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Wisdom: A Metaheuristic (Pragmatic) to Orchestrate Mind and Virtue Toward Excellence

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Abstract

The primary focus of this article is on the presentation of wisdom research conducted under the heading of the Berlin wisdom paradigm. Informed by a cultural-historical analysis, wisdom in this paradigm is defined as an expert knowledge system concerning the fundamental pragmatics of life. These include knowledge and judgment about the meaning and conduct of life and the orchestration of human development toward excellence while attending conjointly to personal and collective well-being. Measurement includes think-aloud protocols concerning various problems of life associated with life planning, life management, and life review. Responses are evaluated with reference to a family of 5 criteria: rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism of values and life priorities, and recognition and management of uncertainty. A series of studies is reported that aim to describe, explain, and optimize wisdom. The authors conclude with a new theoretical perspective that characterizes wisdom as a cognitive and motivational metaheuristic (pragmatic) that organizes and orchestrates knowledge toward human excellence in mind and virtue, both individually and collectively.
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... Most of the studies conducted so far have more conceptual and theoretical approach and they have put less emphasis on empirical measurements. The studies which are based on empirical measurements have been mostly conducted by Baltes et al. whose base of assessment of the wisdom are mainly cognitive decision making and performance-based scales, such as Berlin wisdom paradigm (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000) and Berman wisdom paradigm (Mickler & Staudinger, 2008). However, little effort has been made to develop and validate self-assessment scales. ...
... The matrix and questions and extracted factors after the rotation were obtained, which they are shown in Table 2. Based on the table 2, questions 17,27,32,7,12,6,38,2,37,34,22 are covered by one factor. Questions 29,1,21,36,20,40,5,16, and 31 are covered by one factor. ...
Article
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Webster's Wisdom Questionnaire is a well-known self-assessment scale, which can cover a wide range of future wisdom studies. This research was conducted with the aim to examine the questionnaire psychometrics (reliability, validity, and factor analysis) and to evaluate the relationship between wisdom, age and gender. This questionnaire contains 40 questions assessing the people's wisdom. In a cross-sectional study, 395 (293 males and 102 females) of Sanandaj city, selected through randomized cluster sampling, were assessed using the Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient, factor analysis and t-test. Using factor analysis, four factors of the proper use of experiences, emotional regulation, reflection, and humor were extracted. To assess the reliability of this questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation were used. The results revealed that this questionnaire had good convergent validity. In addition, the comparison of these factors between males and females indicated that females significantly obtained higher score than males in two factors of using the experiences and emotional regulation. Moreover, the high correlation of factors with the total score of the questionnaire and poor correlation of the factors with each other reflect the adequacy and efficiency of this questionnaire to be used by researchers, experts, and psychologists in Iran.
... Zhu et al. (2015, p. 610) define wisdom as "a virtuous and appropriatefor-the-situation bundle of competencies." Wisdom is concerned with how one can deal with his/her limited knowledge, balancing knowledge and doubt (Staudinger, 2008) to solve a problem at hand by coordinating thought, motivation, and emotion (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000). These lessons in developing wisdom competencies begin in wisdom-focused teaching (level of cognition) about reflection and intellectual humility and are further developed in wisdom-focused teaching (levels of connection and conduct). ...
Article
The success of tertiary teaching depends to a high degree on teachers’ approach to teaching. Although the suitability of university teachers is often measured by teachers’ qualifications, publications in the relevant discipline, and teaching experience, a teacher’s understanding of the nature of what is taught in the classroom may have a more significant influence on students’ learning experience and future contribution to society. This commentary is based on Integral Theory, specifically the conceptualization of a wisdom meta-competencies model. We have developed an integral ‘knowledge-to-wisdom’ teaching framework that proposes an integral set of pedagogical strategies that can be used to introduce wisdom-based teaching into Information Systems education settings. Implications of the study are presented as well as limitations and areas of future research. Keywords: Integral theory, Wisdom, Teaching, Meta-competencies, Information, Knowledge
... La « sagesse pratique » est l'usage anglophone du terme (i.e., practical wisdom), que nous trouvons plus adéquat.3. L'approche fondatrice de la sagesse générale en psychologie est initiée par le modèle de la sagesse comme expertise de(Baltes & Staudinger, 2000). Dans cette approche, la sagesse est vue comme un ensemble de connaissances et de procédures qui permettent gérer les problèmes de la vie. ...
