Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: An Empirical Study

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK.
American journal of mental retardation: AJMR (Impact Factor: 2.51). 04/2001; 106(2):189-99. DOI: 10.1352/0895-8017(2001)106<0189:EDOSIB>2.0.CO;2
Source: PubMed


The early development of SIB in young children with developmental disabilities was examined by tracking over an 18-month period 16 school-age children who had recently started to show early SIB. Naturalistic observations were conducted in each child's classroom every 3 months, and the association between early SIB and environmental events was examined. Results showed that for the 4 children whose early SIB had escalated over this period, there was a significant association between early SIB and low levels of social contact across observation points, supporting models of the development of SIB. This association might be considered as a risk marker for the exacerbation of SIB. Implications of this finding for targeting early interventions for SIB are discussed.

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    • "They did not find that early stereotyped behaviour predicted SIB. In a subsequent study, Hall et al. (2001) found a relationship between early SIB and very low levels of attention from their teachers. This is interesting because it suggests that attention deprivation (e.g. by teachers) can be a motivating establishing operation that elevates the value of teacher attention as a reinforcer, and thus renders teacher attention into a powerful reinforcer that could effectively account for inadvertent shaping stereotyped behaviour into SIB. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The notion that stereotypic behaviours may be precursors of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) has been considered in the past, but the available empirical evidence is still inconsistent and ambiguous.Method In a longitudinal study, we collected data on stereotypic behaviour and SIB from 160 infants and toddlers who were at-risk for developmental delay. Interviews were conducted with parents at three time points during a one-year span using the Behaviour Problems Inventory-01 which contains subscales for SIB and stereotyped behaviour. We used growth modelling to estimate linear trends in several models. Model fit was evaluated according to a combination of fit statistics as is recommended in structural equation or latent variable modelling approaches such as latent growth modelling.ResultsIn examining the relationship between stereotyped behaviours and SIB across time, the model that represented earlier stereotyped behaviour as predicting later SIB fit the data better than the other models.Conclusions The findings corroborate the notion that stereotyped behaviour can be a precursor of SIB. If replicated by other studies, it makes a case for considering early intervening with stereotyped behaviour as a SIB prevention strategy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
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    • "It also implies that some kind of topographic similarity between the proto-injurious behavior and the subsequent SIB should exist. In addition to the Hall et al. (2001) study just mentioned several other studies have provided evidence of the proto-injurious behavior hypothesis for some topographies of SIB. Berkson et al. (2001) examined body rocking and SIB in 39 young children between the ages of 3 and 40 months with severe disabilities in a longitudinal study. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relation between stereotyped behavior and self-injurious behavior (SIB) for 1871 individuals with intellectual disabilities who had a score of >0 on the Behavior Problem Inventory (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001). We report three main findings: First, structural equation modeling techniques (SEM) revealed that the BPI-01stereotyped behavior subscale scores predicted BPI-01 SIB subscale scores. Second, when stereotyped behavior was modeled as a predictor of SIB, mixture-modeling techniques revealed two groups of individuals: one in which stereotyped behavior was a strong, statistically significant predictor of SIB (69% of the sample), and another one in which stereotyped behavior was not a predictor of SIB (31%). Finally, two specific stereotyped behavior topographies (i.e., body rocking and yelling) were identified that significantly predicted five different SIB topographies (i.e., self-biting, head hitting, body hitting, self-pinching, and hair pulling). Results are discussed in terms of future research needed to identify bio-behavioral variables correlated with cases of SIB that can, and cannot, be predicted by the presence of stereotyped behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Research in Developmental Disabilities
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    • "Being threatening or distasteful to staff, SIB becomes a setting event to escape SIB (Smalley, Certo, & Goetz, 1997), with avoidance 3 or defense behaviours, which may reinforce its aversive qualities and allow SIB to persist (Oliver et al., 1996; Hall et al., 2001). These emotion driven coping strategies (Mitchell & Hastings, 2001), increase the risk of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization i.e. treating people like objects and reduce the possibility of experiencing feelings of personal accomplishment (Hastings & Brown, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present article is to critically analyse the literature concerning the factors that lead to non-interventionism towards self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in the field of intellectual disability and to make recommendations for the development of practice. It emerges that the limited behaviour analytic skills of practitioners impede the implementation of behavioural interventions and allow SIB to persist. The implications for the development of in-service training and managerial support that would disseminate the implementation of behavioural interventions are briefly discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Intellectual Disabilities
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