high workload will intensify this relationship. The future design of the AR HUD assisted-driving system should consider the risk of inattentional blindness and come up with corresponding countermeasures.
... The consequences of perceptual load on peripheral attention are similarly demonstrated in studies of inattentional blindness (IB). IB describes an observer's failure to notice stimuli in full view due to the ongoing attentional demands of a primary but unrelated visual task (Mack and Rock 1998; Most et al. 2001). In addition to many lab-based observations, incidences of IB have been reported in naturalistic scenarios. ...
... To follow up on our experiment 1 findings, we therefore designed an abstracted version of this IB paradigm to use in experiment 2, as it was far less likely to be recognised as an IB test. A further advantage of this alternative IB task is that the perceptual features of the task relevant and (unexpected) irrelevant stimuli can be adjusted to maximise the likelihood of IB (Most et al. 2000(Most et al. , 2001(Most et al. , 2005. By calibrating the featural overlap between these stimuli, we reduced the likelihood of perceptual "popout" effects for the unexpected stimuli, for example, by using alpha-numeric letters and characters with similar features, such as "L", "T", and "+", as opposed to "A". ...
... The purpose of this experiment was to overcome the problem of participant familiarity with the Simons and Chabris (1999) gorilla scene through the use of an analogous computer-based IB test using dynamic abstract symbols. In this task, originally conceptualised by Most and colleagues (Most et al. 2000(Most et al. , 2001(Most et al. , 2005, two sets of shapes move inside a square frame in straight trajectories then, on touching the frame, "bounce" off it, and continue moving in the rebounded direction. These stimulus sets differ on one dimension such as shape or colour. ...
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Article
Rationale Inattentional blindness (IB) describes the failure to notice salient but unexpected stimuli in one’s focal visual field. It typically occurs while performing a demanding task (e.g., tracking and counting basketball passes), which consumes attentional resources. Alcohol intoxication is also known to reduce attentional resources, thereby potentially increasing IB and disrupting task performance. Objectives To test the extent to which acute alcohol intoxication and task difficulty disrupt counting performance and increase the rate of IB across two experimental tasks. Methods To test the effects of alcohol consumption and task difficulty on IB we used the Simons and Chabris (1999; 2010) “gorilla in our midst” basketball clip in Experiment 1, and an analogous computerised alternative to the classic “gorilla” task in Experiment 2. Results The rate of IB increased under more demanding (counting) task conditions but was unaffected by alcohol consumption. However, counting performance was impaired by both alcohol and high task difficulty, with the largest detriment being for alcohol participants who noticed the salient but unexpected stimulus. Conclusion The absence of alcohol effects on IB in these experiments was unexpected and warrants further investigation in field vs lab study comparisons, and in combination with baseline cognitive measures to test for alcohol expectancy and task compensation effects.
... Related to the first aim of this review, to focus on the methodological aspects of paradigms investigating inattentional blindness and create awareness for their growing variety, three paradigms (and their adapted versions) turned out to be the most prominent ones: The cross task (Mack & Rock, 1998), the gorilla video (Simons & Chabris, 1999), and the object-tracking task (Most et al., 2001). ...
... The most frequently used paradigm in inattentional blindness research (72 experiments), the object tracking task by Most et al. (2001), combines the benefits of a dynamic display including distractors (gorilla video; Simons & Chabris, 1999) with the control and flexibility of a laboratory task (static cross tasks; Mack & Rock, 1998). ...
... Another aspect in regards to the definition of inattentional blindness is that the additional object needs to be unexpected and has to occur while the observer carries out the primary task (Jensen et al., 2011;Simons & Chabris, 1999). However, the occurrence duration of the unexpected object or event is not fixed, so that it occurs for only 60 ms in some primary tasks (Fougnie & Marois, 2007) whereas it occurs for a few seconds (Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999) or even more than 30 seconds in others (Chabris et al., 2011;Hughes-Hallett et al., 2015). Furthermore, some primary tasks use masks to prevent afterimages of the unexpected object (Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2007), while others do not (Most et al., 2001). ...
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Article
During the past two decades, the interest in investigating the phenomenon of inattentional blindness strongly increased and resulted in a fraying of paradigms investigating this specific failure of awareness. We reviewed 129 full‐text articles containing 219 experiments for their design and methods to create awareness for the growing variety of inattentional blindness paradigms. Also, we promote a deliberate use of future paradigms (proposedly based on their functionality and representativeness) to improve the transferability of research findings to the real world. In general, we argue that paradigms should be well‐chosen based on the respective purpose, as the concept of inattentional blindness represents most likely several subtypes with different underlying mechanisms rather than a single phenomenon. Finally, we propose to include expectancy as a continuous variable into the definition of inattentional blindness rather than using it as an exclusion criterion.
... While the likelihood that an unexpected object is noticed has been investigated extensively in the context of individual differences (Bredemeier, Hur, Berenbaum, Heller, & Simons, 2014;Kreitz, Furley, Memmert, & Simons, 2015) and situational factors Most et al., 2001), the value of unexpected objects has received relatively little research attention. Previous studies have shown that evolutionarily predetermined value as animacy (Calvillo & Jackson, 2014) or threat (New & German, 2015) and overlearned value as the word "STOP" or one´s name (Mack & Rock, 1998) indeed affect the susceptibility to inattentional blindness. ...
... This is consistent with Redlich et al., (2019) who found no significant effect of short-term learned monetary value on inattentional blindness. Nevertheless, our findings seem surprising as (A) previous research has shown a clear effect of hunger on attentional bias towards food stimuli (Morris & Dolan, 2001;Piech et al., 2010), (B) other studies have repeatedly shown that previously rewarded stimuli are preferentially processed and, thus, suggested that rewards are important in salience determination (Anderson, Laurent, & Yantis, 2011;Anderson & Yantis, 2012), and (C) noticing in an inattentional blindness paradigm has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to other forms of value (attentional set: Most & Astur, 2005;Most et al., 2001;Koivisto & Revonuso, 2007; self-related stimuli: Mack & Rock, 1998, or evolutionary predetermined value: New & German, 2015. ...
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Article
Although human perception has evolved into a potent and efficient system, we still fall prey to astonishing failures of awareness as we miss an unexpected object in our direct view when our attention is engaged elsewhere (inattentional blindness). While specific types of value of the unexpected object have been identified to modulate the likelihood of this failure of awareness, it is not clear whether the effect of value on inattentional blindness can be generalized. We hypothesized that the combination of hunger and food-stimuli might increase a more general type of value so that food stimuli have a higher probability to be noticed by hungry participants than by satiated participants. In total, 240 participants were assigned towards a hungry (16 h of fasting) or satiated (no fasting) manipulation and performed afterward a static inattentional blindness task. However, we did not find any effect of value on inattentional blindness based on hunger and food stimuli. We speculate that different underlying mechanisms are involved for different types of value and that value manipulations need to be strong enough to ensure certain value strengths.
