Involvement of 2p23 in pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-Presbyterian University Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Human Pathlogy (Impact Factor: 2.77). 05/2001; 32(4):428-33. DOI: 10.1053/hupa.2001.23523
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Pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors (IP) are rare mesenchymal proliferations that have a polymorphic histology and an unpredictable biologic behavior. The histologic spectrum of IP has led to uncertainty as to whether this tumor has a reactive or neoplastic pathogenesis. Reports of extrapulmonary IP have identified clonal chromosomal aberrations involving 2p23 in the region of the ALK gene. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe flanking the ALK gene at 2p23 and immunostaining for the ALK gene product, we studied formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of pulmonary IP and found a subset (33%) with 2p23 aberrations. We suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and ALK immunostaining may be helpful in the diagnosis of a group of pulmonary IP and should be investigated as a potential tool for predicting their future biologic behavior. An association with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma was also observed. HUM PATHOL 32:428-433.

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    • "This opinion is supported by the detection of cases of PIP with local aggressiveness and infiltration of pulmonary vessels, heart, chest wall, vertebrae and diaphragm, or by detection of cases with distant metastasis or multicentre disease [4,10-12]. Recently discovered cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosome 2p23 would support a neoplastic etiology for this disease [13-15]. PIP is more common in young adults and does not show sex predilection [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor (PIP) is a rare disease. It is still debated whether it represents an inflammatory lesion characterized by uncontrolled cell growth or a true neoplasm. PIP is characterized by a cellular polymorphism. We retrospectively analyzed 8 patients with PIP treated by surgery between 2001 and 2009. Preoperative thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in all cases. All patients underwent preoperative bronchoscopy with washing and brushing and/or transbronchial biopsy and preoperative cytology examination There were 5 men and 3 women, aged between 38 and 69 years (mean of 58 years). 3 patients (37%) were asymptomatic. The others had symptoms characterized by chest pain, shortness of breath and persistent cough or hemoptysis. 5 patients had neutrophilic leucocytosis. CT scan demonstrated solitary nodules (maximum diameter<3 cm) in 5 patients (62%) and lung masses (maximum diameter>3 cm) in 3 patients (37%). In 2 patients there were signs of pleural infiltration. Distant lesions were excluded in all cases. A preoperative histology examination failed to reach a definitive diagnosis in all patients. At surgery, we performed two lobectomies, one segmentectomy and five wedge resections, these being performed with videothoracoscopy (VATS), except for one patient where open surgery was used. Complete tumor resection was obtained in all patients. According to the Matsubara classification, there were 2 cases of organizing pneumonia, 5 cases of fibrous histiocytoma and one case of lymphoplasmacytoma. All patients were discharged alive from hospital between 4 and 7 days after surgery. At follow-up CT scan performed annually (range 11 to 112 months) (mean 58 months), there were no residual lesions, neither local nor distant recurrences. PIP is a rare disease. Many synonyms have been used for this disease, usually in relation to the most represented cell type. The true incidence is unclear. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach, despite performing a bronchoscopy or a transparietal needle aspiration. Different classifications have been proposed for PIP. Either medical, radiation or surgical therapy has been used for PIP. Whenever possible, surgery should be considered the standard treatment. Complete surgical resection is advocated to prevent recurrence.
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    • "An additional ALK fusion, (Ran binding protein2 (RANBP2)-ALK, has been recently described in IMT but not, as yet, in NHL (Ma et al., 2003). ALK expression in IMT varies from 36 to 61.8% of cases (Coffin et al., 2001; Cook et al., 2001; Morris et al., 2001; Yousem et al., 2001). In common with ALK-positive ALCL, ALK-positive IMTs tend to occur in younger patients (Griffin et al., 1999; Coffin et al., 2001; Cook et al., 2001; Sirvent et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: The normal functions of full-length anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) remain to be completely elucidated. Although considered to be important in neural development, recent studies in Drosophila also highlight a role for ALK in gut muscle differentiation. Indeed, the Drosophila model offers a future arena for the study of ALK, its ligands and signalling cascades. The discovery of activated fusion forms of the ALK tyrosine kinase in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has dramatically improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of these lymphomas and enhanced the pathological diagnosis of this subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Likewise, the realisation that a high percentage of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours express activated-ALK fusion proteins has clarified the causation of these mesenchymal neoplasms and provided for their easier discrimination from other mesenchymal-derived inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) mimics. Recent reports of ALK expression in a range of carcinoma-derived cell lines together with its apparent role as a receptor for PTN and MK, both of which have been implicated in tumourigenesis, raise the possibility that ALK-mediated signalling could play a role in the development and/or progression of a number of common solid tumours. The therapeutic targeting of ALK may prove to have efficacy in the treatment of many of these neoplasms.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
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