Effects of different plasma substitutes on blood coagulation: A comparative review

Department of Intensive Care, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.31). 07/2001; 29(6):1261-7. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-200106000-00038
Source: PubMed


To compare the effects of different colloid plasma substitutes on blood coagulation and postoperative blood loss.
Relevant studies were obtained from the medical literature.
Articles were selected that provided data on the effects of colloids on hemostasis and postoperative blood loss in humans. Studies comparing different colloids were looked for using MEDLINE and by searching through the references of studies as they were collected.
Articles were reviewed and relevant data were extracted and partly presented in comparative tables.
Dextran, gelatin, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) all can induce a specific decrease of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII:c. Blood coagulation is most impaired by dextran and high molecular weight HES, both associated with increased postoperative blood loss. The effects of HES on blood coagulation have been shown to depend on its molecular weight and rate of elimination. Detrimental effects have been shown for high molecular weight HES. Medium molecular weight (MMW)-HES with a high degree of substitution (HES 200/0.62) and MMW-HES with high C2/C6 hydroxyethylation ratio (HES 200/0.5/13) are slowly degradable and have been shown to impair blood coagulation after repeated administration. Rapidly degradable HES 200/0.5/6 and gelatin-based plasma expanders appear not to impair hemostasis. However, based on the reviewed literature, all artificial colloids could potentially induce increased bleeding tendency after infusion of very large volumes and especially when given to patients with even mild forms of von Willebrand disease. In those circumstances, crystalloid solutions or alternatives such as plasma or albumin, although associated with other serious complications, could be considered.