... Although it typically takes participants longer to find the target when it is embedded within a large array than within a small array, targets that were defined by a particularly unique or salient feature tended to be found quickly regardless of the size of the array, suggesting that they bypassed the need for attention, a phenomenon known as "visual pop-out" [28,31]. Thus, subsequent findings that 28% of participants were inattentionally blind to a red shape that was fully visible for 5 seconds among black and white shapes (one set of which participants were tracking; [19]) and that 32% were inattentionally blind to a white shape visible for 5 seconds among uniformly black shapes [18] contrasted with assumptions that such unique and salient features should push their way into participants' awareness [15]. ...
... Indeed, work on inattentional blindness has repeatedly underscored the importance of how people tune or direct their attention: when the unexpected item contains features similar to those that people are actively attending to, people notice it much more than when its features are similar to the items that people try to filter out. For example, when people tracked moving black items and ignored moving white items, they were far more likely to notice an unexpected and unique black than white shape that traversed the display, with the reverse pattern emerging among those who tracked the white items; in both cases, noticing of a gray shape fell in between [18,19,26]. In short, much of what we see depends on how our attention filters the world around us. ...
Preprint
Graphs effectively communicate data because they capitalize on the visual system's ability to rapidly extract patterns. Yet, this pattern extraction does not occur in a single glance. Instead, research on visual attention suggests that the visual system iteratively applies a sequence of filtering operations on an image, extracting patterns from subsets of visual information over time, while selectively inhibiting other information at each of these moments. To demonstrate that this powerful series of filtering operations also occurs during the perception of visualized data, we designed a task where participants made judgments from one class of marks on a scatterplot, presumably incentivizing them to relatively ignore other classes of marks. Participants consistently missed a conspicuous dinosaur in the ignored collection of marks (93% for a 1s presentation, and 61% for 2.5s), but not in a control condition where the incentive to ignore that collection was removed (25% for a 1s presentation, and 11% for 2.5s), revealing that data visualizations are not "seen" in a single glance, and instead require an active process of exploration.
... However, because radiologists never need to identify images of gorillas in the lung in clinical practice, it may be that clinical experience protects against inattentional blindness to unexpected stimuli that relate to the primary task and to the observer's experience. Inattentional blindness rates are lower for unexpected objects that are more similar to the observer's attentional set (Most et al., 2001). This modulation occurs for objects with shared physical features (Most et al., 2001), as well as dissimilar objects from the same semantic category (Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2007;Most, 2013). ...
... Inattentional blindness rates are lower for unexpected objects that are more similar to the observer's attentional set (Most et al., 2001). This modulation occurs for objects with shared physical features (Most et al., 2001), as well as dissimilar objects from the same semantic category (Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2007;Most, 2013). Therefore, radiologists might be less likely to miss clinically relevant abnormalities than unexpected stimuli that are unusual within the context of the task. ...
Article
Retrospectively obvious events are frequently missed when attention is engaged in another task—a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. Although the task characteristics that predict inattentional blindness rates are relatively well understood, the observer characteristics that predict inattentional blindness rates are largely unknown. Previously, expert radiologists showed a surprising rate of inattentional blindness to a gorilla photoshopped into a CT scan during lung-cancer screening. However, inattentional blindness rates were higher for a group of naïve observers performing the same task, suggesting that perceptual expertise may provide protection against inattentional blindness. Here, we tested whether expertise in radiology predicts inattentional blindness rates for unexpected abnormalities that were clinically relevant. Fifty radiologists evaluated CT scans for lung cancer. The final case contained a large (9.1 cm) breast mass and lymphadenopathy. When their attention was focused on searching for lung nodules, 66% of radiologists did not detect breast cancer and 30% did not detect lymphadenopathy. In contrast, only 3% and 10% of radiologists (N = 30), respectively, missed these abnormalities in a follow-up study when searching for a broader range of abnormalities. Neither experience, primary task performance, nor search behavior predicted which radiologists missed the unexpected abnormalities. These findings suggest perceptual expertise does not protect against inattentional blindness, even for unexpected stimuli that are within the domain of expertise.
... Mack, Tang, Tuma, Kahn and Rock, 1992;Rock, Linnet, Grant & Mack, 1992;Mack and Rock, 1998). Schematic representation of a sample trial from Moore & Egeth (1997 Recently it has been shown that the more similar a task-irrelevant item is to task-relevant stimuli, the more likely it is to be noticed even within a standard IB paradigm (Most, Simons, Scholl, Jimenez, Clifford, & Chabris, 2001), presumably due to attention spreading easily to these items. The critical background stimuli in Moore & Egeth's study were the same colour and contrast as the lines, so even though the background pattern was not accurately reported retrospectively, it is possible that it was not entirely 'inattended'. ...
... Secondly, the increased similarity between the form of change in foreground and background could lead to greater background processing, as it is established that increased similarity between attended and unattended stimuli often leads to increased 227 processing of the unattended items (see, Most, Simons, Scholl, Jimenez, Clifford, & Chabris, 2001). ...
Thesis
This thesis examines two distinct yet interrelated topics. One concerns the role of attention within 'Change Blindness' (CB) phenomena (e.g. Rensink, O'Regan & Clark, 1997). The second contrasts direct and indirect measures, to examine whether aspects of unattended visual stimuli, within CB and Inattentional Blindness' (IB) paradigms, that are seemingly inaccessible to awareness may nevertheless be implicitly extracted. A series of new experiments were conducted on the role of attention in CB. Pre-cueing subjects' attention to the locus of a change greatly reduced change blindness. Moreover, presenting a post-cue could also improve change detection. This evidence supports a role for attention in CB, but further suggests that more detailed visual information can be retained across brief interruptions than previously proposed. Further experiments with a modified CB paradigm examined whether there is a spontaneous attentional bias to attend to foreground rather than background items. These studies consistently found that changes were explicitly reported for foreground but not background items, consistent with default allocation of attention to the foreground. Regarding the second main topic of the thesis, a series of experiments demonstrated that Gestalt grouping may be implicitly extracted under conditions of 'inattention', despite the fact that such grouping may be unavailable for explicit report, as measured by standard IB indices. Such grouping may also be implicitly extracted even across saccadic eye movements. Further experiments showed that undetected background luminance-changes, or background motion, can also be implicitly extracted, and can influence explicit reports of foreground stimuli by inducing illusions for them. Although both IB and CB have been taken to suggest that little visual processing takes place outside the focus of attention, the present experiments suggest that considerable processing does take place, albeit implicitly.
... With few exceptions, noticing of the critical stimulus substantively increases if features of the critical stimulus match those that attention is set to. A classic example comes from Most et al. (2001), who used the paradigmatic dynamic display where participants track multiple moving objects, a task that has since become one of the dominant paradigms in IB research (see Figure 1). Participants were asked to track either four L shapes or T shapes that moved along independent paths and occasionally bounced off the edges of the display. ...