Thesis
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L'objectif de ce travail était d'étudier le rôle des ressources psychologiques et de la construction du soi dans l'expérience du bien-être et de la résilience en temps de crise, particulièrement pendant le premier confinement français lié à la crise du coronavirus. Cette thèse sur articles se divise en quatre parties. La Partie I fait un état de l’art à propos des notions de bien-être, de résilience et de ressources psychologiques, et développe la problématique et les hypothèses de recherche de la thèse. La Partie II présente deux études longitudinales en panel qui ont été lancées durant le premier confinement français et qui évaluent le rôle des ressources psychologiques dans la protection du bien-être (Chapitre 4, N = 470) et le maintien de la résilience psychologique (Chapitre 5, N = 1144). Ensemble, les résultats de ces deux études montrent que la majorité des individus ont été résilients face à l’expérience du confinement et que leurs ressources psychologiques ont effectivement protégé leur bien-être et favorisé leur résilience. De plus, la flexibilité psychologique a été identifiée comme potentiel médiateur de ces effets. La Partie III présente deux études du rôle de l’expérience du soi décentré dans l’expérience momentanée du bonheur dans la vie quotidienne à l’aide de la méthode d’échantillonnage des expériences. L’étude présentée au Chapitre 6 (N = 67) a montré que l’expérience d’un soi décentré était relié à l’expérience du bonheur, et que cet effet peut s’expliquer par le sentiment d’être en harmonie. L’étude présentée au Chapitre 7 (N = 74) a confirmé leur lien aux niveaux intra- et inter-individus. De plus, cette étude a montré que l’expérience du soi comme décentré était relié à une stabilisation du bien-être. La Partie IV discute les résultats des études précédentes et conclut sur l’apport de ce travail et les perspectives en termes de recherche et d’application sur le terrain.
... Meta-sezgisel gerçek iki buluşsal yöntemin birleşimidir. Bunlardan ilki, bilgi kütlelerinin topluluğunu organize etme ve diğeri hayatın temel pragmatiğini çevreleyen konuları planlama, yönetme ve değerlendirmektir (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000). Daha spesifik olarak, bu pragmatikler "insan varlığının sosyal doğası ve eksikliğine dair sezgiler, yaşam amaçlarının değişkenliği, kendisi ve bilgisinin sınırları hakkında bilginin davranışa nasıl dönüştürüldüğüne dair içgörüyü" içermektedir (Staudinger ve Pasupathi, 2003). ...
Chapter
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“Bilgelik” kelimesi, çağdaş yönetim veya liderlik söyleminde son yıllarda daha sık kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Özellikle liderlerde mükemmel muhakeme, bilgi, nitelik ve karakterin gerekli olduğu anlayışının artmasıyla birlikte “bilgelik” kavramı daha da önem kazanmıştır. Liderliğin muhakeme, sezgi ve karakterde mükemmellik sağlamak için bilgelik gerektirdiğini ve bilgeliğin temel özellikleri anlaşılırsa liderlerin bu ilkelere dayalı sağlam kriterlere göre değerlendirilebileceği öngörülmektedir. Bilgelik ilkelerinin kavramsal temelini sağlayarak oluşturulan “bilgelik” kavramının yönetimsel modellerde arka planda kalmasını önlemek için yeterli bütünlüğe sahip olması gerekmektedir. Bu bağlamda yapılan araştırmalarda öncelikle “bilge stratejik liderler hangi yeteneklere sahiptir ve bunları nasıl tanımlanabilir?” sorularına yanıt aramak gerekmektedir. Son yıllarda gelişen yeni yönetim modelleri kapsamında bu araştırmada; yönetim ve liderlikte çağdaş bilgelik kavramının nitelikleri ile birlikte bilge liderliğin temel özelliklerini kapsayan bilgelik kavramı hakkında bilgi sunularak postmodern bağlamda stratejik liderlik özelliklerinin uygunluğunu değerlendirmek için meta-teorik bir çerçeve oluşturmak hedeflenmiştir.
... Cognitive psychologists have been interested in wisdom as a form of expert judgment in life pragmatics (Baltes & Kunzmann, 2004;Baltes & Staudinger, 2000). Finally, scholars of personality and social psychology have used wisdom to explore the complex interaction of human dispositions and one's socio-cultural environment, beyond classic conceptualizations of Big Five personality and standard definitions of intelligence (Grossmann et al., 2013;Grossmann et al, 2021) Consequently, a plethora of perspectives on wisdom exist in the social sciences. ...
