April 23, 2001 19:15 Annual Reviews AR133-14
31. Natl. Inst. Health, Natl. Heart Lung Blood
Inst. 1998. Clinical guidelines on the iden-
tiﬁcation,evaluation and treatment ofover-
weightand obesity in adults—the evidence
report. Obes. Res. 6:51–209S
32. Natl. Taskforce Prev. Treat. Obes. 2000.
Dieting and the development of eating dis-
orders in overweight and obese adults.
Arch. Int. Med. 160:2581–89
33. Paffenbarger RS Jr, Wing AL, Hyde RT.
1978. Physical activity as an index of heart
attack risk in college alumni. Am. J. Epi-
34. Pagliassotti MJ, Gayles EC, Hill JO. 1997.
Dietary fat and energy balance. Ann. NY
Acad. Sci. 827:431–48
35. Ravusssin E, Lillioja S, Anderson TE,
Christin L, Bogardus C. 1986. Determi-
nants of 24-hour energy expenditure in
man: methods and results using a respira-
tory chamber. J. Clin. Invest. 78:1568–78
phy E, Chu F, Leibel R. 1997. Effects of
weight change on plasma leptin concentra-
tions and energy expenditure. J. Clin. En-
docrinol. Metab. 82:3647–54
37. Schoeller DA, Shay K, Kushner RF. 1997.
How much physical activity is needed to
minimize weight gain in previously obese
women? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66:551–56
38. Seidell JC, Muller DC, Sorkin JD, Andres
R. 1992. Fasting respiratory exchange ra-
tio and resting metabolic rate as predictors
of weight gain: the Baltimore Longitudinal
Study on Aging. Int. J. Obes. 16:667–74
39. SerdulaMK, Mokdad AH,WilliamsonDF,
Galuska DA, Mendlein JM, Heath GW.
1999. Prevalence of attempting weight
loss and strategies for controlling weight.
40. Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire
MT, Hill JO, Seagle HM. 1998. Persons
successful at long-term weight loss and
maintenance continue to consume a low-
energy, low-fat diet. J. Am. Diet. Assoc.
41. Stalonas PM, Kirschenbaum DS. 1985.
Behavioral treatment for obesity: eating
habits revisited. Behav. Ther. 16:1–14
42. Stunkard AJ, McLaren-Hume M. 1959.
The results of treatment for obesity. Arch.
Int. Med. 103:79–85
43. Swinburn BA, Nyomba BL, Saad MF,
associated with lower rates of weight gain
in Pima Indians. J. Clin. Invest. 88:168–73
44. Telch CF, Agras WS. 1993. The effects of
a very low calorie diet on binge eating. Be-
hav. Ther. 24:177–93
ML, McGuire MT, et al. 1997. Exercise
behaviors in reduced-obese subjects in the
National Weight Control Registry. Obes.
Res. 5:84S (Abstr.)
46. US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. 1996. Phys-
ical Activity and Health: A Report of the
Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Dep.
Natl. Cent. Chronic Dis. Prev. Promot.
47. Valdez R, Mitchell BD, Haffner SM,
Hazuda HP, Morales PA, et al. 1994. Pre-
dictorsofweightchangeina bi-ethnic pop-
ulation. The San Antonio Heart Study. Int.
J. Obes. 18:85–91
48. Van Dale D, Saris WHM, Ten Hoor F.
1990. Weight maintenance and restring
metabolic rate 18–40 months after a diet-
exercise treatment.Int. J. Obes. 14:347–59
49. Wadden TA, Foster GD, Letizia KA. 1994.
One-year behavioral treatment of obesity:
comparison of moderate and severecaloric
restriction and the effects of weight main-
tenance therapy. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol.
50. Wadden TA, Foster GD, Letizia KA,
ing on resting metabolic rate in obese out-
patients. JAMA 264:707–11
51. Wadden TA, Sternberg JA, Letizia KA,
Stunkard AJ, Foster GD. 1989. Treatment
of obesity by very low calorie diet, be-
haviour therapy, and their combination: a
ﬁve-year perspective. Int. J. Obes. 13:39–