... There is consequently reason to suspect that effects observed for the relationship between attention set and IB are, at least in part, a result of selective inhibition (Goldstein & Beck, 2016;Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2008;Most et al., 2001;Wood & Simons, 2017b). While this does not preclude the validity of the attention set account, it complicates the interpretation that IB is an "absence" of attention, precisely because some degree of top-down selection must be instantiated for inhibition to occur (Couperus & Lydic, 2019). ...
Article
Inattentional blindness (IB), the failure to notice something right in front of you, offers cognitive scientists and practitioners alike a unique means of studying the nature of visual perception. The present meta-analysis sought to provide the first synthesis of the two leading theories of IB—attention set and load theory. We aimed to estimate the magnitude of the effect of each, how they interact, and how task parameters moderate the magnitude of IB summary estimates. We further sought to address several theoretical issues that have persisted within this broad literature. A total of 317 effect sizes from 81 studies that had manipulated attention set or load were synthesized in a multilevel meta-analysis. Results indicated no significant difference between the attention set summary estimate (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [2.33, 4.57]) and the load summary estimate (OR = 1.75, 95% CI [1.10, 2.79]). Theoretical moderators included a difference between feature attention sets (OR = 5.02, 95% CI [2.95, 8.55]), semantic attention sets (OR = 2.64, 95% CI [1.64, 4.25]), and inherent sets (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.35, 2.68]), while perceptual load (OR = 2.55, 95% CI [1.66, 3.92]) and cognitive load (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.14, 2.44]) were more comparable. The primary task was found as a key task parameter that moderated summary estimates. The attention set summary estimate was moderated by the number of targets and distractors, whereas the load summary estimate was moderated by the full attention (FA) trial exclusion criterion. Analyses indicated any potential publication bias were overall not likely to impact our conclusions. We discuss the implications of results for a conceptual understanding of IB and how the phenomenon can be more reliably studied in future.
... General discussion In two experiments, we showed that singleton cues matching the target-nontarget relations captured attention (Becker, 2010;Becker et al., 2013;Becker et al., 2020;Kerzel, 2020;Schönhammer et al., 2020) and that the target representations were shifted away from the nontarget features (Geng et al., 2017;Kerzel, 2020;Navalpakkam & Itti, 2007;Scolari et al., 2012;Scolari & Serences, 2009;Won et al., 2020;Yu & Geng, 2019). The present findings are also in line with previous studies adopting an inattentional blindness task, suggesting that attention can be tuned to relation (Goldstein & Beck, 2016;Most et al., 2001;Most et al., 2005). The contribution of the present study to the extant literature is that attention is tuned to the relative target feature when the target template is maintained in working memory. ...
... Considering that the internal representations of stimuli are strengthened via repeated exposure (Silverstein et al., 1998), repeated exposure should result in a more consolidated targetnontargets relationship. We surmise that the consolidated relationship/category exaggerates the target-to-nontargets dissimilarity, and that participants looked for colors deviating more from nontargets (Goldstein & Beck, 2016;Most et al., 2001). As a result, the target representation was more shifted with a fixed target than with a varied target. ...
Article
Theories of attention postulate the existence of an attentional template containing target features in working or long-term memory. Previous research has shown that these internal representations of target features in memory are shifted away from nontarget features and that attention is tuned to the shifted feature especially when the target appeared with similar nontarget items. While previous studies have shown that the target–nontarget relationship has influence on the attentional selection and the representation shift when attentional template is maintained in long-term memory, there is little evidence for such effects when attentional template is stored in working memory. To address this issue, we asked participants to search for a target, which varied from trial to trial (working memory attentional template), or look for the target being stable across trials (long-term memory attentional template). We found that the shifted target features captured attention and that the representations of target features were deviated away from nontarget features when the target template was stored in either working memory or long-term memory. However, such effects were found to be greater for the attentional template in long-term memory. The present results provide evidence that one can encode the target–nontarget relationship even though the target varies from trial to trial, and such contextual information influences attentional selection and target representation shift even under this dynamically changing environment.
... To increase the user attention toward the ad and deal with the banner blindness phenomena, strategies such as animation can be adopted (Griffith et al., 2001), although it could lead to an increase in the cognitive effort required for processing the ad and negatively affect memory performance associated to the ad recall (Bayles, 2002;Hong et al., 2004;Burke et al., 2005), along with a wide variety of paid advertising formats, more difficult to identify by the user (Mitra et al., 2008;Campbell et al., 2014). Regarding the introduction of new digital advertising formats, the so-called "native" format matches the look, feel, and function of the media format in which it appears (Wojdynski, 2016a; and such "deception" makes it more difficult to recognize by users (Most et al., 2001;Wasserman, 2013;Anni, 2014;. The use of ambiguous words, small in size, like "sponsored" or "branded" content, represents the only cue (AdAge, 2014) for the user to distinguish between the advertisement and the native feed of the site, and for this reason, some researchers were wondering if the native format actually leads to an increased engagement or to an increased deception (Wojdynski, 2016a). ...
... 1. Verify if native advertising format generates higher visual attention and longer viewing time than display advertising format, considering that previous findings showed a better capability of native ads in reducing visual avoiding behaviors compared to display ads that are highly affected by the banner blindness phenomena (Most et al., 2001;Wasserman, 2013;Anni, 2014; IAB, 2019). 2. Compare articles containing display ads and articles containing native ads in terms of approaching motivation, emotional involvement (EI), pleasantness, annoyance, and advertising intent, considering the concerns raised by some authors related to the deceptive features of native ads as a source of negative effects (Fransen et al., 2015;Wojdynski, 2016a;Taylor, 2017;Han et al., 2018;Iversen and Knudsen, 2019) and some counter-current results highlighting a more positive evaluation of display ads vs. native ads (Harms et al., 2019). ...
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Article
Display and native ads represent two of the most widely used digital advertising formats employed by advertisers that aim to grab the attention of online users. In recent years, the native format has become very popular because it relies on deceptive features that make harder the recognition of its advertising nature, reducing avoiding behaviors such as the banner blindness phenomena, traditionally associated to display advertising, and so increasing its advertising effectiveness. The present study, based on a forefront research protocol specifically designed for the advertising research on smartphone devices, aims to investigate through neurophysiological and self-reported measures, the perception of display and native ads placed within article webpages, and to assess the efficacy of an integrated approach. Eye-tracking results showed higher visual attention and longer viewing time associated with native advertisements in comparison to traditional display advertisements, confirming and extending evidence provided by previous research. Despite a significantly higher rate of self-reported advertising intent was detected for articles containing display ads when compared to articles containing native ads, no differences have been found while performing the same comparison for the neurophysiological measures of emotional involvement and approaching motivation of for the self-reported measures of pleasantness and annoyance. Such findings along with the employment of an innovative research protocol, contribute to providing further cues to the current debate related to the effectiveness of two of the most widely used digital advertising formats.