Preprint
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Heighted epistemic arrogance, misinformation, and intergroup conflict in many contemporary societies have been paralleled by growing interest in wisdom across social, behavioral and medical sciences. In a recently established Common Wisdom Model, central features concern epistemic virtues of intellectual humility, recognition of world in flux and change, and consideration and integration of different perspectives. Here, we raise the question whether the model’s focus on epistemic concerns is also apparent in non-Western folk concepts of wisdom.To address this question, we conducted sixteen focus group discussions about wisdom in the Philippines (N = 80) and Sri Lanka (N = 94), countries with a long history of both sociopolitical conflict and economic adversity. Results from thematic analyses revealed epistemic themes in the responses of most focus group participants in both countries. However, the individual’s likelihood of mentioning epistemic themes varied by questioning format and country. Epistemic content was more pronounced when questions concerned abstract definitions/general characteristics rather than concrete behavioral/psychological processes. Furthermore, participants in the Philippines had significantly greater than chance likelihood of mentioning epistemic themes in the responses to abstract questions about the development of wisdom and general views of wisdom, whereas in Sri Lanka the likelihood of epistemic content in response to the same questions was at chance. This cross-country difference was more pronounced when the questions were framed abstractly rather than concretely. We discuss these insights in light of the Common Wisdom model and the role of question format for crosscultural research.
Chapter
To advance the academic debates and respond to the recent “calls from practice” (see Chap. 2), in this section I develop a theoretical framework that provides a systematic perspective on the causal pillars that are constitutive for the Need Knowledge-Driven Organization, that is, an organization that leverages knowledge about stakeholder needs in order to yield responsible behavior and sustainable outcomes. To provide a profound understanding of its defining pillars, the framework is informed by both theoretical insights from reviews of the relevant bodies of literature and empirical findings from an interview study with top-level and senior managers in Central Europe.
Chapter
Posttraumatic growth is a process by which people experience significant positive changes in their lives as a result of the struggle with traumatic events. There appear to be connections between posttraumatic growth and wisdom given that there are similarities in the processes by which both are accomplished. In this chapter, we briefly review the literature on posttraumatic growth and consider how growth and wisdom often co-occur, referring to some of the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship including reappraisal, set-shifting, dialectical thinking, synthesis, and cognitive-emotional integration. Finally, we explore how these processes may be facilitated clinically yielding advances in posttraumatic growth and wisdom.KeywordsPosttraumatic growthWisdomTrauma
Article
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为探究正念、个人成长主动性与智慧推理之间的关系,采用五因素正念量表、个人成长主动性量表与情境智慧推理量表对242 名18~24 岁成年早期的大学生进行调查。研究发现:正念与智慧推理水平间存在显著的正相关,个人成长主动性在正念与智慧推理的正相关中发挥部分中介的作用。本文从智慧推理的动态发展角度,为通过正念干预手段开展智慧教育的可能性提供依据。
Chapter
Wisdom is such an elusive psychological construct that few people have considered it a viable field, though many are fascinated by the topic. Well-known psychologist Robert J. Sternberg of Yale University, perceiving the growth of interest in wisdom as a field, saw a need to document the progress that has been made in the field since the early '80s and to point the way for future theory and research. The resulting comprehensive and authoritative book, Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins and Development, is a well-rounded collection of psychological views on wisdom. It introduces this concept of wisdom, considers philosophical issues and developmental approaches, and covers as well folk conceptions of the topic. In the final section, Professor Sternberg provides an integration of the fascinating and comprehensive material.
Chapter
Wisdom is such an elusive psychological construct that few people have considered it a viable field, though many are fascinated by the topic. Well-known psychologist Robert J. Sternberg of Yale University, perceiving the growth of interest in wisdom as a field, saw a need to document the progress that has been made in the field since the early '80s and to point the way for future theory and research. The resulting comprehensive and authoritative book, Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins and Development, is a well-rounded collection of psychological views on wisdom. It introduces this concept of wisdom, considers philosophical issues and developmental approaches, and covers as well folk conceptions of the topic. In the final section, Professor Sternberg provides an integration of the fascinating and comprehensive material.
Chapter
Wisdom is such an elusive psychological construct that few people have considered it a viable field, though many are fascinated by the topic. Well-known psychologist Robert J. Sternberg of Yale University, perceiving the growth of interest in wisdom as a field, saw a need to document the progress that has been made in the field since the early '80s and to point the way for future theory and research. The resulting comprehensive and authoritative book, Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins and Development, is a well-rounded collection of psychological views on wisdom. It introduces this concept of wisdom, considers philosophical issues and developmental approaches, and covers as well folk conceptions of the topic. In the final section, Professor Sternberg provides an integration of the fascinating and comprehensive material.
