Forages are beset with a myriad of pests that include weeds and the associated competition, insects, diseases, rodents, and herbivorous animals. The mix of pest problems varies from locale to locale. Regardless of location or the crop grown, it behooves the grower to be aware of potential pest damage. To avert losses, a grower must know the potential pests, be able to identify them and their ... [Show full abstract] symptoms, know and practice the best control methods, and have a sense of when a pest becomes important from the economic point of view. Efforts to avert the consequences of pest infestations involve selecting and practicing techniques best suited for control, including cultivar selection, rotation, and cultivation. Only recently has the use of chemical pesticides become an important part of this integrated control effort. In the forage crops used for hay, breeding pest resistance into new cultivars has long been recognized as the first line of defense, and the efforts accumulated over time are impressive. Pest-management strategies include basic knowledge, development of sources of information, and ready access to information on the ecological basis for the pest problem, pest and predator populations and life cycles, and analysis of the costs and benefits of pest-control techniques.