... It is relevant for testing the verbal encoding hypothesis: that verbal encoding is necessary for the serialisation bias of a language to affect fraction processing. The fraction identification task was inspired by paradigms in the attention literature (e.g., Alvarez & Oliva, 2009;Most et al., 2001). It required participants to make speeded judgements about fractions. ...
... By contrast, the fraction identification task failed to yield the predicted language compatibility effect. This is evidence against the attentional focus hypothesis, which this task, adapted from tasks in the attention literature (e.g., Alvarez & Oliva, 2009;Most et al., 2001), was intended to test. One interpretation of this failure is that the verbal encoding hypothesis is more promising for guiding the search for language compatibility effects. ...
Article
A language compatibility effect occurs when there is a match between what a language provides and what a mathematical task demands. Here, we investigated whether such an effect exists for fraction processing in English, which names the numerator first, versus Korean, which names the denominator first. We developed two new tasks: a fraction span task where participants view and then recall four fractions and a fraction identification task where they view one fraction and then another and judge whether the two fractions are the same or not. We generally found that English speakers were advantaged when the numerator drove task performance and Korean speakers were advantaged when the denominator was critical. These findings, particularly from the fraction identification task, were inconsistent with the attentional focus hypothesis, which proposes that the serialization bias of a language guides which fraction component is attended to first. Rather, they were better explained by the verbal encoding hypothesis, which states that a necessary condition for observing language compatibility effects may be that the fraction components must be encoded in verbal working memory and rehearsed there.
... Inattentional blindness (IB) is the phenomenon in which clearly noticeable but unexpected stimuli fail to be consciously perceived when an observer is engaged in a separate attention-demanding task (Mack and Rock 1998;Most et al. 2005). Participants will typically engage in a task such as counting the number of times a set of items bounce within a display (Most et al. 2001). During a critical trial, an unexpected, salient stimulus is presented within participants' attended region, which they often fail to see, despite looking directly at it (Beanland et al. 2011). ...
... IB is mediated by a range of factors, including stimulus features (Most et al. 2001(Most et al. , 2005, primary task difficulty (Simons and Jensen 2009), unattended distractors (Koivisto and Revonsuo 2008), and task instructions (Aimola Davies et al. 2013). But while studies hint toward the conditions under which the phenomenon may occur, they do little to provide insight into the conundrum that IB poses for the neural mechanism responsible for visual awareness. ...
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Article
Contemporary neurocognitive models implicate alpha oscillations as a top-down mechanism of cortical inhibition, instrumental in the suppression of information that fails to reach conscious visual awareness. This suggests that alpha-band activity may play a key role in the phenomenon of inattentional blindness, however this has not yet been empirically examined. The current study employed transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over occipital cortex at alpha, theta, and sham frequencies within an inattentional blindness task to delineate whether an exogenous manipulation of alpha oscillations has a modulatory effect on visual awareness of the unexpected stimulus. Results revealed that compared to theta and sham, those exposed to alpha tACS were more likely to be inattentionally blind to the unexpected stimulus. Findings extend current theoretical views of alpha by suggesting inattentional blindness may be explained as a suppression of irrelevant information via alpha-band.
... Therefore, all factors influencing the processing of the critical stimulus and its crossing of the threshold of awareness rely on involuntary distribution of attention. By now, a lot of research has been conducted to unravel the factors that determine whether or not inattentional blindness occursnamely, whether or not an unexpected object crosses the threshold of awareness (i.e., was reported by the participants; Kreitz, Furley, Memmert, & Simons, 2016;Mack, Pappas, Silverman, & Gay, 2002;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Jensen, 2009). This binary view on awareness is a general pattern in inattentional blindness research, while much less is known about the fate of those stimuli that remain undetected due to inattentional blindness. ...
... Our results suggest that task-irrelevant stimuli might be allocated to more attentional resources than originally assumed by the perceptual load model if they belong to the attentional set of the primary task. Therefore, preconscious processing of such unexpected stimuli might not be primarily depend on perceptual load, but dominantly on their relevance for the task at hand (Koivisto & Revonsuo, 2009;Kreitz et al., 2016;Memmert, 2006;Most et al., 2001). These findings are in line with results demonstrating that even expectations are subordinate to an attentional set in the context of inattentional blindness . ...
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Article
Inattentional blindness describes the failure to detect an unexpected but clearly visible object when our attention is engaged elsewhere. While the factors that determine the occurrence of inattentional blindness are already well understood, there is still a lot to learn about whether and how we process unexpected objects that go unnoticed. Only recently it was shown that although not consciously aware, characteristics of these stimuli can interfere with a primary task: Classification of to-be-attended stimuli was slower when the content of the task-irrelevant, undetected stimulus contradicted that of the attended, to-be-judged stimuli. According to Lavie’s perceptual load model, irrelevant stimuli are likely to reach awareness under conditions of low perceptual load, while they remain undetected under high load, as attentional resources are restricted to the content of focused attention. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of Lavie’s predictions for the processing of stimuli that remain unconscious due to inattentional blindness. In two experiments, we replicated that unconsciously processed stimuli can interfere with intended responses. Also, our manipulation of perceptual load did have an effect on primary task performance. However, against our hypothesis, these effects did not interact with each other. Thus, our results suggest that high perceptual load cannot prevent task-irrelevant stimuli that remain undetected from being processed to an extent that enables them to affect performance in a primary task.
... When attention is focused on internal information (i.e., a WM load), attention to external information suffers (Buetti & Lleras, 2016;Kiyonaga & Egner, 2013). Further, when engagement is high in a given task, changes to or onsets of task-unrelated stimuli go unnoticed (e.g., Fougnie & Marois, 2007;Mack & Rock, 1998;Most et al., 2001;Neisser, 1979;Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Simons & Chabris, 1999). Here, participants may have been relatively insensitive to the scene stimuli while maintaining a WM load. ...
Article
Working memory is thought to be divided into distinct visual and verbal subsystems. Studies of visual working memory frequently use verbal working memory tasks as control conditions and/or use articulatory suppression to ensure that visual load is not transferred to verbal working memory. Using these verbal tasks relies on the assumption that the verbal working memory load will not interfere with the same processes as visual working memory. In the present study, participants maintained a visual or verbal working memory load as they simultaneously viewed scenes while their eye movements were recorded. Because eye movements and visual working memory are closely linked, we anticipated the visual load would interfere with scene-viewing (and vice versa), while the verbal load would not. Surprisingly, both visual and verbal memory loads interfered with scene-viewing behavior, while eye movements during scene-viewing did not significantly interfere with performance on either memory task. These results suggest that a verbal working memory load can interfere with eye movements in a visual task.