Chapter
Wisdom is such an elusive psychological construct that few people have considered it a viable field, though many are fascinated by the topic. Well-known psychologist Robert J. Sternberg of Yale University, perceiving the growth of interest in wisdom as a field, saw a need to document the progress that has been made in the field since the early '80s and to point the way for future theory and research. The resulting comprehensive and authoritative book, Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins and Development, is a well-rounded collection of psychological views on wisdom. It introduces this concept of wisdom, considers philosophical issues and developmental approaches, and covers as well folk conceptions of the topic. In the final section, Professor Sternberg provides an integration of the fascinating and comprehensive material.
Chapter
Wisdom is such an elusive psychological construct that few people have considered it a viable field, though many are fascinated by the topic. Well-known psychologist Robert J. Sternberg of Yale University, perceiving the growth of interest in wisdom as a field, saw a need to document the progress that has been made in the field since the early '80s and to point the way for future theory and research. The resulting comprehensive and authoritative book, Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins and Development, is a well-rounded collection of psychological views on wisdom. It introduces this concept of wisdom, considers philosophical issues and developmental approaches, and covers as well folk conceptions of the topic. In the final section, Professor Sternberg provides an integration of the fascinating and comprehensive material.
Book
In Psyche and Eros, first published in 1994, Gisela Labouvie-Vief describes historical and current concepts of mind and development, drawing from disciplines as diverse as philosophy, mythology, religion, literature, and psychology. She then presents a powerful theory of the maturing of mind, which brings together her empirical work and her exploration into mythology. The classical Greek myth of the gods Psyche and Eros serves as an evocative illustration of the author's theory. Psyche and Eros asserts that the core experience of development differs along gender lines. Rationality is regarded as masculine, while imagination is viewed as feminine. Competition between 'masculine' and 'feminine' parts of the mind has limited our ability to describe the mind and its development over the life course, just as it limits our experiences of development as men and women. The author suggests that we overcome the dualistic way of thinking about mind, and see how rationality and imagination can complement each other.
Book
This book derives from a 1993 National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute on Knowledge, Teaching, and Wisdom. The Institute took place at the University of California, Berkeley, and was co-directed by Keith Lehrer and Nicholas D. Smith. The aims of the Institute were several: we sought to reintroduce wisdom as a topic of discussion among contemporary philosophers, to undertake an historical investigation of how and when and why it was that wisdom faded from philosophical view, and to ask how contemporary epistemological theories might apply to the obviously related subjects of teaching and wisdom. In recruiting participants, Lehrer and Smith put the greatest emphasis on those with professional interests in epistemology and the history of philosophy, of the ancient Greeks especially ancient Greek philosophy (because in the writings all three subjects of the Institute were explicitly related and discussed). But in addition to these two groups, some effort was made also to include others, with academic specializations in a variety of fields other than epistemology and the history of philosophy, to ensure that a broad perspective could be achieved in our discussions. To an obvious extent, the papers in this book reflect the recruitment emphases and variety. They also testify to the extent that the Institute managed to bring life to our subjects, and to raise very old questions in a contemporary context.
Article
The paper offers a basic characteristic of syncretism as a philosophical and methodological attitude or approach, which crystallized in the second half of the 1980s in standing seminar Integration at Comenius University in Bratislava. The vital idea of syncretism is that it does not aim at the removal of any relationships regarded as negative, i.e. harmful, destructive, immoral, unpleasant etc., but, rather, at their most efficient cultivation. Syncretism tries to transform conflict into their spiritual or playful forms and thus to provide an imagination with bloodless fields of application. Syncretism is an effort to reach the dominance of syncresis (understanding correlation, comparison) over diacrisis (through separation, distance, quarrel). Syncretism is based on four presuppositions: 1. The essence of human being is his/her transcendence or self-transcendence. 2. The maximum of human being is his being cultural; a human being cannot be more that a cultural one. 3. The essence of the cultural human being is the inscendence, i.e. the inward transcendence, spiritualization. 4. The maximum of the cultural human being is the meaningfulness, or fulness saturated with sense. Welding (syncresis) of our life consists in restoring the interzonal interaction of cultural tracts forming our life. It would deprive it of its schizoid qualities of the private and the public, concentrating on the relationship between oneself and others, work and rest, mine and yours, etc. Humility, therefore, should be the welding factor of our life, but not in relation to the others and their creations and inventions, but rather as a result of our being aware of our own limits in facing the transhorizontal reality, which not only surrounds us, but also penetrates into us like darkness penetrating into day.