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    • "Hetastarch has been reported to induce a type I von Willebrand-like syndrome with decreased factor VIII activity and decreased von Willebrand factor antigen and VIII-related cofactor level.[16] "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercoagulability has been reported in primary brain tumors which can lead to thrombotic complications. Hydroxyethyl starch (hetastarch) is a synthetic colloid solution with adverse effects on blood coagulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of hetastarch in reducing thromboembolic events in these patients. In a double-blinded clinical trial, 60 brain tumor surgery patients were randomly divided into two groups and given 10 mL/kg hetastarch or normal saline during surgery. Blood coagulation was compared before and after infusion of these fluids within and between groups by thromboelastography (TEG). There were no significant differences in bleeding (P = 0.126), duration of surgery (P = 0.504), and fluid intake (0.09L) between the two groups. Percentage of changes in R (R: Time to initiate fibrin formation), K (K: Measure of the speed taken to reach a specific level of clot strength), and Ly30 (Ly30: Percent of fibrin distraction after 30 minutes of clot formation) in the crystalloid group were -20.61 ± 26.46, -30.02 ± 49.10, and 1.27 ± 22.63, and that in the colloid group were 22.10 ± 26.11, 41.79 ± 37.15, and 59.09 ± 37.12, respectively. Deterioration in hemostasis during and after surgery was not observed. There was a reduction in the speed of clot formation and increase in clot lysis in the hetastarch group. Coagulability was decreased in the colloid group. Infusion of 10 mL/kg hetastarch in brain tumor resection surgeries can probably decrease susceptibility of these patients to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and thromboembolic events.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of research in medical sciences
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    • "Such hypocoagulability may be detrimental in patients having increased bleeding risk, e.g., severe trauma (ISS >20), who are already hypocoagulable.[13] Such an effect might be because HES is a highly branched and hydroxyethylated glucose polymer that can reduce von Willebrand (vWB) factor and interferes with fibrinogen function and polymerization.[3434] We chose HES 130/0.4, "
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    ABSTRACT: The choice of an ideal fluid administered post trauma and its subsequent influence on coagulation still poses a clinical dilemma. Hence, this study was designed to assess the influence of in vivo hemodilution with various fluid preparations (4% gelatin, 6% hydoxyethyl starch (HES), Ringer's lactate, 0.9% normal saline) on coagulation using standard coagulation parameters and real-time thromboelastography (TEG) in patients undergoing elective surgery post trauma. In a randomized, double-blind study, 100 patients of either sex and age, belonging to ASA Grades I and II, scheduled for elective surgeries were allocated into four groups of 25 each according to the type of fluid infused. Group G (4% gelatin), Group N (0.9% normal saline), Group R (Ringer's lactate), and Group H (6% HES) received preloading with 1 L of fluid according to the group. The coagulation status of the patients was assessed during perioperative period (before surgery, after fluid preloading, and at the end of the surgery) using both conventional coagulation analysis and TEG. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc and Pearson Chi-square test were used. In all the patients preloaded with gelatin, there was a significant increase in prothrombin time index (PTI; 14.88±0.90 vs. 13.78±3.01, P<0.001) and international normalized ratio (INR; 1.12±0.09 vs. 1.09±0.19, P<0.05) compared to the baseline value. An increase was observed in these parameters in the postoperative period also. In the HES group, there was statistically significant increase in PT time (15.70±1.51 vs. 13.74±0.75, P=0.01) and INR (1.20±0.15 vs. 1.03±0.17, P<0.001) as compared to the baseline. In the intergroup comparisons, the patients preloaded with HES had a significant increase in INR (1.20±0.15 vs. 1.12±0.09, P=0.04) and reaction time (R time; 6.84±2.55 min vs. 4.79±1.77 min, P=0.02) as compared to the gelatin group. The fall in coagulation time (k time; 2.16±0.98 vs. 3.94±2.6, P=0.02), rise in maximum amplitude (MA; 61.94±14.08 vs. 50.11±14.10, P=0.04), and rise in A20 (56.17±14.66 vs. 43.11±14.24, P=0.05) were more in patients preloaded with RL as compared to the HES group. 100% patients in the gelatin group, 84.2% patients in the NS group, 94.4% patients in the RL group, and 66.7% patients in the HES group had hypocoagulable (R time > 14 min) state in the postoperative period. Crystalloids are optimal volume expanders in trauma, with RL having beneficial effects on coagulation system (decrease in k time and increase in MA and A20). Among the colloids, HES 6% (130/0.4) affects coagulation parameters (increase in PTI, INR, R time, k time) more than gelatin. Trial registration (protocol number-IEC/NP-189/2011).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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    • "HES has a negative effect on blood coagulation according to degree of molar substitution and mean molecular weight [18]. The third-generation HES 130/0.4, "
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    ABSTRACT: Third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions have been developed to minimize negative effects on hemostasis. In normal pregnancy, the coagulation activity increases, reaching a maximum around term. This study examined the effects of hemodilution with HES 130/0.4 (6%) on blood coagulation in parturients in vivo and in vitro. Forty parturients scheduled for cesarean sections were assigned randomly to receive either 500 or 1,000 ml of HES 130/0.4 (6%). Rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) measurements were performed before and after administering HES 130/0.4 (6%). In addition, blood samples obtained from 20 randomly selected parturients were diluted 10% to 40% using HES 130/0.4 (6%), and ROTEM® measurements were performed before and after dilution. The changes from baseline and the effects of dilution were analyzed by ROTEM® parameters. Infusions of 500 or 1,000 ml of HES 130/0.4 (6%) in the parturients altered the clot formation time, α angle, and maximal clot firmness, although all remained within normal ranges. HES 130/0.4 (6%) affected in vitro blood coagulation in parturients' blood containing 10, 20, 30, and 40% HES. The clotting time was prolonged at each dilution percentage, but remained within the normal range. Other parameters showed an impairment of the coagulation system. Blood coagulation in parturients may be compromised at high dilution ratios of HES 130/0.4 (6%) to blood. Nevertheless, the infusion of 1,000 ml of HES 130/0.4 (6%) in normal parturients did not significantly affect blood coagulation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Korean journal of anesthesiology
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