... IB relates to people's immediate information capturing process that is significantly affected by the personal differences, the attributes of the stimulus and the difficulty of the primary task (e.g., Most et al., 2005;Koivisto and Revonsuo, 2007;Kreitz et al., 2015). Research confirms that overt or covert meaning connection between a stimulus and an individual's existing notion would increase the individual's detection on the unexpected stimulus (Most et al., 2001;Rattan and Eberhardt, 2010). For example, in an IB task, the participants who had a preliminary experiences with the concept of African American had a higher detection rate on gorilla images than those who had primed on the concept of European American (Rattan and Eberhardt, 2010). ...
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Article
This study created a motion graphic (MG) animation about the danger of snakes within a story telling structure, which is different from a traditional science animation that relies on explanatory language to explain the scientific concept. The effects of the two types of animations on children’s attentional perception on snakes were compared by an inattentional blindness (IB) task. Three groups of children undertook the IB task with one control group who did not watch the animation and the other two groups who watched the MG and the traditional styled animation, respectively in advance. The results showed that: (1) Children who watched the animation were significantly more likely to detect the unexpected snake images in the IB task than those who did not watch the animation; (2) Children who watched the MG animation showed a higher detection rate on the snake images than those who watched the traditional animation. The findings indicate that the intervention of animation would increase children’s attentional perception on the key concepts significantly. The MG animation has more impact than the traditional animation on children’s attentional perception on the key information. This study demonstrates that MG animation may have a significant value in promoting science education for young children that merits further explorations in depth.
... Wichtigkeit und Relevanz des Themas unterstrichen wird: "We have all had the embarrassing experience of failing to notice" oder "the most striking results" (Simons & Chabris, 1999, S. 1059. Auch ältere Ergebnisse werden von einigen Autor_innen stark hervorhoben; das Adverb "strikingly/striking" etwa kommt in der Einleitung von Most et al. (2001) gleich mehrfach vor. Der älteste Text enthält ungewöhnlich deutliche Einstellungsmarkierer, die den Autoren eine starke Präsenz im Text verleihen: "You will see a single face whose features are a startling blend of his and your own" (Neisser & Becklen, 1975, S. 482). ...
Chapter
This paper outlines a psychology didactics position that starts from the assumption that objects of research are constructed linguistically in communication within science. It aims to sensitize future psychology teachers to the way this construction happens in current research and the question what this means for science and its function in a democratic polity. Genre analysis is applied to a current and potentially significant research topic for psychology teaching. Der Beitrag skizziert eine psychologiedidaktische Position, die davon ausgeht, dass For-schungsgegenstände in der Kommunikation von Wissenschaften sprachlich konstruiert werden, und zukünftige Psychologielehrkräfte für die Art und Weise, wie diese Konstruk-tion in aktueller Forschung geschieht und was dies für Wissenschaft und ihre Funktion in einem demokratischen Gemeinwesen bedeutet, sensibilisieren möchte. Die Kommunikati-onsanalyse wird anhand eines aktuellen und für Psychologieunterricht potentiell bedeut-samen Forschungsthemas illustriert.
... In the opening of this editorial, I gave the example of IB, that is, the failure to perceive an unexpected stimulus. Much previous research has investigated the contextual factors that moderate IB rates, such as participants' top-down attentional set (i.e., the features that define the target relative to non-targets) (Most et al., 2001), the perceptual load of the display when the unexpected stimulus is shown (Cartwright-Finch & Lavie, 2007), and even seemingly incidental factors such as whether or not participants listen to music (Beanland, Allen, & Pammer, 2011). Here, however, Zhang, He, Yan, Zhao, and Xie (2019) demonstrate a role of the individualdifference variable of age in IB rates in preschool children. ...
... da anılır; "kişilerin dikkatleri bir noktaya odaklandığında, görme alanları içindeki nesnelerin farkında olmamalarıdır" (Esin, 2011: 10). Başka bir deyişle, dikkatsizlik körlüğü, insanların açıkça görülebilir nesneleri, onlara doğru bakarken bile, eğer dikkatleri başka bir yerde ise görememeleri anlamına da gelir (Mack ve Rock, 1998;Most vd., 2005;Most vd. 2001;Neisser, 1979;Simons ve Chabris, 1999'den aktaran Most, 2010: 1102. Kolluk, bir konuyu ne kadar bildiğini sanır ve konuya ön kabullerle yaklaşırsa, o denli körleşir ve burnunun ucundaki gerçeği görememeye başlar. Bunun farkında olan profesyonel suçlular, bir takım laf oyunları ve illüzyonlarla kolluğun dikkatini başka bir konuya çekebili ...
... In other words, when a self-view was present in a video chat, people appeared to lose their ability to accurately perceive their partner's liking for themselves, which supports the concept of limited attention capacity (Lang, 2006) and automatic attention to self-relevant stimuli (Tacikowski & Nowicka, 2010). When people are concentrating on a single stimulus, they are frequently unaware of other events occurring concurrently in their environment and misreport the occurrence of other events (Most et al., 2001). Thus, in a video chat, the self-view may have captured the user's attention, reducing their ability to interpret their partner's words and behaviors as intended. ...
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Article
With the growing use of video chat in daily life, it is critical to understand how visual communication channels affect interpersonal relationships. A potentially important feature that distinguishes video chats from face-to-face interactions is the communicators’ ability to see themselves during the interaction. Our purpose was to determine the effects of self-viewing on the process and outcome of a workplace confrontation. A dyadic experiment with two (self-viewing vs. no self-viewing) conditions was conducted using multi-instruments (self-report, physiological arousal, eye-tracking). Results showed that self-viewing reduced self-evaluation, which subsequently reduced solution satisfaction. Self-viewing also impaired one’s ability to assess their partner’s attitude and lowered partner evaluation. Although self-viewing decreased negative emotional expressions, the effect on conversation tone varied depending on the role an individual played. The overall negative impacts of self-viewing ability have significant implications for the appropriate implementation of a computer-mediated channel for enhancing one’s experience when having a difficult conversation.
... It is imperative that one focuses on only one stimulus whenever there is some interference, and it is observed that doing one assignment at a time results in better performance than doing two or multiple assignments (Poldrack et al., 2005). People, especially the learners found it interesting to engage in multiple online activities resulting in deviation in attention even during the continuous activity -like online education (Levine et al., 2012;Most et al., 2001) leading to superficial learning. ...
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Article
The global health disaster- COVID-19 has imposed a self-refrainment from social gathering to contain the disease because social distancing is the only shielding from community spread. With COVID-19 engulfing the whole world for almost 5 months, as of now, home and work places are altogether giving an unanticipated, unpredicted and unpleasant milieu. The teaching –learning process is no exception with closure of all educational institution as a protective step to save the lives. The teaching-learning process has been reflecting a very wide and deep impact of COVID-19. With all the teachers and learners confined to places, the learning has been impacted to a large extent with sense of uncertainty, insecurity and dilemma of effective learning. In fact, COVID-19 pandemic has thrown the mission and rigor of teaching-learning out of gear. With all the classroom shut, the pandemic has exposed the teachers and learners more towards online learning mode with no other option perceptible at this point of time. Though online education has always been embraced by the academics as a supporting tool, yet switching over completely to online mode of learning has raised some serious concerns pertaining to its efficacy and reluctance of learners to embrace it as a substitute of regular mode of learning. This study reveals the perception of 2895 learners on efficiency of online learning as a substitute of regular mode of learning. The results shows the acceptance of online learning only as a supporting tool to regular learning instead of taking it as a substitute of regular learning mode on the basis of various factors of effective learning vis-a vis content, pedagogy, assessment, rigor.
... At the same time, there is no univocal evidence suggesting a priori that one particular color or flash pattern would be better suited than others, which underscores the importance of a research to investigate this question. A general observation shows that people tend to direct their attention to the elements in their environment that are relevant to the task at hand (18,19). In the context of the present study, this consideration raises the possibility that red or amber warning lights might have an increased ability to draw drivers' attention, given the behavioral importance of red lights (e.g., brake lights) to people whose context consists of navigating traffic. ...
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Article
Snow removal activities are performed by roadway agencies to enhance winter mobility and safety. Slower travel speeds during these operations, combined with low visibility and reduced pavement friction, mean that safety and collision avoidance remain a persistent concern. Many studies have implemented signing and lighting technologies to improve the visibility of snowplows. Although a few studies have evaluated the use of different colors on snowplows, there is no rigorous study that evaluates the potential impacts of using green warning lights for winter maintenance operations. This study, therefore, investigates the impacts of various warning light configurations on the visibility of snowplows, with the focus on green lights. To this end, 37 warning light configurations are designed using various color combinations (green and amber), and flashing patterns (single and quad) on the back (LED), the top (beacon), or both, of snowplows. These configurations are evaluated to identify the most effective configurations. Three sets of experiments are designed and implemented: static, dynamic, and weather to evaluate the visibility effectiveness in different contexts: day versus night, clear versus snowy weather, and static versus dynamic scenarios. Human subjects are employed to conduct the experiments and the test results are evaluated using statistical analyses. The conspicuity during the day time and glare during the night time are statistically different among various configurations. In addition, adding green lights with a single flash pattern to amber warning lights improves the conspicuity, while keeping the glare at an acceptable level relative to configurations using only amber.
... In that study, observers monitored the white-shirted team. In another version, they were less likely to miss the gorilla if they monitored the black-shirted team (see also [77]). If they were guided to black shirts, they were more likely to notice a black gorilla. ...
Article
Humans routinely miss important information that is ‘right in front of our eyes’, from overlooking typos in a paper to failing to see a cyclist in an intersection. Recent studies on these ‘Looked But Failed To See’ (LBFTS) errors point to a common mechanism underlying these failures, whether the missed item was an unexpected gorilla, the clearly defined target of a visual search, or that simple typo. We argue that normal blindness is the by-product of the limited-capacity prediction engine that is our visual system. The processes that evolved to allow us to move through the world with ease are virtually guaranteed to cause us to miss some significant stimuli, especially in important tasks like driving and medical image perception.
... For that matter, DNN tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis considering only consolidation/cavitation/mediastinal lymph nodes may miss TB in children. In one series of pediatric patients with pleural effusions, 22% had TB; in 41% of these, effusion was the only radiologic TB sign [43]. We have noticed that these effusions may be lamellar and track upwards, akin to pleural thickening, without being overtly visible, unlike the usual pleural effusions. ...
... In IB experiments, objects escape awareness when observers engage in an attentionally demanding primary task, such as monitoring dynamic real-world scenes (e.g., the number of passes made by a basketball team; Simon & Chabris, 1999), tracking moving objects on a computer screen (Most et al., 2001), or discriminating visual features in static displays (Rock et al., 1992;Harris et al., 2020). When a task-unrelated object (e.g., a gorilla in the basketball video) appears during task performance, many observers fail to detect and report it, in spite of the fact that it is highly salient and easily noticed when attention is not diverted to the primary task. ...
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Article
Selective attention gates access to conscious awareness, resulting in surprising failures to notice clearly visible but unattended objects ('inattentional blindness'). Here, we demonstrate that expectations can have a similar effect, even for fully attended objects ('expectation-based blindness'). In three experiments, participants (N = 613) were presented with rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams at fixation and had to identify a target object indicated by a cue. Target category was repeated for the first 19 trials but unexpectedly changed on trial 20. The probability of correct target reports on this surprise trial was substantially lower than on preceding and subsequent trials. This impairment was present for switches between target letters and digits, and also for changes between human and animal face images. In contrast, no drop in accuracy was observed for novel target objects from the same category as previous targets. These results demonstrate that predictions about object categories affect visual awareness. Objects that are task relevant and focally attended often fail to get noticed when their category changes unexpectedly.
... Indeed, the impacts on drivers' behavior highly depend on the situation in which the colors are encountered (Elliot and Maier, 2012). This finding is consistent with a more general observation that people tend to direct their attention to the elements in their environment that are relevant to the task at hand (Most et al., 2001;Melloni et al., 2012). This is in part the direct result of an intentional strategy, but it is also an indirect and involuntary result of task history (Wolfe et al., 2003;Lamy and Kristjánsson, 2013). ...
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Technical Report
Snow removal and deicing activities are performed by roadway agencies to enhance winter mobility and safety. Due to slower travel speeds during these operations, low visibility and reduced pavement friction, safety and collision avoidance remain persistent concerns. To improve the visibility of winter maintenance vehicles, the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) has added green lights to the warning system of winter maintenance trucks (WMTs) since 2016. This study investigates the degree to which the visibility can be affected by including these green lights. First, the current state of practice by all state transportation agencies is explored through a comprehensive survey that shows most agencies consider using alternate colors in addition to amber. To evaluate impacts of adding green lights to the warning system of WMTs in terms of visibility, 37 warning light configurations are generated using various color combinations (green and amber) and flashing patterns (single and quad) on the back side (LED) and/or top (beacon) of the WMTs. These configurations are evaluated to identify the most effective ones based on feedback provided by several expert and public panels. Three sets of experiments (static, dynamic and weather) are designed and implemented to evaluate the visibility effectiveness in different contexts (day versus night conditions, clear versus snowy weather and static versus dynamic scenarios). Each of these experiments contains multiple tests that aim to identify different measures to assess the light configuration efficiency. Panels of experts and from the public are employed to conduct the experiments, and the test results are evaluated using statistical analyses. Conspicuity during the day and glare at night are the two main criteria with statistically significant results that are used to compare various configurations. The results show that adding green lights with a single flash pattern to amber warning lights improves the conspicuity significantly, while keeping the glare at an acceptable level relative to configurations using only amber warning lights. 17. A report from Michigan State University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 428 South Shaw Lane East Lansing, MI 48824 iv DISCLAIMER This publication is disseminated in the interest of information exchange. The Michigan Department of Transportation (hereinafter referred to as MDOT) expressly disclaims any liability, of any kind, or for any reason, that might otherwise arise out of any use of this publication or the information or data provided in the publication. MDOT further disclaims any responsibility for typographical errors or accuracy of the information provided or contained within this information. MDOT makes no warranties or representations whatsoever regarding the quality, content, completeness, suitability, adequacy, sequence, accuracy or timeliness of the information and data provided, or that the contents represent standards, specifications, or regulations.
... It is a wellstudied phenomenon that reflects the selective nature of attention and its close relationship with awareness (Bredemeir & Simons, 2012). Previous research has studied the factors that seem to influence this phenomenon such as the age of individuals (Memmert, 2006), the characteristics of the unexpected stimulus (Most et al., 2001), as well as the perceptual load (difficulty or ease of a task) that is needed in order to complete the task successfully (Lavie et al., 2014). One factor, however, seems to have divided the scientific community as there is a strong discrepancy between the studies. ...
Article
PurposeTo objectify effects of an anatomical viewing scheme on the respective correctness of (a) findings, (b) interpretations, and (c) self-assessments of readers in chest radiographs acquired in one plane and the assessment of other influencing factors.Materials and methodsIn all, 20 radiologists with 3–60 months of full-time radiography experience evaluated 12 chest radiographs of varying difficulty: once with and once without using an anatomical viewing scheme with at least 1 month in between (n = 480). In consensus of 3 radiological experts (a) and (b) were determined by means of a current computed tomography. The self-assessment (c) of readers was queried.Results(a) Findings were either missed or not described in 21%. Another 20% were recognized, but incorrectly described, (b) 62% of interpretations and 31% of derived clinical consequences were wrong and (c) in 39% of items the readers overestimated themselves. Experts were faster and better than novices, but for the scheme usage no further significant differences were detected (p > 0.5, respectively). The most pronounced effect was found in comparison with the routine report produced by the joint evaluation of novices and experts being clearly superior even to the expert study results (a), (b) and (c) alone (p < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion Reporting of chest X‑rays acquired in one plane was often incomplete or even wrong, and the evaluators overestimated themselves, which was not influenced by the use of the anatomical viewing scheme. Since errors between the evaluators sometimes differed greatly, duplicate evaluation of the radiographs by two different radiologists, which is already the case in many training facilities, may possibly be advisable in general.
Article
Dissociative absorption (DA) is a tendency to become completely immersed in a stimulus while neglecting to attend to one’s surroundings. Theoretically, DA implies automatic functioning in areas that are outside the focus of attention. This study examined whether high absorbers indeed act more automatically, i.e., with decreased meta-consciousness for, and therefore poor memory of, their own actions, along with reduced sense of agency (SoA). High and low absorbers (N=63) performed three DA-promoting tasks: choice-reaction time (CRT), Tetris, and free writing. Participants were tested on memory of task details and self-reported their state SoA. As hypothesized, trait DA was correlated with impaired autobiographical memory for self-generated writing. However, DA was not related to episodic memory disruptions in externally-generated content tasks (Tetris, CRT). In most tasks, DA was associated with decreased SoA. Absorbers’ specific difficulty in identifying self-generated content suggests that their memory failures stem from reduced accessibility to self-actions and intentions.
Thesis
De nombreux travaux ont mis en évidence des effets liés à la détention de pouvoir sur nos comportements, nos motivations ou encore nos jugements. Si plusieurs hypothèses ont été formulées pour expliquer ces effets, il n’existe pas, à ce jour, de consensus sur la façon dont le pouvoir exerce son influence et par l’intermédiaire de quels processus. Récemment Guinote et Chen (2018) ont proposé le modèle du pouvoir et du Soi-Actif pour répondre à cette question. Elles proposent que le pouvoir activerait des concepts de Soi spécifiques, qui médiatiseraient la relation entre le pouvoir et ses conséquences. Cette thèse a pour objectif principal de tester empiriquement cette hypothèse. Au cours de notre programme de recherche, nous avons 1) étudié les représentations en mémoire associées au pouvoir en général, dans le contexte de la poursuite de but et du jugement moral. 2) puis testé l’hypothèse d’une plus grande accessibilité de ces concepts en mémoire dans des contextes de détention de pouvoir, et 3) testé empiriquement l’hypothèse d’un effet médiateur de l’activation de ces concepts de Soi en mémoire sur les performances et les jugements moraux. L’hypothèse alternative d’un effet médiateur de l’activation des tendances à l’approche a également été testée. A l’aide d’analyses de p-curves et de méta analyses, nous avons également estimé le niveau de crédibilité et les tailles d’effet des deux méthodes couramment utilisées dans la recherche pour induire expérimentalement du pouvoir chez les individus. Globalement, nos résultats ont permis de 1) de valider les méthodes classiques d’induction, 2) de reproduire des effets déjà observés dans la littérature sur la relation entre pouvoir et poursuite de buts, et 3) de mettre en évidence un effet du pouvoir sur le soi actif. Cependant, l’effet médiateur de l’accessibilité de ces concepts n’a été mis en évidence. Les implications pour le modèle du soi actif de Guinote et Chen sont discutées.
Article
This article examines the work of mid-century French filmmaker Jacques Tati. Tati suggested that his films allow more visual freedom to audiences and that audiences discover new material upon multiple viewings of his films. We review the scholarship on Tati, especially in relation to critic André Bazin’s theories of realism, and then propose another model for understanding Tati’s films: the psychological concept of inattentional blindness. The article then discusses our experiment using eye tracking technology to study how subjects watch Tati’s films versus other types of cinema and also how they re-watch films. Finally, we applied several statistical and mathematical tests to the eye tracking data to understand key differences between Tati’s films and other filmmaking practices.
Article
In this article, we analyze whether the financial strain of poverty systematically alters the allocation of attention. We address two types of attention: attention to unexpectedly occurring events and attention to primary tasks that require focus. We show that the poor are significantly more likely than the rich to notice unexpected events. In addition, we do not find robust evidence that poverty increases the likelihood of noticing the unexpected events at the expense of attention to the primary task.
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Four experiments tested a new hypothesis that involuntary attention shifts are contingent on the relationship between the properties of the eliciting event and the properties required for task performance. In a variant of the spatial cuing paradigm, the relation between cue property and the property useful in locating the target was systematically manipulated. In Experiment 1, invalid abrupt-onset precues produced costs for targets characterized by an abrupt onset but not for targets characterized by a discontinuity in color. In Experiment 2, invalid color precues produced greater costs for color targets than for abrupt-onset targets. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence for this pattern. Experiment 4 investigated the boundary conditions and time course for attention shifts elicited by color discontinuities. The results of these experiments suggest that attention capture is contingent on attentional control settings induced by task demands.
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Recent evidence suggests that attentional capture is contingent on the attentional control setting induced by the task demands (C. L. Folk, R. Remington, & J. C. Johnston, 1992). Because the experiments on which these conclusions are based can be criticized for several reasons, the contingent capture hypothesis was tested using 2 visual search tasks in which subjects searched multielement displays in which a color singleton and onset singleton were simultaneously present. Both experiments show that the contingent capture hypothesis does not hold: Irrespective of attentional set, attention was captured by the most salient singleton. The findings suggest a stimulus-driven model of performance in which selection is basically determined by the properties of the featural singletons present in the visual field.
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With each eye fixation, we experience a richly detailed visual world. Yet recent work on visual integration and change direction reveals that we are surprisingly unaware of the details of our environment from one view to the next: we often do not detect large changes to objects and scenes ('change blindness'). Furthermore, without attention, we may not even perceive objects ('inattentional blindness'). Taken together, these findings suggest that we perceive and remember only those objects and details that receive focused attention. In this paper, we briefly review and discuss evidence for these cognitive forms of 'blindness'. We then present a new study that builds on classic studies of divided visual attention to examine inattentional blindness for complex objects and events in dynamic scenes. Our results suggest that the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object depends on the similarity of that object to other objects in the display and on how difficult the priming monitoring task is. Interestingly, spatial proximity of the critical unattended object to attended locations does not appear to affect detection, suggesting that observers attend to objects and events, not spatial positions. We discuss the implications of these results for visual representations and awareness of our visual environment.
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Five spatial cuing experiments tested 2 hypotheses regarding attentional capture: (a) Attentional capture is contingent on endogenous attentional control settings, and (b) attentional control settings are limited to the distinction between dynamic and static discontinuities (C. L. Folk, R. W. Remington, & J. C. Johnston, 1992). In Experiments 1 and 2, apparent-motion precues produced significant costs in performance for targets signaled by motion but not for targets signaled by color or abrupt onset. Experiment 3 established that this pattern is not due to differences in the difficulty of target discrimination. Experiments 4 and 5 revealed asymmetric capture effects between abrupt onset and apparent motion related to stimulus salience. The results support the hypotheses of Folk et al. (1992) and suggest that stimulus salience may also play a role in attentional capture.
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The authors (1992) recently proposed that involuntary shifts of spatial attention, even those elicited by abrupt visual onsets, are contingent on variable internal control settings. S. Yantis (1993) argues that the results of J. Jonides and Yantis (1988) significantly challenge this hypothesis and that the paradigm of C. L. Folk et al (1992) is inappropriate for investigating stimulus-driven attentional capture. Yantis's concerns are addressed, and it is concluded that the contingent involuntary orienting hypothesis in fact provides a unified and parsimonious account of the data on attentional capture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Subjects looked at two optically superimposed video sccreens, on which two different kinds of things were happening. In the principal condition, they were required to follow the action in one episode (by pressing keys when significant events occurred) and ignore the other. They could do this without difficulty, although both were present in the same fully overlapped visual field. Odd events in the unattended episode were rarely noticed. It was very difficult to monitor both episodes at once. Performance was no better when the two episodes were presented to different eyes (dichoptic condition) than when both were given binocularly. It is argued that selective attention does not involve special mechanisms to reject unwanted information, but is a direct consequence of skilled perceiving.
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Although we intuitively believe that salient or distinctive objects will capture our attention, surprisingly often they do not. For example, drivers may fail to notice another car when trying to turn or a person may fail to see a friend in a cinema when looking for an empty seat, even if the friend is waving. The study of attentional capture has focused primarily on measuring the effect of an irrelevant stimulus on task performance. In essence, these studies explore how well observers can ignore something they expect but know to be irrelevant. By contrast, the real-world examples above raise a different question: how likely are subjects to notice something salient and potentially relevant that they do not expect? Recently, several new paradigms exploring this question have found that, quite often, unexpected objects fail to capture attention, a phenomenon known as ‘inattentional blindness’. This review considers evidence for the effects of irrelevant features both on performance (‘implicit attentional capture’) and on awareness (‘explicit attentional capture’). Taken together, traditional studies of implicit attentional capture and recent studies of inattentional blindness provide a more complete understanding of the varieties of attentional capture, both in the laboratory and in the real world.
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A new theory of search and visual attention is presented. Results support neither a distinction between serial and parallel search nor between search for features and conjunctions. For all search materials, instead, difficulty increases with increased similarity of targets to nontargets and decreased similarity between nontargets, producing a continuum of search efficiency. A parallel stage of perceptual grouping and description is followed by competitive interaction between inputs, guiding selective access to awareness and action. An input gains weight to the extent that it matches an internal description of that information needed in current behavior (hence the effect of target-nontarget similarity). Perceptual grouping encourages input weights to change together (allowing "spreading suppression" of similar nontargets). The theory accounts for harmful effects of nontargets resembling any possible target, the importance of local nontarget grouping, and many other findings.
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Five spatial cuing experiments tested 2 hypotheses regarding attentional capture: (a) Attentional capture is contingent on endogenous attentional control settings, and (b) attentional control settings are limited to the distinction between dynamic and static discontinuities (C. L. Folk, R. W. Remington, & J. C. Johnston, 1992). In Experiments 1 and 2, apparent-motion precues produced significant costs in performance for targets signaled by motion but not for targets signaled by color or abrupt onset. Experiment 3 established that this pattern is not due to differences in the difficulty of target discrimination. Experiments 4 and 5 revealed asymmetric capture effects between abrupt onset and apparent motion related to stimulus salience. The results support the hypotheses of Folk et al. (1992) and suggest that stimulus salience may also play a role in attentional capture.
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D'Zmura [(1991) Vision Research, 31, 951-966] reported qualitative differences in visual search rates for a target colour in a background of differently coloured distractors depending on their colour configuration in CIE(x,y) space. A target colour that was chromatically mid-way between the distractor colours resulted in steep search slopes. A target off the distractor-distractor line, "popped out". We replicated his finding in several loci, investigated several potential confounds, and discovered boundary conditions for the phenomenon: for a given target, the effect of collinearity dissipates with increasing distractor-distractor colour difference. Furthermore, within limits, performance was dependent on the target to distractor-line distance.
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Recently, the authors presented evidence that new items can be prioritized for selection by the top-down attentional inhibition of old stimuli already in the field (visual marking; D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). In this article the authors assess whether this inhibition extends to moving old items and test an alternative account of visual marking. Six experiments showed that old moving items could be inhibited provided they did not undergo abrupt property changes. Further, and in contrast to effects with static stimuli, the marking of old moving stimuli was based on inhibition applied at the level of a whole feature map, rather than at their locations. The results also rule out an alternative account of visual marking based on the top-down weighting of dynamic or static processing pathways.
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Four experiments addressed the degree of top-down control over attentional capture in visual search for featural singletons. In a modified spatial cuing paradigm, the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons were systematically varied. Contrary to previous studies, all 4 experiments showed that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures spatial attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3 and 4 provided a potential explanation for the discrepancy with previous studies by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are dissociable from shifts of spatial attention. The results suggest the existence of 2 distinct forms of attentional capture.
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